The second period
1. Why do you need friends? Make a list of reasons why friends are important to you.
Reasons I need friends:
to cope with stressful situations i
n life to share my worries and secrets in my inner world to show my concern for other people to let other people share my happiness to unfold to other people the secrets in my heart
2. Does a friend always have to be a person? What else can be your friend? No. There are many things. e. g. a dog, a cat, a dictionary, a computer, a toy car, a mobile phone, a TV set…
enjoy some proverbs
A friend is a second self. A good friend is my nearest relation. A life without a friend is a life without a sun.
The Second World War and 纳粹正对着屠杀后幸存的妇女进行扫射 被毒死的犹太人的衣服和鞋子 纳粹屠杀犹太人的真实场景 纳粹逼迫犹太人离开他们的家园 犹太人排队进入后面的毒气室 被关在集中营中的犹太人 纳粹正在建设集中营 the Nazi crime
This is a true story. It took place in Amsterdam, Holland in the early 1940s after the German Nazis had occupied most of Europe. The Nazi Party ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945. One of their key policies was to kill all the Jews in Europe. If any persons known to be Jews were found, they would be sent to concentration camps( 集中营） farther east, mostly in Poland. Families were separated and transported in trains.
For many days, they went without food, water, sanitation or fresh air. To avoid this terrible fate, some Jewish families went into hiding, often with the help of non-Jewish friends.This diary was written during the time when Anne and her family moved to escape from being killed by Nazis.
Anne’s best friend
Netherlands German series outdoors dusk thunder
n. 荷兰 n. 德国的; 德国人的 n. 连续; 系列 adv. 在户外; 在野外 n. 黄昏; 傍晚 vi. 打雷; 雷鸣 n. 雷; 雷声
Words preview entire ad. 整个的; 完全的 entirely adv. 完全地; 全然地 power n. 能力; 力量; 权利 curtain n. 窗帘; 门帘; 幕布 dusty adj. 积满灰尘的
Expressions preview go through 经历; 经受 set down 记下; 放下; 登记 on purpose 故意 at dusk 在黄昏时刻 face to face 面对面地
Now let’s come to reading
在阅读每个段落时，要注意 综合运用略读(skimming) 与扫读(scanning)这两种方法。
通过略读把握文章大意 略读(skimming)只看文章标题、下 标题以及每个部分或者段落第一行, 关 注文章中反复出现的关键词。 略读时, 要用充足的时间读懂段落 的第一句和第二句, 因为第一句往往是 该段的主题句(topic sentence), 而第二 句往往是对前句的延伸(extension)或进 一步的解释(explanation)。
通过扫读寻找特定信息或特定词组 运用扫读(scanning)迅速浏览从第三 句开始的后面部分, 搜寻作者对开头两句 的支持句(supporting sentences), 并同时 注意文章中间是否有转折(transition), 因 为这些词常常会把文章的思路逆转或加 入其它重要的信息。当读到段落的最后 一句时,我们又要使用略读, 这时必须再 次放慢速度(slow down your pace)直到完 全消化作者对段落的小结(conclusion), 因 为该小结有可能与主题句截然相反或引 导读者进入下一个段落。
when who where what
curtain They stayed on the top floor, with curtains drawn so as not to attract unwanted attention.
Skimming Reading Comprehension I
1. Read the first part of the reading section and answer these questions:
? Who was Anne’s best friend? Her diary―Kitty. ? When did the story happen? During World War II.
1. Read the text quikly and fill in the form below The time of the story The place of the story
World War Two Netherlands
The heroine of the story
Anne’s best friend
The length of time they hid away
The date of the diary
1.Anne kept a diary because
2.She felt very lonely because 3.They have to hide because 4.Anne named her diary Kitty because
A.She couldn’t meet her friends. B.Jews were caught by Nazis and put away. C.She could tell everything to it. D.she thought it was her best friend.
Choose the correct answers.
1. Anne Frank and her family hid away
for _____. B
A. over a year B. over two years
C. three years C. one year and a half
2. According to Anne, a true friend is a person _____. C A. that would laugh at you B. who makes you happy C. whom you can trust D. who could save your life
3. Anne said that she had grown crazy about nature because _____. D A. she had interest in nature B. she had always been so C. she had been outdoors D. she had been indoors too long
4. She didn’t dare open the window when the moon was bright. That’s because _____. A A. they might be discovered B. her family might be disturbed C. it was very cold D. a thief might get into the room
5. Anne and her family were caught by German Nazis ______________. A. about June 1945 B. about February 1945 C. about December 1944 D. about November 1944
Students work in pairs to discuss the following open questions:
1. How did Anne feel about nature before she and her family hide away? (after)
2. Why do you think her feelings changed towards nature?
3. Why did Anne no longer just look at nature out of the window?
1. How did Anne feel about nature before she and her family hide away? (after) She took nature for granted before she and her family hide away .
she has grown crazy about everything to do with nature aftershe and her family hide away .
2.Why do you think her feelings changed towards nature? Because she was no longer able to go out as she pleased. Losing freedom made her feel more exited about good and beautiful things to do with nature 3.Why did Anne no longer just look at nature out of the window? Because she thought nature is one thing that really must be experienced. (we have to experience nature not just looking through dusty windows.)
anxious sad Anne’s feelings as she was looking out at the night sky calm crazy eager excited
Fill in the form below. Time Nature Feeling never felt spellbound blue sky, songs of Before birds, moonlight, hiding flowers
After darkness, rain, wind, grey crazy hiding thundering clouds
I lived in Amsterdam ___________in the ______________ Netherlands Jewish during _____________. World War II My family were ______, hide away for a year and a half so we had to ___________ to be caught in ordernot ________________ by the German Nazis. During that time I wasn’t able to go grown so crazy ________ outdoors for so long that I had ______________ do with nature. Once, I about everything to _______ at midnight by decided to look at the moon ___________ myself.
to open the window to see But I didn’tdare _______ to face because I was afraid of the night face ___________ being discovered by the Nazis. lonely without seeing my old I felt very _______ friends. So I had to make a new friend -my diary Kitty whom I could tell everything _____________, _________ to. Sadly, at last my family was discovered and German Nazis sometime later. caught bythe _______________
Suppose you have to stay indoors to hide yourself for a whole year. You can never go outdoors, otherwise you will be killed. You have no telephone, computer, or TV at home.
How would you feel? What would you do?
1.Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to, like your deepst feelings and thoughts?
e.g : The
man whom you just talked to was a friend
of mine. He is the person whom I stayed with three days.
[知识扩展] whom 在引导定语从句时，常与介 词连用，构成“介词+whom" 或 “n/pron/num./+介词+whom"的形式。 e.g: The girl to whom I spoke is my cousin. 跟 我讲话的那个女孩是我表妹。 The old man has three daughters, two of whom are teachers. 这位老人 有三个女儿，其中有两个是老师。
feeling n 1. 感觉，感触 a feeling of .......的感觉 a feeling that ...... 感觉到....... a feeling of cold / hunger e.g: I have no feeling in my left leg. 2. 感情，情感（常用复数形式，与理智相对而言） express feelings 表达感情 hurt sb's feelings 伤了某人的感情 hide /mask one's feelings 隐瞒感情 e.g: what he said hurt her feelings. You should learn to express your feelings properly(恰当 的）.
2.afraid adj 畏惧的，害怕的，很胆小的，非 常胆怯的
be afraid of sb/sth 害怕....... be afraid to do sth 不敢做某事 be afraid that..... 担心..... I am afraid ......恐怕.....(用于推测某种令人不愉快的 事情 e.g: I am much afraid of snakes. I am afriad to go out at night. I am afraid I can't help you.
3. So 引导的结果状语从句中her diary 和he best friend 构成复合宾语。made her diary her best friend 为 “make +宾语+宾语补足语”结构。 e.g: The news made us happy. 那条消息使我们高兴。
Please speak loud to make yourslelf heard by others.
4. hide: hid, hid/ hidden hide away 躲藏, 隐匿 hide away + 地点状语 hide +宾语 + away hide away + 宾语
They were afraid and hid away. The thief hid away in a friend’s house. She hid her money away.
5. I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to
be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature.
我不知道这是不是因为我很久无法出门的缘故, 我变得对 一切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂热。 本句是一个复杂的主从复合句。if 引导的宾语从句（可用 whether替换)作wonder 的宾语。在从句中又包含一个强调 句（it's ...that...)，在强调表原因的状语从句时，只能用 beause来引导，不能用since 或as。
1) I wonder if … 我不知是否?? e.g. I wonder if you can help me repair my bike.
wonder v. (wondered, wondered, wondering) 纳闷; 想知道; 觉得奇怪; 不明白 I wonder at her rudeness. I wonder whether you like her. We wonder that the little boy is a university student. 名词 (pl. wonders) 惊奇; 惊异; 惊叹 There was a look of wonder in his eyes.
it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that是强调句。 强调句的构成: It is/was +被强调部分 + that/who (被强调部分是人时, 可用who 替代that) …
I came across them in the club two days ago. It was I who came across them in the club two days ago. It was them that I came across in the club two days ago.
It was in the club that I came across them two days ago. It was two days ago that I came across them in the club.
e.g. He went back to his hometown when
the war was over.
It was when the war was over that he
went back to his hometown.
3) It’s because… 因为?? because引导的从句充当表语, 此时不能 用since, as, for 来替换。 e.g.--Why didn’t you phone me last night? --It’s because I didn’t want to disturb you. 4) grow/be crazy about … 热衷于?? 迷恋?? e.g. The boy is crazy about skating. be crazy to do sth
beause, as, for和since
? (1) beause 引导的原因状语从句一般放于主句之后， because 表示直接原因，语气最强，最适合回答why引导的 疑问句。 ? e.g : I do it beacause I like it. ? (2)since 引导的原因状语从句一般放于主句之前表示已知 的、显然的理由，较为正式，语气比beause 弱。 ? e.g: since you are thin, you had better eat much. ? (3) as 引导原因状语从句时表示附带说明“双方已知的原 因”，语气比since 弱，较为正式，位置较为灵活。 ? e.g: As it is rain, you should take an umbrella. ? （4）for引导原因状语从句并不说明主句行为发生的直接 原因，只提供一些辅助性的补充说明，for引导的原因状语 从句只能放于主句之后并且必须用逗号将其与主句隔开。 ? E.g： he could not have seen me, for I was not there.
5) do with
e.g. Her job is to do with computers. ②处理, 对付 e.g. The man is difficult to do with.
have something to do with 与??有些关系 have nothing to do with 与??没有关系 have a lot to do with 与??有很大关系
3.忍受（常与can't 或couldn't 连用） e.g: I cannot do with the noise. 我无法忍受那种噪音。
常与what 连用， what are you doing 表示"如何处理", with the leftovers. 你 打算怎样处理这些 不用于被动语态。 剩饭菜。
作“对待”“处理” 讲时，常与how连 she knows how 用。此时，还有 to deal with “与。。交易”的 意思，此时不用于 children. 被动语态
6. stay awake 1) stay 使??保持某种状态 I stayed awake through the stormy night. He stayed single all his life. The weather stayed hot. Stay seated! 2) awake 醒着的 他睡着还是醒着? Is he awake or asleep? awake为表语形容词, 不做定语。类似词 有: afraid, alive, alone, asleep, etc.
9. But as the moon gave far too much light, I didn’t dare open a window.
1) far 常与too或形容词连用, 意思是相当地,
??得多 too much ＋不可数名词 “太多” too many ＋ 可数名词 e.g. You have wasted too much time. You have given me too much. The schoolbag is heavy. I have put too many books in it.
much too＋adj /adv
e.g. Your skirt is much too small. He ran much too fast.
The dress is _________ much too long for me. There is very little room in the house too much furniture. because it has far_________ too hot. It’smuch _________ too much homework to do, I have _________ so I have no time to go there.
2) dare v. 敢, 敢于 具有情态动词和一般动词两种用法。
① 作情态动词，多用于疑问句、否定 句和条件句中。无单三形式，只有 一般现在时和一般过去时的形式， 否定形式在其后加not。 she dare go out at night. He dared not do that.
② 作一般动词时，是不及物动词。有人称和数的变 化（单三形式，过去式，过去分词),其否定形式要在 dare 前加don’t/doesn’t/didn’t.
We did not dare (to) tell him that he had failed again this time. Does he dare (to) go out at night in such stormy weather?
1) He dares not tell his parents about his failure in the exam. ? 把 dares 改为dare． 2) No one ________ dared go into the old house at night. Do you _______ 3) _______ dare to drive that car without asking your parents’ permission?
4) I wonder how he _____ D that to the teacher. A. dare to say B. dare saying C. not dare say D. dared say D go down-stairs alone 5) The little girl _____ when her parents are out. A. dares not to B. dares not C. dare not to D. dare not B stand up and 6) She is a bit shy and ____ answer the teacher’s questions. A. dares not B. doesn’t dare to C. dare not to D. dares not to
11. happen 碰巧（不用于进行时态） happen to do....... happen to be doing........碰巧正在做....... happen to have done........ e.g: The famouse actor happened to her brother.
I happened to be met him before.
It happened to be hot when i go out.
12. Entirely adv. 完全地; 全然地; 整 个地 I admit it was entirely my fault. The company is run almost entirely by middle-aged men. I’m not entirely happy with that idea. 我对那个主意并非十分满意。
13. power n.
1) (人的)能力, 精力, 力量 do everything in one’s power to help 尽力帮助 out of/beyond one’s power 能力所不及 Knowledge is power. 2) 权利, 权限 the power of the law (法律) come into power 握权 in power 当权, 执政
3) 体力, 智力, 精力 His powers are falling. 他的体力正在衰退中。 a man of varied powers 多才多艺的人
14. It/This is the first/second …time
that +主语+have/has done.
It/This was the first/second/third …
time that + 主语+ had done. 意为“某人第几次做某事”
It is the second time that Tom ________ has been to Beijing. had seen It was the third time that I _________ the super star. I’m not familiar with the town. It is have come here the first time that I ______________.
He told me it was the fourth time that had made the same mistake he ________________________. (犯同样的错误)
15. It 's no pleasure doing sth. 做某事没有乐趣。
e.g: It's no pleasure playing computer games all the time.
【知识扩展】结构相同的句型还有： it's no use / good/ point/ doing ...... 做....毫无用处/没有好处/没有意义 It no use crying over spilt milk.
Consolidation reason adj. ___________ reasonable
outdoors think verb. __________ indoors antonym. ________
mad synonym. ______ natural adj. ________ completely synonym. __________ powerful adj. _________ trust n. _________
1. Read the text again and review the meaning and usage of the key words and phrases: do sth. on purpose, in order to, face to face, hide away, set down, a series of, go through, dare, hold…in one’s power, no longer 2. Retell the story yourself in the first person.