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高二英语选修7 unit2 robots Using language


艾萨克· 阿西莫夫 Isaac Asimov, (1920-1992), 美籍犹太人,为本世纪最顶尖的科幻小说 家之一,曾获代表科幻界最高荣誉的雨果 奖和星云终身成就「大师奖」。以他的名 字为号召的「艾西莫夫科幻杂志」,是美 国当今数一数二的科幻文学重镇。

阿西莫夫是一位多产得惊人的作家,自 50年代初,至今已出版了300多部著作。

/> 《最新科学指南》 I, Robot

《作品100》

Old photo

在家中图书室(1976年)

阿西莫夫与珍尼特

演讲

他于1941年发表的作品《Run around》中第一次明确 提出了著名的“阿西莫夫机器人三定律”, 即: 一、机器人不得伤害人类,或看到人类受到伤害而袖手旁观; 二、在不违反第一定律的前提下,机器人必须绝对服从人类 给与的任何命令;

三、在不违反第一定律和第二定律的前提下, 机器人必须尽力
保护自己。 以其名字命名的《阿西莫夫科幻小说》杂志, 至今仍然是

美国当今数一数二的科幻文学畅销杂志。

Asimov’s Laws For Robots
First Law : A robot must not injure human beings or allow them to be injured. Second Law : A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings (as long as human being are not injured ). Third Law : A robot must protect its own existence (as long as human beings are not injured; and as long as the robot does not disobey the human beings).

Skimming
Glance through the text quickly to find the answers to the questions. ? Which paragraph tells you when and where Asimov was born and died? Para.2 ? Which paragraph tells you about his education? Para.3 ? Which paragraph tells you about awards he received? Para.5

Skimming
Read silently the first and last sentence of each paragraph to get the general idea. Answer the questions:

1. When and where did Asimov’s life begin and end ? His life began in Russia in 1920 and ended in New York in 1992.

2. For what kind of books did he receive many awards ?
Both for his science fiction books and his science books.

3. How many children did he have?
Two.

Scanning
? Read the text over without pause and mark all the dates and numbers,paying attention to what happened to them.

Timeline of the events in Asimov’s life

1920 Born in Russia New York 1923 Moved with family to ________. Parents bought a candy store. working part-time in the 1929 Started ______________ candy store. 1931 ____ Started to take himself seriously as a writer.

Timeline of the events in Asimov’s life
1939: Began having stories published in science fiction magazines. ____________ 1941 ____: Gained master’s degree in chemistry. 1942: Finished working in the candy store. Got married. __________________ Worked as junior chemist. 1942-1945: ____________________________ ____________________________ Philadelphia Navy Yard. ____ : Got PhD in chemistry. 1948 ____ 1949: Became a biochemistry teacher, Boston University School of Medicine.

1950 Published his first novel. Published __________. Developed three I, Robot laws for robots. 1951-1953 Published the Foundation trilogy and won an award for it. ____ Published first science book. 1953 ____ Became a full-time writer. 1958 1973 Divorced his first wife. __________________________ Married for a second time. 1983 ____ Had a blood transfusion. Became infected with HIV. Died in New York. 1992 _____________________

Life

2 January, 1920 -- 6 April, 1992

Place of birth He was born in Russia New York and death and died in __________. Books he wrote Mystery stories, science and history books, _________________ and books about the Bible and Shakespeare.

candy Work ?Worked in his parents’ ______ he did store. junior chemist ?Worked as a(n) ______ at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. ?Became a biochemistry ___________ teacher at Boston University School of Medicine. ?Gave up teaching to become a(n) full-time writer ______________.

Read Para.5 carefully and find out the answer to the following questions:
1. In which book did he develop a set of three laws? B A. The Foundation Trilogy

B. I, Robot
C. In his first novel D. In his first science book.

2. What’s one of his famous works ? what are they about? Why are they famous? The Foundation trilogy. They are about the death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future. They are famous because Asimov invented a theoretical framework which was designed to show how ideas and thinking may develop in the future.

(1) Isaac Asimov’s best known work was his mystery stories. F science fiction stories. (2) Asimov was born in America Russia on 2 January, 1920. F (3) Asimov became a biochemistry teacher in 1949. T (4) In 1931 Asimov’s talent for writing became obvious. T

(5) In 1950, he published his first science novel and in 1953 his first science book. F book. (6) “The Foundation Trilogy” consists of 3 stories about death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future. T (7) In his collection of short stories, he developed a set of three “laws” for robots. T

Write a short summary of Asimov’s life in 150-200 words. Follow the steps below.

1. Look back at the timeline of Asimov’s life. 2. Underline the most important parts of his life that made him a great writer of science fiction. This can serve as the outline of your summary.

3. Begin by giving your assessment of Asimov as a writer. Then write down the important parts you have underlined. 4. Use a clear simple style as if you were writing to younger students in your school.

Isaac Asimov(1920-1992) was a Russian-born American writer. His family immigrated to the United States when he was three years old and settled in New York. He gained a master’s degree in chemistry and later got his PhD. After he graduated, he became a biochemistry teacher at Boston University.

He was talented in writing. When he realized it, he gave up teaching and became a professional writer. In 1939, he had stories published in science fiction magazine and in 1950 he published his first novel. He was famous for his fiction stories and received many awards.

The Foundation trilogy and I, Robot are very popular with the young and adults. His works exercised great influence over other writers. Asimov had two marriages and two children. He dies of AIDS in New York in 1992.

一、根据所给词性和汉语意义写出英语单词 1. state vt.陈述;宣布→ statement n.陈述 2. receive vt.收到 → receiver n.收件人;接收机;电话听筒 3.talent n.天才;特殊能力;才干 → talented adj.天才的;有才能的 4. theory n.理论 → theoretical adj.理论(上)的;假设的 5. obey vt.& vi.服从;顺从 → disobey vt.& vi.(反义词)

6. junior adj.较年幼的;资历较浅的; 地位较低的 n.年少者;晚辈;等级较低者 → senior (反义词) 7. divorce n.离婚;断绝关系 vt.与……离婚;与……脱离 → divorced adj.离婚的 8. assessment n.评价;评定 → assess vt.评价

set aside (P13) (1)留作……用;为……节省或保留(钱、 时间等) Try to set aside half an hour every day for something you really enjoy doing. 每天争取留出半小时做自己真正喜欢做 的事情。

(2)对……置之不理,不考虑 Leaders shouldn’t set aside the needs of the common people.

领导们不应该对普通百姓的需要 置之不理。

(3) 将……放在一边
He set his pen aside and read over what he had written. 他放下笔,通读了一遍他写完的东西。

[归纳拓展]

set off
set up set down set about

出发;动身;使爆炸
设立;竖立;架起 放下;记下; 开始/着手做某事

set out
set free

动身,出发
释放

[即境活用] 用适当的介词或副词填空 ①I set aside my overcoat and took out the summer clothes. ②The students set about cleaning the classroom. ③After supper she set out/off for the supermarket to buy some food. ④A lot of tall buildings have been set up in Beijing in the past few years.

bound adj.一定的,密切相关的

be bound to do sth. 一定做某事
①You’ve done so much work-you’re bound to pass the exam. 你下了这么多工夫,一定会通过考试的。 ②It’s bound to be sunny again tomorrow. 明天肯定又是阳光灿烂。

[即境活用] 完成句子 ①每一把都试试,其中一定有一把钥匙可以打 开这把锁。 Try them all. One of them is bound to open the lock. ②We ______________________( 有义务遵守) the are bound to obey law.

junior (P16) (1)adj.(地位、职位、级别)较低的;较年幼的; 资历较浅的

(2)n.[C]年少者;晚辈;地位较低者

be junior to sb. 比某人级别低/资历浅
(junior通常与to连用,不与than连用。) ①He is junior to several men in the office, although he is older than they are. 虽然他年龄比办公室里几位男性大,职位却比他 们低。 ②My brother is junior to me by several years. 我弟弟比我小好几岁。

A is junior to B by two years. A is two years junior to B.

A比B小两岁

be senior to 比……资格老/年纪大

[即境活用] 完成句子 他比库伯太太小七岁。 junior to / younger than ①He is seven years ____________________Mrs. Cooper. junior to / younger than Mrs. Cooper by =He is ____________________ seven years.

talent n.[C,U]天才,天资,天赋

①Have you got a talent for painting?
你有绘画的才能吗?

②She showed a talent for acting at the early age.
xx她在很小的时候就显示出了表演的天赋。

[归纳拓展]

(1)have a talent for... 有……的天资/天赋 show a talent for... 表现出……才能 (2)talented adj.有才能的;聪颖的

[即境活用] 完成句子 ①他是一个多才多艺的人。 He was __________________________________. a man of many talents ②就像他妈妈一样,他有艺术天赋。 has a talent for art Just like his mother, he _____________________.

divorce (1) n.离婚;断绝关系 ? got divorce 离婚 end in divorce 以离婚告终 Their marriage ended in divorce in 2008. 他们的婚姻在2008年以离婚告终。divorce sb. 与某人离婚 (2) vt.与…离婚;与…脱离 divorce...from... They believed that art should be 使……与……脱离 divorced from politics. 他们认为艺术应该与政治分开。

[完成句子] 他和妻子在两年前离婚了。 divorced He ________________ his wife two years ago. got divorced He and his wife ________________ two years ago.

1. Isaac Asimov was American scientist and writer who wrote around 480 books that included mystery stories, science and history books, and even books about the Holy Bible and Shakespeare. 艾萨克· 阿西莫夫是美国的科学家兼作家,他写 过480本书,包括怪诞小说,科学和历史方面的书, 甚至还写过有关? 圣经 ? 和莎士比亚的书。 【句子结构】一个复合句中含有两个定语从句 【模仿】卓别林是一位伟大的演员,他饰演了70多 部电影,其中包括了无声电影和有声电影。 Chaplin is an outstanding actor who made more ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ than 70 films that include silent films and sound ________________________________________ films.

2. Asimov had both an extraordinary imagination that gave him the ability to explore future worlds and an amazing mind with which he searched for explanations of everything, in the present and the past. [翻译] 阿西莫夫不仅有着超凡的想象力, 使他能对未来世界进行探索,而且还有着 惊人的智力,使他能对现在和过去的各种 事物作出解释。

[点拨] 该句的主干为Asimov had both an extraordinary imagination and an amazing mind。that引导的定语从句修 饰imagination;介词with+which引导的定 语从句修饰mind。in the present and the past 修饰everything。

他好象正在找能表达他想法的词语。 with which He seemed to be looking for the words__________________ he could express what he was thinking about .

这本已改成儿童电影的小说是一位著名的美国作家写的。 from which the films has been adapted for The novel_________________

Children is written by a famous American writer . 我花很多钱买的这辆小汽车现在过时了。 for which I paid a lot of money , is now out The car, ________________________________________ of date . 他正在讲一个让全镇人都感到自豪的英雄故事。 He is telling a storey of a hero, of whom everyone _______________________________________________________________ in the town is proud. ____________________________

1. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person _______they could turn for help . C A. whom B. who C. to whom D. from whom
2. The Nile , ________electricity is produced, no B longer destroys villages and crops . A. which B. from which C. form it D. from that 3. --- How do you like the cake?

C had last --- It’s quite different from _____I
month.

A. that B. which C. the one D. the one what

3. Asimov began having stories published in science fiction magazines in 1939. 在1939年,阿西莫夫开始在科幻杂志上 发表小说。 ◆have sth. done结构中过去分词作宾语 补足语,表示被动的含义,此结构有时 也可以用get sth. done来替换,意为“让 某事被做;使某事得以完成。”

①I have had my bike repaired. 我让人修理了我的自行车。 ②My elder sister had her wallet stolen on a bus last month. 上个月,我姐姐的钱包在公共汽车上被偷了。

[归纳拓展]

(1)have sb. do sth. 让某人干某事 (2)have sb./sth. doing 让某人一直做某事(某事处于某种状态), 用于否定句,have表示“容忍;容许” 之意。 (3)have sth. to do意为“(主语)有某事要 做”,此时have作“有”讲。

③My mother had me post the letter at once. 我妈妈要我立即将信寄出去。
④I have a composition to write, so I can’t go swimming. 我有一篇作文要写,因此我不能去游泳。 ⑤The boss had the workers working day and

night.
老板让工人们日日夜夜不停地工作。

[即境活用] 完成句子 ①我们不允许你们在考试时作弊。 We won’t __________________________ in the have you cheating exam . ②这件事你可以让约翰去做。 You can _____________________________ it. have John do ③昨天我让人把我的电脑修好了。 I ____________________________ yesterday. had my computer repaired

Among his most famous works of science fiction, one for which he won an award was the Foundation trilogy ( 1951-1953 ),three novels about the death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future. [翻译]在他那些最著名的科幻作品中,有一 部获奖作品叫做《基地三部曲》(1951- 1953),由三本小说组成,讲的是未来银 河系中一个伟大帝国的灭亡和再生。
4.

? [点拨] 本句主干为: Among his most

famous works of science fiction was the Foundation trilogy, 是倒

装句,正常语序应为:The Foundation trilogy was among his most famous works of science fiction. 其中,“one” 指的是one of his works,后跟 for which 引导的定语从句;“three novels about …” 是 the Foundation trilogy 的同位语。

4. he started to take himself seriously as a writer. take sb. / sth. seriously 认真对待某人/某事 He takes things too seriously. 他对事太认真了。 If you can’t take your study seriously, you will fail in the coming examination. 如果你不能认真对待学习,在接下来的 考试中你就会失败。


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