当前位置:首页 >> 电力/水利 >>

探究塔式起重机安全技术规范


探究塔式起重机安全技术规范
我国现行塔式起重机的技术规范大部分是90年代颁发的,纵观现状, 国内生产的各类塔机与之相对照,尚有一定的差距,主要表现在安全 装置不全、辅助机构欠缺等问题。如有的缺少卷筒防脱绳装置;有的 缺少变幅小车断轴防坠装置; 有的缺少风速仪; 有的缺少红色障碍灯。 更有甚者,至今尚未执行电气系统的三相五线制。 Most of our current t

ower crane specifications are issued by the 90 s, in the status quo, domestic production of various types of tower crane by contrast, there are certain gap, mainly displays in the security device is not complete, auxiliary mechanism lacks and so on. If some lack of reel to take off the rope device; Some lack of range of the car broken shaft for device; Some lack of anemometer; Some lack of obstacles lights red. What's more, have yet to implement three-phase five wire of the electric system. 没有规矩,不成方圆。我们只有统一在国家颁发的标准规范范畴 之内,熟悉规范,掌握规范,才能提高我们的制造水平和使用水平, 才能对老式塔机进行改造与更新。不执行规范,后患无穷,甚至会付 出生命的代价。建设部《关于进一步加强塔式起重机管理预防重大事 故的通知》中指出:据不完全据计,自1998年以来,在塔机事故中, 一次死亡3人以上的重大事故就有25起, 共造成76人死亡, 18人重伤。 又据国内权威部门对1200例塔机事故的调查分析中发现,塔机倾翻

http://www.tsglzg.com/

http://www.zgjggs.com/

和断臂等事故占了塔机事故的70%, 而这些事故的主要原因是超载和 违章作业引起的,当然塔机的制造质量差、安全装置不全或失灵也有 直接关系。通过熟悉规范,不但能保证安全生产,而且还能灵活运用 规范。下面就塔机的部分规定、规范和标准,以及个人的理解进行说 明。 No rules, no fangyuan. We only unity within the category of the standard specification issued by the state, be familiar with the specification, master specification, to improve the level of our manufacturing level and use, to the old tower crane is modified and updated. Don't implement the specification, the devil, even at the cost of life. The ministry of construction "on further strengthening the management to prevent major accidents of tower crane notice points out: in according to the incomplete according to the plan, since 1998, the tower crane accident, a serious accident death more than 3 people, there is a 25, 76 people were killed and 18 wounded. Again according to the Chinese authorities on the investigation and analysis of 1200 cases of tower crane accidents found that tower tilting and armless accident accounts for 70% of tower crane accident, the accident of the main reason is caused by overload and illegal operations, tower crane, of course, the poor manufacturing quality, safety equipment or failure has direct relationship. Through the familiar standard, not only can guarantee

http://www.tswuyuehua.net/ http://www.lczxdz.com/

the safety in production, but also can flexible use of specification. Below is part of the tower crane regulations, norms and standards, as well as personal understanding. 1 塔机非工作状态与工作状态的区分 1 non-working state and working state of tower crane 已安装架设完毕的塔机,不吊重,所有机构停止运动,切断动力 电源,并采取防风保护措施,称为非工作状态。塔机处于司机控制之 下进行作业,包括吊重运转,空载运转或间歇停机,称为塔机工作状 态。 Have finished installation erection of tower crane, hoisting, all institutions to stop movement, cut off the power the power, and wind protection measures, referred to as non-working state. Operation of tower under the driver control, including hoisting, no-load operation or intermittent downtime, known as the working state of tower crane. 2 塔机检验规则的分类 2 the classification of the tower crane inspection rules (1)型式检验按规定的检验方法对产品样品进行检验,以证明 样品符合指定标准或技术规范的全部要求。 一般由生产厂家或国家和 地方质量监督机构进行。 (1) the type of inspection in accordance with the provisions of

http://www.tsglzg.com/

http://www.zgjggs.com/

inspection method for inspection samples, to show that sample is in conformity with all requirements specified standard or technical specification. Generally by the manufacturer or the national and local quality supervision institutions. (2)出厂检验产品交货,用户验收时进行。包括性能试验、安 全装置检验、连续作业试验。 (2) the factory inspection product delivery, user acceptance. Including performance test and safety device testing, continuous operation test. (3)常规检验用户正常使用时进行,包括每次转移工地。安装 后在同一地点工作,每年进行一次,但安全装置每半年进行一次。重 大故障修复后也要进行常规检验。常规检验包括性能试验、安全装置 检验。 (3) regular inspection user during normal use, including transfer site at a time. After installation work in the same place, for once a year, but every six months on a security device. Major failure should also be regular inspection after repair. Regular inspection including performance test, the safety device. 3 塔机性能试验内容(GB/T5031) 3 tower crane performance test (GB/T5031) 安装拆卸试验、绝缘试验、空载试验、载荷试验(额定载荷、超

http://www.tswuyuehua.net/ http://www.lczxdz.com/

载25%静载荷、超载10%动载荷试验) ,操作试验。 Install remove test, insulation test, no-load test, load test (25% 25% rated load, overload static load, overload dynamic load test), operation test. 4 塔机的安全装置 4 tower crane safety device 起重力矩限制器,起重量限制器,小车变幅断绳保护装置和断轴 保护装置, 起升高度限位器, 幅度限位器, 回转限位器, 行走限位器, 夹轨器,风速仪,吊钩与卷筒防脱绳装置等。 Crane moment limiter, lifting weight limiter, car horns are broken rope protection device and the broken shaft protection devices, hoisting height limiter, amplitude limiter, stop rotation, stop walking, clip rails, anemometer, hook and the reel to take off the rope device and so on. 5 风速的规定 5 the provisions of the wind speed 我国标准规定,塔机安装、拆卸、爬升或顶升作业,最大安装高 度时风速不大于13m/s,相当于6级风。而从法国引进的 F0/23B 塔 机规定:在风速超过16.6m/s 的情况下塔机不得顶升,相当于7级风 (安装手册) 。笔者认为,以执行我国标准规定为宜。 Provisions in China standard, climb tower crane installation,

http://www.tsglzg.com/

http://www.zgjggs.com/

disassembly, or top of homework, when the maximum installation height 13 m/s wind speed is not greater than, equal to 6 class wind. And imported from France F0 23 b/speed regulation: under the condition of the wind speed is greater than 16.6 m/s not top of tower crane, is equivalent to level 7 wind (installation manual). The author thinks that, to carry out provisions in China standard. 6 塔身垂直度的规定 The rules of the 6 tower perpendicularity (1)塔机安装后,在空载无风状态下,塔身轴心线对支承面的 侧向垂直度为4/1000,同时要测量互成90° 的两个方向。应该注意 的是测量时起重臂与被测塔身,必须在同一平面内,即垂直起重臂时 测量塔身在起重平面内的垂直度, 对着起重臂测量塔身在起重平面外 的侧向垂直度。 (1) tower crane is installed, under the no-load state without wind, the tower axis on the bearing surface is vertically at 4/1000, at the same time to measure each other into two direction of 90 ° It . should be noted that when measuring the jib and tower under test, must be in the same plane, namely the tower crane boom measured perpendicular to the lifting plane perpendicularity, to measure the jib tower in lifting out-of-plane lateral vertical degree. (2) 塔机附着后, 附着点以下, 塔身垂直度偏差不大于2/1000, 附着点以上仍为4/1000。

http://www.tswuyuehua.net/ http://www.lczxdz.com/

Under the tower crane, (2) the attachment points, the tower perpendicularity deviation is not more than 2/1000, attachment points above still is 4/1000. (3)内爬式塔机,在上下两支承装置间测量时,其塔身对基准 面的垂直度偏差不大于2.5/1000。 (3) in the climb type tower crane, the measurement between the upper and lower support device, the tower verticality deviation is not more than 2.5/1000 of datum. (4)塔机在起升额定载荷时,起重臂根部水平静位移△x 应不大 于 h/100,其中 h 对移动式塔机为塔身与起重臂连接处至直接支持 整个塔身的作用平面的垂直距离。 对附着式塔机为塔身与起重臂连接 处至最高一个附着点的垂直距离。Δx 按下式计算: (4) tower crane, when hoisting load rating, hoist boom root level static displacement delta x should be no greater than h / 100, in which h for mobile tower crane as the junction between the tower and the crane boom to directly support the role of the whole tower plane vertical distance. For attached type tower crane as the junction between the tower and the crane boom to the highest one attachment point of the vertical distance. Δ x press type calculation: Δx=[1/(1-Fn/Fe)]*Δm Δ x = (1 / (1 - Fn/Fe)] * Δ m

http://www.tsglzg.com/

http://www.zgjggs.com/

式中:久 Fn——在额定起升载荷作用下,塔身与臂架连接处以 上所有垂直力; Type: long Fn - under rated lifting load, the junction between the tower and the boom all vertical force; Fe——欧拉临界载荷; Fe - euler critical load; Δm——额定起升载荷对塔身中心线的弯矩 M 引起的塔身与起重 臂连接处的水平位移。 Δ m - rated lifting load to the center line of the tower the tower caused by the bending moment m and the horizontal displacement of hoist boom junction. 有的单位为了简化计算,对附着式塔机同样使用 h/100,h 定 为塔身与起重臂连接处至最高一个附着装置之间的垂直距离。显然, 这样计算出来的数值偏大。 Some units in order to simplify the calculation, the attached type tower crane using the same / 100 h, h as the junction between the tower and the crane boom to a maximum vertical distance between an attached device. Clearly, so that the calculated value is larger. 7 司机室 7 the driver chamber 司机室应设总电源开合状态信号指示、 超起重力矩和超起重量报

http://www.tswuyuehua.net/ http://www.lczxdz.com/

警或信号指示。司机室用冷暖风机应选用铁壳防护式并固定安装,外 壳接地。采用空调器应单独设置电源。塔机在工作时,司机室内噪声 不应超过80dB(A) 。司机室不能悬挂在臂架上,其位置不应在臂架 正下方。可附在回转塔身上。8对安全指示灯与风速仪的规定塔顶高 于30m 的塔机,其最高点及臂端应安装红色障碍指示灯,其供电应 不受停机影响。对臂架根部铰点超过50m 的塔机,应在顶部设置风 速仪,当风速超过规定值时应能报警。 Cab should set the total power close status indicator, super lifting moment and lifting weight alarm or signal indicator. Fan cab with changes in temperature should be chosen iron-clad protection type and fixed installation, ground. With air conditioner should be separately set up power. Dirty on the job, the driver indoor noise should not exceed 80 db (A). Cab can't hang the arm frame, its location should not be below the arm frame. Can be attached to the rotating tower. Eight regulations on safety lights and anemometer tower above 30 m tower, the highest point and the arm should be installed red indicator light, the power supply shall not be affected by the outage. For more than 50 m tower crane boom root hinge point, should be in the top set anemometer, should report to the police when the wind speed exceeds the specified value. 对于第一项规定,有的地区做得较好,未安装的技术监督机构不 予验收。对于第二项规定,所有塔机几乎都没有安装,只有个别用户

http://www.tsglzg.com/

http://www.zgjggs.com/

定货时主动提出来,厂家才给予安装。9对小车变幅塔机的规定 In the first paragraph, some areas do well, not installed technical supervision institution will not be acceptance. In paragraph 2, all tower crane is almost not installed, only individual users with active, manufacturer just for installation. 9 for the car the rules of the luffing tower crane 在空载状态下, 起重小车任意一个滚轮与轨道的支承点对其他滚 轮与轨道的支承点组成的平面的偏移不得超过轴距公称值的 1/ 1000。 Any under no-load condition, lifting the car wheel and track supporting points for other roller and track supporting points of plane offset should not exceed 1/1000 of the wheelbase nominal value. 对最大变幅速度超过40m/min 的起重机,在小车向外运行时, 当起重力矩达到额定值的80%时, 应自动转换为低速运行。 当幅度限 位开关动作后,应保证小车停车时其端部距缓冲装置最小距离为 200mm。 The maximum crane luffing speed more than 40 m/min, in the car to the outbound trip, when lifting torque rating of 80%, should be automatically converted to a lower speed. After the amplitude limit switch action, shall ensure that the car parking when theoven minimum distance of 200 mm from the buffer device.

http://www.tswuyuehua.net/ http://www.lczxdz.com/

8 起升高度限位器 8 hoisting height limiter 动臂变幅塔机的吊钩装置顶部距起重臂下端删一时应能立即停 止起升运动。小车变幅塔机的吊钩装置顶部至小车架下端的最小距 离,对上回转塔机钢丝绳2倍率时为1000mm,4倍率时为700mm; 下回转塔机2倍率为800mm,4倍率时为400mm,此时应能立即停止 起升。 Movable arm luffing tower crane hook device of the top from the jib lower delete should be able to immediately stop lifting movement at one time. The trolley luffing tower crane hook at the top of the device to the car, a minimum distance of the bottom of the rotating speed on the wire rope 2 when the ratio is 1000 mm, 4 ratio is 700 mm; Rotating tower crane under 2 ratio is 800 mm, 4 when the ratio is 400 mm, this should be able to immediately stop lifting. 9 起重力矩与起重量限制器的规定 9 the rules of the lifting moment and lifting weight limiter 当起重力矩超过其相应幅度的规定值并小于规定值的110%时, 应停止提升方向及向外方向变幅的动作。 When lifting torque exceeds the specified value is less than the specified value of the corresponding amplitude of 110% when, should stop ascending direction and range of motion in the direction of outside.

http://www.tsglzg.com/

http://www.zgjggs.com/

当吊重超过最大超重量并小于最大起重量的110%时,应停止提 升方向运行,但允许机构有下降方向的运动。 When maximum super weight lifting more than and less than 110% of maximum lifting weight, should stop ascending direction, but allow agencies have decreased in the direction of movement. 10 对卷筒与滑轮的规定 10 on the reel and the rules of the pulley (1)有下列情况之一者应予报废: (1) one of the following conditions shall be discarded: 有裂纹及轮缘破损; 卷筒壁厚磨损量达到厚度的10%; 滑轮槽壁 厚磨损量达到厚度的20%;滑轮槽底磨损量超过相应钢丝绳直径的 20%。 Has a crack and broken rim; 10% of the thickness of the wall thick wear; Pulley groove amounted to 20% of the thickness of the wall thickness wear; Amount of wear at the bottom of the pulley groove by more than 20% of the corresponding wire rope diameter. (2)滑轮上应设有钢丝绳防脱槽装置,防脱槽装置与滑轮最外 缘间隙不得超过钢丝绳直径的20%。 (2) the top pulley should have steel wire rope groove device, prevent to take off the pulley groove device with the flange clearance shall not exceed 20% of the diameter of the wire rope.

http://www.tswuyuehua.net/ http://www.lczxdz.com/

11 对吊钩使用的规定 11 to use the provisions of the hook (1)吊钩禁止补焊。 (1) hook repair welding is forbidden. (2)有下列情况之一者应报废: (2) there is one of the following circumstances shall be discarded: 用20倍放大镜观察表面有裂纹及破口; 钩尾和螺纹部分等危险断 面及钩筋有永久变形; 挂绳处断面磨损量超过原高的10%; 心轴磨损 量超过其直径的5%;开口度比原尺寸增加15%。 With 20 times the magnifying glass observation surface has crack and break; Clasps tail and threaded portion and other dangerous section and reinforcement have permanent deformation; Hang a rope of wear is more than 10% of the original high; Spindle wear is more than 5% of its diameter; Is increased by 15% compared to the original size. 12 使用高强螺栓的规定 12 regulations on the use of high strength bolt 采用高强螺栓连接时,必须使用力矩扳手或专用扳手,按装配技 术要求拧紧。起重机出厂时必须配备此种扳手。 Adopts high strength bolt connection, you must use the torque wrench or special wrench, tighten according to the requirements of

http://www.tsglzg.com/

http://www.zgjggs.com/

assembly technology. The cranes must be equipped with this kind of wrench factory. 13 塔机直立梯护圈的规定 13 tower vertical ladder retainer 塔机直立梯应设护圈,护圈任一点都应能承受1000N 集中载荷。 当梯子设于起重机结构内部,且梯子外侧与结构间的距离小于1.2m, 则可不设护圈。 Tower crane vertical ladder should be a retainer, retainer as should be able to carry 1000 n concentrated load at all. B when a ladder is located in the crane structure, and the ladder is less than 1.2 m, the distance between lateral and structure, is not a retainer. 14 构件变形后修理的规定 14 component repair after deformation 塔机结构件在运输或转移工地时,难免碰撞变形,出现杆件弯曲 或造成装配困难。此时,一般允许局部火焰校正处理。但是主要结构 件的主弦杆变形太大时,必须和生产厂家联系,求得妥善处理。 Tower crane structure during transportation or transfer site, hard to avoid collision deformation, difficulty in bending bar or cause assembly. At this point, often allows local flame correction processing. But the main structure of the main chord deformation is too big, need to contact manufacturer, properly handle are

http://www.tswuyuehua.net/ http://www.lczxdz.com/

obtained. 15 结构件报废的规定 15 structure useless rules 塔机主要结构件当腐蚀深度达到原厚度的10%时,则应予报废。 当然也可以通过计算来决定, 即主要结构件由于腐蚀而使结构件的应 力提高,当超过原计算应力的15%时,应予报废。 Tower crane main structure when the corrosion depth reaches 10% of the original thickness, should be discarded. , of course, also may be determined by calculation, the main structure due to corrosion and increase the stress of structure, when more than 15% of the original calculating stress, should be discarded. 16 出厂塔机钢丝绳的规定 16 factory tower crane steel wire rope 生产厂对印60tm 以上塔机,起升高度在70m 以下时,一般按4 倍率配备钢丝绳;而70m 以上高度,则应按2倍率使用,否则使用长 度不够。也可向生产厂提出要求,特殊定货。 Factory for more than 60 tm tower crane, hoisting height under 70 m, according to commonly 4 ratio with wire rope; While more than 70 m height, should press 2 ratio is used, otherwise use length is not enough. Also asked factory for, or special order. 17 对液压系统的规定

http://www.tsglzg.com/

http://www.zgjggs.com/

17 of the provisions of the hydraulic system 液压系统应设有防止过载和液压冲击的安置。 溢流阀的调整压力 不得大于系统额定工作压力的110%。 Hydraulic systems shall be equipped with overload protection and hydraulic impact. Adjust the pressure relief valve shall not be greater than 110% of the rated pressure system. 为了防止液压油缸因载荷影响、 油管破裂而导致负载部分超速下 降、坠落,在液压系统中应设可靠的平衡阀、液压锁。液压锁、平衡 阀应宜接装在液压缸体上。 In order to prevent the hydraulic oil cylinder part load caused by the load effect and rupture of tubing, speeding fall, fall, should establish reliable balance valve in hydraulic system, hydraulic lock. Hydraulic lock, balancing valve installed on the hydraulic cylinder should be appropriate. 18 对塔机电气系统的规定 18 for the regulation of the electric system 塔机电源应设置电路总开关,能方便地切断整机电源。 Tower crane power supply circuit main switch should be set up, which can easily cut off the machine power supply. 电气系统采用三相五线制。应有可靠的保护装置,具有短路及过 流保护,欠压、过压及失压保护,零位保护,电源错相及断相保护。

http://www.tswuyuehua.net/ http://www.lczxdz.com/

塔机接地电阻不得大于40,重复接地电阻不得大于10Ω。电路对地绝 缘电阻不得小于0.5MΩ。 Electrical system USES three phase five wire system. Should be reliable protection device, has the short circuit and over current protection, under-voltage, overvoltage, and loss of pressure protection, zero protection, power supply fault phase and phase failure protection. Tower grounding resistance shall not be more than 40, repeated earthing resistance shall not be greater than 10 Ω. Circuit to ground insulation resistance shall not be less than 0.5 M Ω.


相关文章:
塔式起重机安全技术规程
塔式起重机安全技术规程_建筑/土木_工程科技_专业资料。塔式起重机安全技术操作规程 1. 起重机的安装、 顶升、 拆卸必须按照原厂规定进行, 并制定安全作业措施,由...
塔式起重机安全技术规范浅析
塔式起重机安全技术规范浅析_建筑/土木_工程科技_专业资料。塔式起重机安全技术...塔式起重机安全技术 15页 免费 探究塔式起重机安全技术... 17页 免费 塔式...
塔式起重机安全技术规范浅析(1)
塔式起重机安全技术规范浅析我国现行塔式起重机的技术规范大部分是 90 年代颁发的,纵观现状,国内生产 的各类塔机与之相对照,尚有一定的差距,主要表现在安全装置不...
《塔式起重机安全规程》GB5144-2006
塔式起重机安全规程》 GB 5144—2006 目次 1 范围 2 规范性引用文件 3 4...本标准由全国起重机械标准技术委员会归口。 本标准起草单位:北京建筑机械化研究...
JGJ 196-2010 建筑施工塔式起重机安装、使用、拆卸安全技术规程
建筑施工塔式起重机安装、使用、拆卸安全技术规程(JGJ 196-2010) 1 1.0.1 总则 为贯彻安全第一、预防为主、综合治理的方针,确保塔式超重机在安装、使用、拆卸...
《建筑施工塔式起重机安装、使用、拆卸安全技术规程》JGJ196-2010
建筑施工塔式起重机安装、使用、拆卸安全技术规程 (JGJ196-2010) 1.基本规定 1.1.塔式起重机安装、拆卸单位必须具有从事塔式起重机安装、拆卸 业务的资质。 1.2...
塔式起重机安全操作技术规程
塔式起重机安全操作技术规程 1、起重吊装的指挥人员必须持证上岗,作业时应与操作人员密 切配合,执行规定的指挥信号。操作人员应按照指挥人员的信号进行 作业,当信号...
浅析塔式起重机安全技术规范
浅析塔式起重机安全技术规范 2009-8-11 来源:来源:中国起重机械网 浏览: 414 ...塔式起重机安全技术 15页 免费 探究塔式起重机安全技术... 17页 免费 ...
塔式起重机安全技术操作规程
塔式起重机安全技术操作规程一、作业前应重点检查塔机各部情况是否正常:如机械结构的外观情况, 各传机构是否正常;各齿轮箱、液压油箱的油位是否符合标准;主要部位...
探究塔式起重机安全技术规范
探究塔式起重机安全技术规范我国现行塔式起重机的技术规范大部分是90年代颁发的,纵观现状, 国内生产的各类塔机与之相对照,尚有一定的差距,主要表现在安全 装置不全...
更多相关标签:
塔式起重机安全规范 | 塔式起重机规范 | 塔式起重机设计规范 | 塔式起重机基础规范 | 塔式起重机验收规范 | 塔式起重机附着规范 | 塔式起重机安装规范 | 塔式起重机操作规范 |