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Agri ultural Sc i nce& Technology 2010 11( 9- 10): 5- 9 c e , , Copyri ht 2010 Infor g , mation Institute ofHAAS All rights reserved . .

Agricultural Basic Science and Method

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Effects of P- Cd- Zn Interactions on the Absorption and Accu mu lati on of Submerged Macro phytes t o P Cd and Zn ,
ZHANG Hui , WANG Chao W ANG Pei fang XUE Yan , ,
Key Laboratory o f Integrated Regul ti n and Resources Deve l pmento fShall w Lakes o fM i i try of Educa ti n College ofEnv ironmental Sc i a o o o ns o, ence and Engineering Hohai Univers ity Nanjing 210098 , , Abstract [O bjective] This s tudy was to exp l re the effec ts o fP- Cd- Z n interac tions on the absorption and accumulation of subm er o ged p l nts a to P, Cd and Z n [M et . hod] Emp l y ing the hydroponi culture to sm ulate the Cd Zn heavy metal contam ination and P eutrophi ation env iron o c i , c men, w e stud i d the effects ofP- Cd- Zn i teractions on the absor o n and accum ul ti n of submerged plants to P, Cd and Zn [ Result] For t e n pti a o . Hyd rilla ve rtic ill ta, in the presence of 0- 1 m g/L P, it show ed a synergy rel ti nshi w ith l w concentr ti ns o fCd and Zn sugges ting that P a a o p o a o , could promote the absor tion and accumulation of plants to Cd and Zn. ForE lodea nu tta llii in the presence of 5- 50 mg /L P, it show ed an an p , tagonisti relationshipw ith high concentrati ns ofCd and Zn The contents of both Cd and Z n in plants showed a declining trend w ith the increase c o . of P concentration. H. ve rtic illa ta andE. nu tta llii had an equili rium threshold of absorpti n and accum ul ti n to P ( 20- 23 mg/g). [ Conclu b o a o sion] W hen the heavy metals and eutrophicati n pollutions both exis ted in the lake env ironment at the same tm e, the stress of heavy metal on o i plants is the major cause of po llution while eutrophicati n can to some ex tent a llev i te the tox ic effec t of heavy metals to plants , o a . Key wo rds P Cd; Zn Inter o ns Submerged p l nts ; ; acti ; a
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Eutroph ication and heavy me ta l con tam ina ti n a re the two o [ 1- 2] ma in prob le s confron ti g g loba l freshwa ter ecosyste m n m . W ith sm il r con figura tion o f e lec trons ou tside the nuc l us Cd i a e , and Zn a re easily sub jec ted to iso rphous rep lacemen t due mo [ 3] to the ir che ica l p roper ties and b io log ica l behav i rs . Thus m o , na tu ra l coex istence of Cd and Zn can cause the composite po lluti n Phosphorus is an essenti l e l men t fo r p l n t g rowth o. a e a and deve l pmen, whe reas the overuse o f phosphorus fe rtiliz o t e r in paddy fi ld has b rough t on the increased phosphorus e con ten t in rivers and lakes Phosphorus is the ma in fac tor . [ 4- 5] causing eu trophica ti n o . It has been repo rted tha t the ap p lica tion of su itab l concentration o f phosphorus can reduce e the ab so rp tion and accumu l ti n o f land fl ra o r a l ae to Cd a o o g and Zn and to phospho rus in the p resence o f h i h concentra , g [ 6- 9] tion o f Cd and Zn . However there is less repo rt focus i g , n the absorp ti n and accu ula tion e ffect of phosphorus i r i ers o m n v and l kes on the subme rged p l n ts unde r Cd and Zn stress a a . Subme rged p l n ts are a kind o fm acrophyte m ost sensi a tive to water env ironmen. By making use o f the stab l che i t e m cal sedm en t fro the interaction be tween phospho rus and i m heavy me ta ls in wa te r p l n t system to a lleviate p lants absorp a tion and accu lation to heavy me ta ls we a rtificia lly sm u la mu , i ted heavy me ta l( Cd and Zn) con tam inati n and P eutroph ica o tion env ironmen, we stud i d the ab so rp tion and accumu l ti n t e a o o f P Cd and Zn o f two subme rged p lantsHydr ill v e rtic ill ta , a a and E l dea nu tta llii observed the i te ractions among P Cd o , n , , and Zn am ing a t p rovid i g theoretica l basis for the restora , i n tion and regu lati n o fCd Zn co o mposite po lluted water body via the app lica tion o f d ifferen t concen tra tion o f phosphorus .

Materials and Methods
Experi entalm a teria ls m W il Hydr illa ve rtic ill ta and E lode a nu tta llii seed li gs d a n sa led fro East Ta ihu Lake in Jiangsu P rovince we re mp m transp lanted to Key Labo ra tory o f Integ ra ted Regu l ti n and a o Resou rce Deve lopmen t o fSha ll w Lakes o fM in istry o fEduca o tion Hoha i Unive rsity in May 2008 , . Cu lture and trea t ents of plants m The experm en ts we re a ll conducted in Key Labo ratory of i In tegra ted Regula tion and Resource Deve l p en t o f Sha llow om Lakes o f M i istry of Educa tion Hoha i Unive rsity. Unde r the n , pho tope riod o f8 h /16 h( li h t/ da rk) and tempe ra tu re o f ( 25 g 2) , seed li gs of the t o submerged p l nts tested were cul n w a tured in cub i flu c mes( 1 m 2 m 1 m ) t o weeks fo r domesti w cati n pr i r to experm en.t Two weeks l ter the seed lings w ith o o i a , sm ilar size and vi or were transferred to b lack p l sti bag en i g a c wrapped red ba rrels contain i g 4 L of 1 Hoag l nd so lution n % a . The 1 Hoag l nd soluti n consi ts of 0 05 mmo l/L Ca( NO3 ) 2, % a o s . 0 007 mmo l/L KC,l 0 2 mmo l/L MgSO4 and 0 7 mmo l/ l . . . K2 SO4. ForE. nutta llii, Cd and Zn trea tments were se t up at ( 0 5+ 0 5), ( 1 0+ 1 0), ( 5 0+ 5 0) and ( 10+ 10 ) m g /L . . . . . . , P trea t en t a t 0 5 10 20 and 50 m g /L ForH. ve rtic ill ta , m , , , . a Cd and Zn trea t en ts were se t up a t ( 0 025+ 0 5), ( 0 25+ m . . . 1 0) and ( 0 5+ 2 0) mg/ L P treat ent a t 0 0 05 1 0 and . . . , m , . , . 5 0 mg /L Each trea t ent con ta i ed three para ll l rep li a tes . . m n e c . Cd Zn and P were respecti e l added into hydropon i so lution , v y c n i the for of Cd 2 2 5H2 O ZnSO4 7H2 O and KH2 PO4 so m Cl . , u . l tion Du ring the treatment period the hyd ropon ic nutritiona l , so luti n was re freshed once two days A nd the so lu tion was o . ad justed to pH value of 5 5 0 2 w ith 0 1 mmo l/L HC l o r . . . Na OH. Samp ling was conducted be fore and afte r treatmen. t Seven days a fter trea t en,t the p lants were ha rvested The m . p lant samp les ( p lan t ste s and leaves w ith the roots ex m , cised ) we re first washed w ith running wa ter repea ted l , then y mm ersed in 20 m o l/L Na EDTA 15 m i fo r the exchange to i n

Received: November 3, 2010 Accepted: December 7, 2010 Supported by Nat i nal Natur l S cience Founda ti n of China o a o ( 40871227) and New Century Excell nt Talents i Univers ity, M in e n istry of Education ( NCET 07 0254). * C orresponding author E mai:l zhang20hu@ 163 com . i .

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2+ 2+

remove the Zn and Cd adso rbed on plant surface fina ll , y rinsed w ith de ioned wa te r and surface dr i d w ith blotting paper e . A ce rta in amounts of fresh p lant samp l s we re we ighed e and baked a t105 for 20 m in to kill g reen next dried in a 70 , oven to the constant we ight for measuring the d ry b i mass o . They were next g round w ith a h i h e ffective sta inless stee l g g rinde r and sieved fro a 60 mesh screen fo r the de te r ina m m tion o fCd Zn and P con tents in p l n ts , a . Measure en t of Cd, Zn and P in p lants The contents o f m Cd and Zn we re m easured w ith a tom ic absorp ti n spec tro e o m try a fte r ash ing digestion o f the p lan t samp les using HNO3 HCO4. A nd P conten twasm easu red w ith mo lybdenate co lor i l me tr i ana l sis a fte r ash i g digestion o f the p l n t samp les c y n a [ 10] us i g HNO3 - HC O4 - H2 SO4 . n l S tat ist ical analys is o f data M icrosoft exce l was emp l yed o for the gene ra tion o f figures and the ca lcu lation o f the means and standa rd devia tion ( SD).

the peak under 1 mg /L P wh ich i d icates tha t suitab le con , n centra ti n o f P cou l p romo te the g row th o f H. ve rtic ill ta , o d a while too h i h concen tra tion o fP had toxic e ffec t toH. ve rtic il g la ta p lan ts .
Tab le 2 Change ofHyd rilla ve rticill ta b i m ass under differentP, Cd a o and Zn treat ents m g/barrel( F ) W (Cd+ Zn) concentrati n o ( 0 025+ 0. 5) . ( 0 25+ 1) . ( 0 5+ 2) . P concentration/ /mg /L 0. 05 1 5 1 93 0. 03 2. 38 0. 07 2. 94 0. 11 2. 31 0. 07 . 1 74 0. 01 1. 75 0. 17 2. 62 0. 04 2. 14 0. 15 . 1 67 0. 17 1. 45 0. 06 2. 18 0. 12 2. 01 0. 09 . 0

Results and Ana ly s is
E ffec ts of d ifferent P Cd and Zn trea t , ments on the b io m ass ofH. ve rticillata and E. nu ttallii As sho wn i Tab le 1 under same P app lica ti n leve,l n , o E. nutta llii b i mass i each ba rre l assu ed a remarkab le de o n m scend ing trend w ith the i crease o fCd and Zn app li a ti n l v n c o e e.l This ind ica tes tha t h igh concen tra ti ns o f Cd and Zn a re o toxic to the grow th o f E. nu tta llii and restrain its no r l ma g row th Meanwh il , under same Cd and Zn concen tra tion . e , E. nutta llii b io ss ascended w ith the increase o f P app lica ma tion amoun,t demonstra ting tha t app li a ti n o f P could a llev i c o a te the tox i effect on p l n ts and to some exten t p ro ote the c a m g row th o f p l n ts a .
Tab le 1 C hange ofE. nu tta llii biomass under differentP, Cd and Zn treat ents m g /barrel ( F ) W
(C d+ Zn) concen t ration ( 0 5+ 0 5) . . ( 1+ 1) ( 5+ 5) ( 10+ 10) P concentration / /m g/ L 0 1 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 03 92 74 65 0 09 . 0 12 . 0 04 . 0 05 . 1 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 22 98 87 78 5 0 07 . 0 02 . 0 01 . 0 003 . 1 . 1 . 0 . 1 . 10 48 18 97 08 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 19 1 . 09 1 . 02 1 . 002 1 . 20 93 35 28 12 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 12 03 10 08 2 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 46 78 45 02 50 0 11 . 0 07 . 0 02 . 0 003 .

For H. ve rti illa ta ( Tab l 2), under sa P trea t en,t its c e me m b io ass like E. nutta llii assu ed a descend ing trend w ith m , , m the app lica tion o f Cd and Zn Howeve r under same Cd and . , Zn trea t en ts H. ve rti illa ta b i mass assumed a rise drop m , c o trend w ith the increase of P app lica tion amoun t and reached

E ffects of d ifferent P Cd and Zn trea t , ments on the ab sorpt ion o fH. ve rticilla ta and E. nutta llii to Cd and Zn E ffects of d ifferent P Cd and Zn trea t , ments on the ab sorpt ion o fH. vert ic illata and E. nutta llii to Cd A s ind i cated in F i . 1- a the re was a rema rkab l d ifference in the g , e conten t o f Cd accumu l ted inE. nu tta llii p lants under d iffe rent a P Cd and Zn trea t en ts In the trea t ent o f same P leve,l , m . m Cd con ten t in E. nu tta llii p l n ts rose re rkab l towards the a ma y increasing Cd app lica tion amoun,t assu ing a positive ly cor m re la ted re la tionship wh ile in tha t of same Cd and Zn trea t ; m en,t Cd conten t in E. nutta llii p l n ts descended re rkab ly a ma towards the increas i g P app lication a n moun, which is proba t b ly tha t P promo tes the grow th o f E. nu tta llii p l nts and a increases its b i mass so that in fluences Cd accu lation in o mu p lants . A s shown in F ig 1- b in the trea t en t o f same P l ve,l . , m e Cd content in H. ve rtic ill ta p lan ts rose re rkab ly to rds a ma wa the increasing Cd app lica tion amoun, assum ing a positive ly t signifi an t co rre l ti n wh il in tha t of same Cd and Zn trea t c a o; e m en,t Cd con tent in H. ve r tic illa ta p l n ts p resented a to ta lly a r ising decreasing trend and reached the peak unde r 1 mg /L P which is p robab l tha t too h i h concen tra ti n o f P leads to , y g o in the i v ivo physi logica l change and damages so that in flu n o ences Cd accumu l ti n in p lants a o . Cd con ten t in H. ve rtic ill ta p l n ts reached the peak of a a 1 500 mg /g under 1 mg / L P and ( 0 5 + 2 ) m g /L Cd + Zn . , while inE. nutta llii p l n ts o f 1 250 mg /g under 10+ 10 mg /L a of Cd+ Zn and w ithou t P app lica ti n This may be accoun ted o. for the antagon i tic effect be t een h i h concen tra tions o f Cd s w g and Zn wh i h restrict p lan ts absorp ti n to Cd wh ile app lica c o , tion o f su itab le concen tra tion o f P can pro te mo .

a: E. nu tta llii; b H. ve rticill ta. : a F ig 1 E ffec ts of different P Cd and Zn treat ents on the contents of Cd accumulated inE. nu tta llii andH. ve rtic illa ta . , m

Effec t of different P Cd and Zn treat ents on the absorp s , m tion ofH. verticillata and E. nutta llii to Zn As indicated i n

F i . 2- a in the trea t ent of same P leve,l Zn con tent inE. nut g , m ta llii p l nts rose re a markab l to y wards the increasi g Zn application n

ZHANG Huiet a l Effects of P- Cd- Zn Interactions on the Absor . ption and Accumul ti n ofSubmer ao ged Mac r phytes to P Cd and Zn o ,

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amoun, assu ing a positi e l si nificant corre lation W ith the in t m v y g . crease o fP app licati n a o moun,t conten ts o f Cd and Zn in p lants stressed by h i h ( Cd5 + Zn5) and ( Cd10+ Zn10) concen tra tion g assu med a descend i g trend wh ile that i p lants under lo Cd n , n w and Zn trea t ent d isp layed no rema rkable change m . As shown in F i . 2- b in the trea t en t o f sa g , m me P leve,l Zn content in H. ve rtic illa ta p lants ro se rema rkab l towards y the increasing Zn app li a ti n amoun, wh ile in tha t o f sa e Cd c o t m and Zn trea t en ts Zn con ten t inH. v e rtic ill ta p lants p resen m , a ted a to ta lly rising decreasi g trend n . L ike E. nutta llii, Zn conten t in H. ve rti illa ta p lants was c highe r than Cd conten t under same app lica ti n amoun t o f P o . This is probab l a ttr i u ted to tha t Zn is an essen ti l element y b a for p lant g row th and deve lopment wh il Cd no,t and even e trace Cd can br i g da n mage to p lant gro th so tha t p l n ts w ill w a se l cti ely ab so rb Zn wh i h a lso ind ica tes the an tagon isti e v , c c re lationsh ip be t een Cd and Zn a curta in amoun t o f Zn can w , restr ict the absorp ti n and accu ula tion o f p lants to Cd o m . Though stressed by l wer concentra tion o fZn thanE. nut o ta llii H. ve rti illa ta p l nts d isplayed h i h absorp tion ability to Zn , c a g . Under 1 mg /L o f P and 0 5+ 2 mg /L o fCd+ Zn Zn conten t i . , n H. ve rti illa ta p lan ts reached a peak of 12 000 mg /g while tha t c , n i E. nu tta llii p l n ts d isp layed a peak o f 9 800 m g /g unde r the a stress no P and 0 5 + 2 mg /L o f Cd+ Zn Th is is probab ly a t . . tr i u ted to tha t lo concentra ti n o f P can p romote the absorp b w o tion and accu ula tion o f p lan ts to Zn while high concentra m , tions o f Cd and Zn wou l h inder p l n ts accu ulation to Zn d a m due to the an tagon isti effec. c t E ffec ts of diffe rent P Cd and Zn trea t ents on the ab , m sorption of H. vertic illa ta and E. nutta llii to P As shown in F i . 3- a w ithout externa l P stress P con g , ,

tent in E. nutta llii p l n ts assu ed a rising descend ing trend a m w ith the increase o f Cd and Zn app lication a moun. Unde r t sa e P app li a ti n l ve,l P con ten t in E. nu tta llii p l n ts de m c o e a creased re rkab l w ith the i crease o fCd and Zn app li a ti n ma y n c o a moun. Th is is probab ly because toxic e ffect of heavy me ta ls t Cd and Zn to p lants wh ich wou l h i der the absorption and , d n accu ula tion to P m . A s indica ted in Fig 3 - b P con tent in H. ve rtic ill ta . , a p lants rose w ith the increase o f P app lica tion a oun.t Unde r m sa e P app lication l ve,l P con ten t i H. ve rtic ill ta p lants m e n a decreased gradua lly w ith the increase o f Cd and Zn app lica tion amoun.t W ith in 0- 1 0 mg /L o f P P content inH. ve rti . , c illa ta p lan ts d id not assu me remarkable decrease i a ll treat n ments of Cd+ Zn ho ; wever it decreased re rkab ly w ith the i ma n crease o fCd+ Zn concen trati n under h i he r P concen trati n o g o. Fro F i . 3 the ab so rp tion and accumu l ti n o fH. ve rti m g , a o c illa ta and E. nutta llii p lants to P was not lm itl ss W hen i e . 20- 30 m g /g of P was app lied P content in p lan ts wou l be , d sa tura ted .

Conc lus io n and D iscuss io n
In wa te r body phytes cycling syste m, interac tion be w t een P and heavy me ta ls Cd + Zn m a i ly assu s as an n me tagon istic or synergy re lationsh i during abso rp tion and accu p m u l ti n process In th is study P and Cd+ Zn i E. nu tta llii a o . , n p lan ts showed antagon i tic effec. Under same concentra tion o f s t Cd+ Zn P concentra ti n in E. nutta llii p lan ts d isp l yed a de , o a scend ing trend towa rds a rising P app lica ti n a oun,t ind ica o m ting tha t app li ati n of P cou l p l y a de toxifi a ti n ro le in c o d a c o [ 11] E. nutta llii p l n ts CHEN Sh i bao e t a l a . repo rted tha t the sed m enta tion ro le o f phospha te from Cd ion and P i the ce ll i n

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wa ll o f p l n ts roo t can e ffective l mmob ilize Cd i n so as to a y i o, reduce the long d istance transpor t o f Cd a l ng the xy l m and o e decrea se Cd con ten t in the ste s and leave s of E. nutta llii m [ 12] p lants L I Zhao jun e t a l . a lso found that 70 - 90 o f the % % Cd abso rbed in roo t accu lated on the roo t tip ce ll wa ll mu , w hich preven ts Cd to en te r i to pro top las A l o there are re n m. s por ts i vo lving tha t too high P app lication amount can lead to n [ 13] the P po ison ing to p l n ts , wh i h suggests h igh app lica ti n a c o amount of P makes p lant b i mass enhanced causing the de o , crease o f Zn concen tra tion o f per un it d ry b io mass and thus the Zn de ficient symp toms o f p lants[ 14] . Ou r resea rch sho wed tha t increase of P app lication amoun t can enhance E. nutta llii b io ass ind ica ting tha tP p lays a detoxifica ti n ro le in Cd and m , o Zn stressed E. nutta llii p l n ts a . Un like E. nutta llii under sa , me stress concentra tion o fCd+ Zn the abso rpti n and accu l tion ofH. ve rtic illa ta p lan ts to , o mu a Cd and Zn assu med a rising trend w ith i 0 - 1 0 mg /L o f n . P However when P concen tra tion exceeded 5 mg /L Cd+ . , , Zn conten t in H. v e rtic ill ta p l nts reduced de a a , monstra ti g n tha t a specific range o f P can p ro te the absorp tion and ac mo cu ulation o fH. ve rtic ill ta p lan ts to lo concentra ti n o f Cd m a w o and Zn( maxm um o f 0 5 + 2 mg /L ). M illikan e t a l[ 15] pro i . posed tha t enhancemen t o fP app lica ti n amoun t can increase o physio log ica l requ irement o f Zn i e. , enhanc ing Zn app lica , . [ 14] tion amoun t to induce Zn requ ire men.t Cakmak e t a l con si ered tha t inso lub l phospha te for ed in leaves and stem s d e m reduced ava il b ility o f Zn to p l n ts the reby increase o f P to a a , so me exten t can remarkab ly m prove absorp ti n o fS e dum a l i o fre d ii Hance to Zn and can sa tisfy the requ irement o f p l n ts , a to Zn by transpo rt and accu ula tion fro roo t to the above m m g round pa r.t The con ten t of P can a ffec t the me tabo lism s o f p ro te in nucleotide sugar and o rgan ic ac i , wh ile these m e , , d tabo lisms a re the ma in por tions conjuga ti g Zn in p l n,t so n a enhance en t o f P conten t to so m me exten t can affect the con u o j ga ti n fo r m, transport and b io l g ica l functions o f Zn in o p lants W ithin a spec ific P concen tra tion range increase o fP . , can promo te the ab so rp tion o fH. v e rtic ill ta p lants to low con a centra ti n o fCd wh ich is cons istent w ith the research resu lts o , [ 16] o f L I W en ju e t a l U on the e ffec tP - Cd interac tion on r ice g row th Th is m ay be a ttr i u ted to that P increase p romo te s . b roo t g row th and deve l pmen t and increase s the ra te o f Cd o abso rp tion in p lants acco rd ing ly Cd accu u l ti n in p l n ts , m a o a w ould m prove These resu lts a re a lso cons isten tw ith tha t o f i . W illiams and David[ 17- 18] . In p lan, the re is an eq uili riu threshold o f P In th is t b m . study, the h i hest concen tra tions o f P suitab le fo r the stress g o fH. v e rtic ill ta andE. nutta llii were d ifferen,t respec tive ly 50 a and 5 mg /L but the maxm um va l es accu ula ted in two , i u m p lants both reached app roxm ate l 20- 23 m g /g Fo rH. ve r i y . tic illa ta, the restricti n e ffect o f P on the tox ic e ffect o fCd and o Zn reduced when P concentration was up to 5 mg /L Th is is . p robab l tha t ( 1) h i h concen tra ti n o f P br ings some toxicity y g o to p l n t and restra i s p lant grow th and ( 2 ) the increas i g a n , n an tagon isti effect be tween Cd + Zn and P reduces the ab c sorp tion o f p lan ts to nu trients Th is acco rds w ith the conclu . [ 19] si n o f L IU Fang e t a l . It shou l be no ted tha tw hen app ly o d n i g P to a llev iate and restra in the toxicity o f Cd and Zn the , thresho l o f P concentration shou l be considered to increase d d b io l g ica l ava ilab ility o f P The requirements o f var i us p l n ts o . o a to nu trients va ry w ith d iffe rent structure and environ men ts for , each species o f p lan ts deta il d fi ure shou ld be further e g

exp lored . Our results showed tha t P ( w ith in 1 mg /L P app li a ti n c o a mount) in H. v e rtic ill ta p l n ts showed a syne rgy re l ti n a a a o sh i w ith Cd + Zn ( maxm um o f 0 5 + 2 m g /L ), wh il that p i . e ( 5- 50 mg /L ) in E. nutta llii assu med an antagonistic e ffect ( maxm u o f 10 + 10 m g /L). In rivers and lakes sm u ltane i m i ously su ffe red fro heavy me ta ls stress and eu trophica ti n m o, heavy me ta ls take the ma in ro le o f po llu tion wh ile eutroph ica , tion cou ld to so me exten t a ll v i te the toxicity heavy me ta ls to e a p lants .

Re ferences
[1] JIN XC (金相灿 ), L I HL(刘鸿亮 ), TU QY(屠清瑛 ), e t a l Lake U . nutriti n abundance in Chi a (中 国湖泊 富营 养化 ) [ M ]. Beijing o n : Chi a Env ironmental Sc ience Press(北京: 中国环境科学出版社 ), n 1990: 46- 50 . [2] CHEN JS(陈静生 ), ZHOU JY(周家毅 ). Resear on heavy metal ch po lluti n to Chinese water env ironment(中国水环 境重金属研 究 ) o [M ]. Beijing Chi a Env ironmental Sc ience Press(北京: 中国环境 : n 科学出版社 ), 1992 41- 72 : . [3] YU GY(余国莹 ), W U YS(吴玉树 ). Effects of the differ a l cad enti m ium compounds and the ir inter tion on the wheat (Triti um ae s ac c tivun L. ) (不同化合形态镉、 锌及其复合污染对小麦生理的影响 ) [ J]. Ac ta Ecologica Sini a(生态学报 ), 1992 12( 1): 93- 96 c , . [4] PENG JX(彭近新 ), CHEN HJ(陈慧君 ). Control counter measur e for water s eutrophicati n(水质富营养化与防治 ) [M]. Be iji g: Chi o n na Env ironmental Sc i nce Press (北 京: 中 国 环境 科 学出 版 社 ), e 1986. [5] XIE WM (谢 维 民 ). Technology of phosphorus r emova l from w as tewater(污水除 磷技 术 ) [ J]. Env ironmental Sc ience(环 境 科学 ), 1989, 10( 5): 65- 68 . [6] BOGDANOV I D UBAV I M CUVARD I M Effect of phosphor C , C , C . us fertili ati n on Zn and Cd contents in soil and corn plants[ J]. z o NutrientCycling in Agroecosystem s 1999 54( 1): 49- 56 , , . [7] WAN WX, ROBERT CH DE.I Effects ofma j r nutrient add itions G o on metal uptake in phy toplankton [ J]. Env ironmental Poll tion u , 2001, 111( 2): 233- 240. [8] MCLAUGHLI MJ MA I R NA, FREEMAN K, e t a l Effect of po N , E . tass i and phosphatic fertilizer type fertilizer Cd concentration and c , zinc rate on cadm ium uptake by potatoes[ J]. Fertilizer Resear , ch 1995, 40 63- 70 : . [9] CHEN SB, XU MG, MA YB, e t a l Evaluation of different phos . phate amendments on avail b ility of metals in contam i ated soil a n [ J]. Ecotoxicol gy and Env ironmental Safety 2007 67( 2): 278o , , 285 . [10] SUN Q (孙琴 ), N IWZ (倪 吾钟 ), YANG XE(杨肖 娥 ), e t a l . Effec ts of phosphorus on the grow th, zinc absorption and accu mulati n in hyperaccu ul tor S ed um a lfr d ii Hance(磷对超积累 o m a e 植物 东南景天生长和积累锌的影响 ) [ J]. Ac ta Sc i nti e C ir e a cumstanti e(环境科学学报 ), 2003 23( 6): 818- 824. a , [11] CHEN SB (陈世宝 ), ZHU YG (朱 永官 ), YANG JC (杨 俊诚 ). Mechanis of the effec t of phosphorus on bi avail b ility of heavy m o a metals in so il p l nt systems(土壤 植物系统中磷对重金属生物有效 a 性的影响机制 ) [ J]. Techni ues and Equipment for Env ironmental q Poll tion Control(环境污染治理技术与设备 ), 2003, 4( 8): 1- 7 u . [12] LI ZJ(李兆君 ), MA GR(马国瑞 ), XU J M(徐建民 ). Phys i logi al o c and biol g i almechanis of plant for adapti g the s tress by cad o c m n m ium(植物适应重金属 Cd胁迫的生理及分 子生物学机理 ) [ J]. Chinese Journal of Soil Sc i nce(土壤通报 ), 2004 35( 2): 234e , 238. [13] LONERAGAN JF GRUNES DL WELCH R e t a l. Phosphorus , , M, accumul tion and tox i ity in l aves in r a c e elation to zinc supply[ J]. Soil Sc iSoc Am J 1982 46 345- 352 , , : . [14] CAKMARK , MARSCHNER H. Mechanism of phosphorus I induced z i c defic i ncy in cotton II.I Changes in phys iological n e ava ilability of zinc in p l nts[ J]. Phys i l gi P lantarum, 1987, a oo a 70: 13- 20 . [15] M ILLIKAN CR HANGER BC BJARNASON EN Effect o f phos , , . phorus and z inc l vels i the substrate on 65Zn dis tributi n in sub e n o terranean clove and flax [ J ]. Austr lian J B i l Sc,i 1968 21 a o , :

ZHANG Huiet a l Effects of P- Cd- Zn Interactions on the Absor . ption and Accumul ti n ofSubmer ao ged Mac r phytes to P Cd and Zn o , 619- 640 . [ 16] LIUW J(刘文菊 ), ZHANG XK(张西科 ), TAN JP(谭俊璞 ), e t a l . The effect of P in nutri nt soluti n on Cd accumul ted by rice e o a shoot i the seedli g s tage(磷营养对苗期水稻地上部累积镉的影 n n 响 ) [ J]. Journa l ofAgricultural Univers ity ofHebei(河北农业大学 学报 ), 1998 21( 4): 28- 32 , . [ 17] SPARROW LA, SALARD I E AA, B I HOP AC e t a l F i ld stud N S , . e e i s of cadm i m in potatoes (S o l num tube rosm L). I. Response u a I of cvv Russet and Kennebec to t o double superphosphates of . w different cadm ium concentrati n[ J]. Aus trali Journal Agricultural o a

9

Research, 1993 44: 855- 861 , . [18] W ILLM AS GH DAVI D J Some effects of the distri uti n of I , D . b o cadm ium and phosphate in the r zone on the cadm ium content oot of plants[ J]. Aus tr a Journal ofSoil Research, 1977 15 59ali , : 68 . [19] LIU F(刘芳 ), JIE XL(介晓磊 ), SUN W F(孙巍峰 ), e t a l Influ . ence ofP and Cd interaction on their accumulation in tobacco and tobacco grow th(磷、 镉交互作用对烟草生长及吸收积累磷、 镉的影 响 ) [ J]. Chinese Journal of Soil Sc i nce(土壤通报 ), 2007 38 e , ( 1): 116- 120 .

Respons ible editor DUA N Yon bo :

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P Cd Zn交互作用对沉水植物吸收积累 P Cd Zn的影响 (摘要 )
张 慧 , 王 超, 王沛芳, 薛 艳
* (河海大学环境科学与工程学院, 浅水湖泊综合治理与资源开发教育部重点实验室, 江苏南京 210098)

[目的 ]研究 P Cd、 、 Zn交互作用对沉水植物吸收积累 P Cd Zn的影响。 、 、 [方法 ]采用溶液培养的方法, 模拟 Cd Zn重金属污染和 P富营养化污染环境, 研究 P Cd Zn交互作用对沉水植物吸收积累 P、 、 、 、 、 Cd Zn的影 响。 [结果 ]对于黑藻施加 P浓度为 1m g /L范围内, P 与低浓度 Cd、 Zn之间为协同关系, 施加 P促进植物体对 Cd Zn的吸收积累。对于伊乐藻在 、 P浓度为 5~ 50 m g /L 时, P与高浓度 Cd Zn之间为拮抗关系, 随着 P 浓度的增加, 植物体内 Cd Zn含量呈下降趋势。黑藻与伊乐藻对 P的吸 、 、 收积累有一个平衡态, 约为 20~ 23m g /g 。 [结论 ]湖泊环境中当重金属及富营养化污染同时存在时, 重金属对植物的胁迫是污染的主要因素, 而富营养化元素在一定程度上还可以缓 解这种重金属对植物的毒害作用。 关键词 P Cd Zn 交互作用; 沉水植物 ; ; ;
基金项目 国家自然科学基金面上项目 ( 40871227) ; 教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划 ( NCET 07 0254) 。 作者简介 张慧 ( 1982- ) , 女, 河南焦作人, 助理工程师, 硕士, 从事河流生态修复研究, E m ai: zhang20hu@ 163 com。* 通讯作者。 l i . 收稿日期 2010 11 03 修回日期 2010 12 07

(上接第 4页 )
[ 11] HUANG W (黄文 ), WANG FR (王 芙蓉 ), LIU B(刘彬 ), e t a l . Inducement and produc ti n ofanti ac teri l substances i Te neb rio o b a n m o litor lar vae and their antibac terial ac tivity(黄粉甲幼虫抗菌物质 的诱导及其抗菌活性 ) [ J]. Ac ta Entomologica Sini a(昆虫学报 ), c 2005 48( 1): 7- 12 , . [ 12] WANG LX(王立新 ), Q I O XZ(乔兴柱 ), DA ISF(戴四发 ). Study A on the i ducement of antifungal substance and antifungal ac ti ity n v onTeneb ri m o lito r(黄粉虫幼虫抗真菌物质的诱导及其抗真菌活性 o 研究 ) [ J]. Journal ofAnhui AgriculturalSciences(安徽农业科学 ), 2008( 34): 15013- 15015. [ 13] WANG XP(王小平 ), XU G J(徐冠军 ), LI YL(刘毅琳 ). Study on U

the anti ac teri l acti ity of the antibac terial substance of yell w b a v o meaw or (Teneb rio m o lito r) ( LARVAE黄粉虫幼虫抗菌物质的抑 l m 菌作用研究 ) [ J]. Journal ofHuazhong Agri ultural Univers ity (华 c 中农业大学学报 ), 1998 17(6): 534- 536 , . [14] TAO SX(陶淑霞 ), HAN JF(韩静菲 ), LIY(李玉 ). E ffect of induc ti n sources and dosage on anti ac terial ac tivity of l rvae haemo o b a ly mph ofTeneb ri m o litor (诱导源及其诱导剂量对黄粉虫幼虫血淋 o 巴抗菌活性的影响 ) [ J]. Journal of Jilin Agricultural Uni ersity(吉 v 林农业大学学报 ), 2010 32(2): 145- 148 , . [15] WANG MZ(王萌长 ). Insec t phys i logy (昆虫生理学 ) [ M]. Bei o ji g China Agri ulture Press(北京: 中国农业出版社 ), 2004: 156 n: c .

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不同菌源诱导免疫的黄粉虫抗菌肽提取物对 26种病原菌抑菌活性分析
(摘要 )
谢咸升
1 2 ,

, 董建臻

2 *

, 李 静 , 李永利 , 王圆圆 , 李小凤 , 张亚南

2

2

2

2

2

( 1 山西 省农 业 科学 院 小麦 研 究所, 山 西临 汾

041000; 2 河北农业大学植物保护学院, 河北保定 071001)

[目的 ]探索经不同菌源诱导黄粉虫所产生的免疫物质 抗菌肽对病原菌是否存在活性差异。 [方法 ]对饥饿后黄粉虫幼虫通过饲细菌、 针刺饲真菌 (放线菌 )法产生诱导免疫反应, 研磨、 冷冻离心法获得抗菌肽提取物, 采用抑菌圈法测 定其对 26种病原菌抑菌活性, 利用三等分法划分四种类型评价抑菌活性及抑菌谱。 [结果 ]经不同菌源诱导黄粉虫所产生的抗菌肽抑菌活性及抑菌谱上均存在明显差异。 [结论 ]生防菌源在诱导昆虫体液免疫物质 抗菌肽表达上具有明显优势。 关键词 黄粉虫; 诱导免疫反应; 抗菌肽; 抑菌活性; 抑菌谱
基金项目 河北省自然科学基金项目 ( C200700450) 。 作者简介 谢咸升 ( 1973 - ) 男, 山西临猗人, 硕士研究生, 助理研究员, 从事昆虫免疫及生物防治研究, E m ai:l xxsh l@ 163 com。* 通讯作者。 f . 收稿日期 2010 12 02 修回日期 2010 12 21


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