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英语基础模块1unit 4 背景资源库

Unit 4 Welcome to our party!
(Page 53 Activity 1) (背景知识介绍,为学生介绍西方的各种 Party) A surprise party is a party that is being held to surprise someone without letting him/her know beforehand. The most common kind of surprise parties art birthday surprise parties. At most such parties, the guests will arrive earlier than the honored person about an hour or so. They usually find some places in the room to hide themselves, and when the honored person enters the room, they jump out and all shout ―Surprise!!‖ To shock the honored person, party organizers often use streamers, silly string, and balloons. Evidence of a party, such as decorations and balloons, are hidden outside the home, so that nothing will arouse the honored people’s suspicion.

A dinner party is a social gathering at which people sit around the table and have dinner together, usually in the host’s home.

There are formal dinner parties and informal ones. At the most formal dinner parties, the dinner is served on a dining table with place settings. At dinner parties cocktail are often served in a living room or bar, where guests drink alcoholic beverages while talking with each other. At less formal dinner parties, a buffet is provided. Guests choose their favorite food from the buffet and eat while standing up and chatting with other people. At the parties female guests may wear cocktail dresses, while male guests may wear blazers. Differences can be found at some informal dinner parties. The host may ask guests to bring food or beverages such as: a main dish, a dessert, or appetizers). This kind of party is called a potluck or potluck dinner, which are often held in churches and community centers in America. Farewell party: In many cultures, people usually hold a farewell party for someone who is moving away or departing on a long trip. Bachelor party: It is also known as a stag party, or stag do in UK, Ireland, Canada, and New Zealand—it is a party held for a bachelor shortly before he

enters marriage on the purpose of making the his last chance to engage in activities which he may be not allowed to do after he gets married. 更多种类的 party (1)结婚宴会 wedding party (2).生日宴会 birthday party (3).晚会 evening party (4).游园会 garden party (5). 舞会 ball party (6).晚餐会 dinner party (7 ).读书会 reading part (8).午餐会 luncheon party ( 9).戏剧会 theatre party (10).家庭宴会 at—home party (11).同学聚会 classmates’ party (12). 鸡尾酒会 cocktail party (13).茶话会 tea party (14).英语晚会 English party (15).除夕酒会 year—end dinner party (16).欢迎宴会 welcome party (17).女士聚会 hen party (18).男士聚会 stag party (19).新年酒会 New Year’s Party

(20).告别宴会 farewell party (21).赏秋聚会 autumn foliage party (22).野炊聚会 picnic party cook—out party (23).家常聚餐、自带食品聚餐会 pot--luck party (24).雪利酒会 sherry party (25).钓鱼会 fishing party (26).暖屋会 house—warming party (27).自备食品工作午餐会 brown—bag party (28).大家缝聚会 quilting party (29).樱桃聚会 cherry party (30).摘苹果会 apple—picking party (31).摘草莓交游会 strawberry—picking party

其它关于 party 的词汇 Tableware 餐具 coffee 咖啡壶 coffee cup 咖啡杯 paper towel 纸巾 napkin 餐巾 table cloth 桌布 tea–pot 茶壶 dish 碟 plate 盘

rice bowl 饭碗 chopsticks 筷子 soup spoon 汤匙 knife 餐刀 fruit plate 水果盘 toothpick 牙签 mug 马克杯

Beverages 饮料 black tea 红茶 soft drink 汽水 lemon tea 柠檬茶 mineral water 矿泉水 long-life milk 保久奶 iced coffee 冰咖啡 white coffee 牛奶咖啡 black coffee 纯咖啡

Ice-cream 雪糕 ice-cream cone 甜筒 sundae 圣代; 新地 vanilla ice-cream 香草冰淇淋

milk-shake 奶昔 straw 吸管

(Page 53 Activity 1) (通过练习的形式,为学生补充关于 party 的词汇) At a party Choose the word that best fits the sentence. We must have a little ________ one of these days! a. invitation b. get-together Answer: get-together

Hey, come over Friday. We're having a ________ party for Betty. a. birth date b. birthday Answer: birthday

Can I have some of these shrimp? ________ yourself! a. Take b. Help Answer: Help

Don't forget to ________ the hostess on her new dress. a. compliment b. greet Answer: compliment

Hey, I know a party we can ________ (show up without being invited). a. break b. crash Answer: crash

We're ________ a party next Saturday. a. making b. having Answer: having

Steve and Linda are very social people. They love to ________ guests at their house. a. visit b. entertain Answer: entertain

Hey, we just finished moving in to our new place. We're having a ________ party next week! a. house moving b. house warming Answer: housewarming

A dinner when everyone brings food is called a ________ (dinner). a. polite b. potluck Answer: potluck

Welcome, make yourself ________. a. like home b. at home Surprise party Answer: at home Surprise party

(Page 53 Activity 1) (有关天气的词汇) Word Part of speech airconditione an appliance that cools The airconditioner keeps Meaning Example Sentence

r/aircondition ing noun avalanche noun below freezing preposition/ad jective blizzard noun

down the air in a home or building

the office nice and comfortable even when it's very hot outside.

a dangerous slide of snow down a mountain temperature less than 0 degrees Celsius/(32F)

The skiers were warned about a possible avalanche. It's supposed to go below freezing before the weekend.

a storm with lots of snow and wind

The airplane couldn't take-off because of the blizzard.

boiling hot adjective + noun breeze noun

common expression for describing a very hot day

It was boiling hot, so we all jumped into the lake.

light wind

Don't bother with a hat. There is always a breeze near the ocean.


measurement of

In the summer, the average


temperature (0 degrees is freezing/100 is boiling)

temperature here is 20 degrees Celsius. It's a bit chilly today, so I think you should wear a coat.

chilly adjective


clear adjective

when the sky is blue because no clouds are blocking the sun

On a clear night you can see a lot of stars.

cloud/cloudy noun/adjective

water in the sky that appears as a white or grey mass

It may look cloudy in the morning, but the sun always comes out by afternoon.

cold spell adjective + noun cool adjective

a period of colder than average weather

They're calling for a cold spell, so we put off our camping trip.

temperature in between warm and cold

The days were boiling hot, but the nights were cool and comfortable for sleeping.

degrees noun

measurement for temperature

I don't feel the heat until it's about forty degrees Celsius outside.

drizzling continuous verb drought noun Fahrenheit noun

raining slightly

I think I'll take the dog for a walk. It's only drizzling now.

a long period with no rainfall measurement of

Forest fires are a serious danger during a drought. It was 100 degrees

temperature (32 degrees is Fahrenheit when we got to freezing/212 is boiling) San Francisco. The flood was so bad, our basement was full of water. very light snowfall There are a few flurries but the snow isn't sticking to the roads.

flood noun flurries noun

overflow of rain water

fog/foggy noun/adjective

thick water vapor that blocks one's vision

We couldn't see the bridge because there was too much fog.

forecast noun/verb

the expected weather for the future

According to the 5 day forecast, it's going to rain on our wedding day.

freezing cold adjective + noun frost noun frostbite noun

common expression used to describe a very cold day ice crystals on a frozen surface a skin condition caused by over exposure to the cold (typically reddish skin with white spots)

It was a freezing cold day for the Santa Claus parade.

Some flowers are so strong they can withstand frost. I lost my hat while I was skiing, and I ended up with frostbite on my ears.

hail noun

small pieces of ice that fall during a storm

There was so much hail that some of the trailer homes were destroyed.

heat stroke noun

a flu-like condition one can acquire after spending too long in the sun

Bring lots of water and wear a hat to avoid heat stroke in this weather. During the heat-wave we


extremely hot weather that


is much higher than average--usually lasts a short time

cooled our beds down with ice packs.

humid/humid ity adjective/noun hurricane noun

moisture in the air

It feels a lot hotter than it actually is because of the humidity.

a tropical storm with very strong wind and rain

Half of the buildings on the island were flattened by the hurricane.

icy adjective

slippery because of ice

The roads are icy so please avoid driving down any hills.

lightning noun

electric flash caused by two clouds hitting

The outdoor pool always closes when the lifeguards suspect lightning.

mild adjective

temperature that is warmer than average(in a cold season)

It's quite mild out so I didn't bother with a hat or mittens. The meteorologist


a person who studies


weather patterns

predicted that the cold spell would be over by now.

minus/negati ve adjective overcast adjective

indicates that a temperature is below zero

It was minus twenty degrees at the top of the skil hill.

no sun is visible

The sky is overcast this morning, but the sun is supposed to come out by late afternoon.

partly cloudy adverb + adjective

term often used in a weather forecast to indicate that the skies are sunny and cloudy at the same time

Tomorrow's forecast is partly cloudy with clear skies by nightfall.

precipitation noun puddle noun

rain or snow that falls on an area collection of rain water

There is very little precipitation in the desert. Children love to splash in puddles when they are wearing rubber boots.

rain/raining/r ainy noun/continuo us verb/adjective raindrop noun rainbow noun

water that falls to earth

My hair is all wet and messy from the rain.

a single measurement of rain a band of colours found in the sky after a rainfall

I love catching raindrops on my tongue. According to legend you can find a pot of gold at the end of a rainbow.

raining cats and dogs idiom scorching/a scorcher adjective/noun season noun

raining heavily

They cancelled the football game because it was raining cats and dogs.

extremely hot temperature/a very hot day time of year characterized by certain weather Winter,Spring,Summer,Fa ll (or Autumn)

It was a scorcher, so the whole family slept in the cool basement. My favorite season is Fall, because I love to watch the leaves changing colours.

shower noun

quick/light rainstorm

They've been calling for showers all week, but so far it's been dry.

sleet(similar to hail) noun slush/slushy noun/adjective smog noun

rain that freezes as it falls

All-weather-tires are best if you have to drive in sleet.

snow on the ground that has been rained on heavy,dark cloud cover caused by pollution

The snow turned to slush as soon as it started to rain. You really notice the smog downtown in this type of humidity.

snow/snowy/s nowing noun/adjective / continuous verb snowstorm noun

frozen water that warms slightly as it falls to earth

It is already snowing up in the mountains, so the ski season should be great this year.

large amounts of wind and snow

All of the schools were closed because of the snowstorm.

sun/sun shine/su nny noun/noun/adj ective sunburn noun

the gassy star that warms the earth

We hope to have sunshine on the day of the beach picnic.

painful red/pink skin caused by being in the sun too long

The bald man got a sunburn on his head.

sunglasses/sh ades noun suntan/tanne d noun(also verb)/adjective (also verb) sunscreen/su ntan lotion noun temperature

dark eyewear that protects you from the sun

I forgot my shades and I was driving right into the sun.

brown/golden skin caused by long periods of sun exposure

I got a suntan on the cruise, but it has already faded away.

cream that protects your skin from sun damage

Don't forget to reapply your sunscreen when you get out of the lake.

how warm or cold the air

Can you check the



temperature before we get dressed for our walk?

thermomete r noun

instrument for measuring the temperature of the air

When I checked the temperature this morning, the thermometer said it was already thirty degrees Celsius.


the crashing of clouds

Let's close all of the windows. It looks like a thunderstorm is coming.

/thunde (often followed by a strike rstorm noun tornado /cyclone noun umbrella noun UV (ultra violet) rays noun held over one's head and body for rain protection the damaging rays from the sun of lightning and heavy rain) violently spinning windstorm

The tornado picked up everything in its path, including animals and cars. I always keep an umbrella in my car in case of rain. Ultra violet rays can cause skin cancer if you don't wear sunscreen.

wind/windy noun/adjective wind chill factor noun

blowing air outside

It's too windy to play golf today.

when the wind makes the air feel colder than the actual temperature

It's minus two, but with the wind chill factor it's minus fifteen.

(Page 53 Activity 1) (补充练习, 通过练习的形式帮助学生学生学习关于天气的词汇) Look at the pictures for clues and put these weather words into the correct gaps: hot, raining, windy, sun, sunny, blowing, cloud, rain, wind, cloudy, rainy, shining, cold

? ? ? ?

The sun is It is


today. today.

The earth needs the

. .

The weather is great today. It's nice and

? ? ?

The wind is It will be


today. tomorrow.

The strong

will come from the south.

? ?

It will



The weather will be

next week. will come from the north.





The temperature will be very

- 5 below freezing. hard today.

? ? ?

It is


It will



It will probably be

for the

whole day tomorrow.


I hope it won't be tomorrow.


Look at that

(Page 54 Activity 2) (补充相关背景知识) The State of California James Marshall was camped on the American River at Coloma, near Sacramento. He and his crew were building a saw mill for a fellow named John Sutter. On the morning of January 24, 1848, while making adjustments to the millrace, he found a few small nuggets of gold. Nine days later, the Mexican-American war was over. Mexico gave up the state of California with the Treaty of Guadalupe and California became a U.S. territory. Sam Brannan, a young newspaper man in San Francisco began to hear rumors of gold at Sutter's Mill and decided to go find out for himself. Indeed, he found the place swarming with prospectors, some quite wealthy. It is said that, being an industrious man, Sam settled at Morman Island on the American River and began to collect "the Lord's tithes"(10% of their gold) from the miners who passed by. On September 9, 1850, the United States Congress hesitatingly voted to admit another free state to the union. It was called California.

Australia Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to an independent republic, was defeated in 1999.

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E Map references: Oceania Area: total: 7,686,850 sq km land: 7,617,930 sq km water: 68,920 sq km note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 25,760 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum Land use: arable land: 6%

permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 54% forests and woodland: 19% other: 21% (1993 est.) Irrigated land: 21,070 sq km (1993 est.) Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,

Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification Geography - note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer

(Page 54 Activity 4) (补充谈论天气的相关表达法,可要求程度好的学生学习) Asking About the Weather Do you know the weather update? How is the weather, Nicholas? How is the weather today? What does the weather look like? What do you think of the weather, Joe? What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? What is the weather like today? What sort of day is it? · Stating How the Weather is or Will Be It is drizzling/raining/pouring/blowing hard/clearing up/freezing now. It is getting cold. It is supposed to be cloudy this afternoon. It is warm/mild/sunny/fair/splendid/perfect/hot/sultry(闷热的)/muggy (闷热的) /cloudy/foggy/breezy (微风的) /windy/cool/chilly/cold/frosty (有霜的)/snowy/wet/damp(潮湿的)/dull(阴沉的)/gloomy(阴 沉的)/oppressive(天气闷热的)/wretched(恶劣的)/nasty. It’ll apparently turn out to be a misty(有雾的)day. It’ll probably turn warm tomorrow. It’ll seemingly continue to be fine. It’ll snow soon, without a doubt.

It looks as if a storm is coming. It looks like snowing/raining/hailing/sleeting(下冰雹)this afternoon. It’s a clear/lovely/warm and nice/scorching(炎热的) /boiling/miserable/rotten/wet/beastly(恶劣的)/snowy day. It’s an awful day, isn’t it? It’s very likely to have a downpour(倾盆大雨)in a short time. There is a typhoon (台风) /hurricane (飓风) /tornado (龙卷风) coming. There’ll be a gale(狂风)tomorrow. The radio says it’s going to be fine day tomorrow. The weatherman says it’s going to rain the day after tomorrow. We’ll get a shower in a few minutes, I’m sure.

(Page 55 Activity 9) (补充招待客人的表达法) 1. You can come over and I'll buzz you in. 你可以过来了, 我会帮你开门. "帮你开门"这个动作许多人不经思考就会说 "open the door for you"。 但严格说来,"open the door for you" 指的是你亲自去 把门打开。现在许多公寓通常都是对讲机的按钮一按外面的门就开 了,而这个"开门让访客进来"的动作英文里就叫 "buzz someone in"。 为什么用 'buzz" 这个字呢? 因为按按钮的时候通常可以听到" 唧唧"的声音。这个声音在英文里就叫 "buzz"。所以记得了,下次 要帮别人开门时就可以说 "I'll buzz you in." 反过来如果你去拜访 别人则可以说 "Could you buzz me in?" 。 2. May I have a glass of water? 可以给我一杯水吗?

老美吃饭的习惯是菜未上桌前一定会先给你一杯冰水, 这点习惯是和 我们是大不相同。在这里要提醒大家的是,玻璃杯的讲法叫 glass, 而非 cup。Cup 指的是喝咖啡的那种杯子 (有时也可以叫马克杯 mug)。所以你跟别人要一杯水,比较好的讲法应该是 "a glass of water", 而非 "a cup of water"。反之如果想要一杯咖啡,则要 用 "a cup of coffee" 比较好。 这里再提出一个有趣的问题:一定是玻璃 glass 作的"玻璃杯"才能 叫 glass 吗? 答案是否定的。事实上那种免洗的塑胶杯有时候也可 以勉强算是 "glass"。 因为我就看过很多次有人问 "Do you have a glass?" 结果人家拿给他的却是那种塑胶的免洗杯。 3. Do you need some cookies? No. This is good enough. 你需不需要一些饼干啊? 不用了,这样就够好了。 当别人问你需要些什么, 但你真的不需要的时候该怎么拒绝别人? 最 简单的可以说 "No. Thanks." 言简意赅。或是你也可说 "That's OK." 同样也是婉拒别人的意思。(注意 "That's OK." 并不是答应 别人而是拒绝别人, 不要搞错了。 ) 第三种讲法则是非常客气的讲法, "This is good enough." 或是 "That is good enough." 意思是 说 "这样子已经够好了,你不用再麻烦了。"但"我已经吃得差不多了 "则不能说成 "I've had enough." 因为这是指"我受够了 (意指东 西很难吃)。"应该说 "I am stuffed. (我吃饱了。)" 才对。

4. Do you guys want to stick around and play Scrabble? 你们想不想留下来再玩一会拼写游戏呢? 当客人想要走了, 而做主人的还不希望客人走时, 就可以用到 "stick around" 这个词组。Stick around 指的就是再留下来一会,跟 stay 的意思很像。所以当主人要留客时,就可以用 "Do you want to stick around?" 或是 "Do you want to stay?" 来表示希望他 们不要那么早走。 Stick around 的应用范围其实非常广,基本上只要能用 stay 的地 方,口语上都可以用 stick around 来代替。例如天气播报员会说 "Warm weather will stick around for a while." 这就是说热天 气还会持续好一阵子。或是像新职员刚报到:"I can promise you I will stick around for two years. (我可以向你保证我至少会做满 二年。)" (Page 57 Activity 12) (补充练习,练习读邀请函) 读邀请函,填写表格 Date Time Place

Activities 30th June 2007 Dear Kalpesh, You are invited to my farewell party which happens on 15th July 2007 starting from 7.00pm. The party will be at the Los Cruze Restaurant opposite the Taj Building. I will be leave Textiles and Clothes Company to join Threads Are Us Ltd next month. I would very much appreciate you coming to the farewell party to celebrate the time we have spent together at this company, the challenges we have faced together, the solutions we have come up with and to wish you goodbye. Dress code is party attire. See you there. Don’t be late! The RSVP number to call is +91 23486475. Regards Jiten

(Page 57 Activity 13)

(练习写邀请函) 仿照课本第 57 页,Activity 12, 完成一个邀请函,邀请你的朋友参加 你的生日 Party。

Useful sentences: 1. We are going to hold a surprise party for Lily. 我们准备为 Lily 举办个惊喜排队。 2. Who’s gonna organize the birthday party next time? 下次该谁办生日派对了呢? 3. Mary bought a birthday cake about this big! Mary 买了一个生日蛋糕大约有这么大! 4. It’s a wonderful party! 这个晚会太棒了! 5. You look gorgeous tonight! 你今晚看起来美极了! 6. Thank you for holding this party for me. I really appreciated it. 谢谢你们为我举办这次晚会。 我很感激。 (Unit4, page 36, activity 9, 10, 12) 对话补充 Dialogue

Lily: Hey, Mary. The party has been great. My family have enjoyed it very much. Mary: I've told you will enjoy it! Lily: Of course, I will. By the way, is the party like this held every weekend in our neighborhood? Mary: Oh, I've forgotten to tell you. The party is held every two weeks. And each family gives their own performance each time. Lily: My children gonna like that; they like singing very much. Mary: Great! Lily: By the way, is there any playground in our neighborhood? Mary: Yes, there is one behind our building. And you can play basketball there. But you gonna pay for 30 yuan per hour. Lily: OK, got it! Thanks a lot. Mary: You are welcome!

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