表示时间、地点、原因、目的… We sleep at night at home.
? 状语从句 ? 状语从句同副词,介词词组等作状 语一样,用于修饰谓语,说明谓语动 作的时间,地点,方式,手段,条件,程 度,比较,原因,目的,结果等 1. I get up at 6:00 2. I get up when it is dark
1. 时间状语从句 2. 条件状语从句 3. 比较状语从句 4. 结果状语从句 5. 原因状语从句 6. 目的状语从句 7. 让步状语从句 8. 方式状语从句 9. 地点状语从句
The Adverbial Clause 状语从句
状语从句是副词性从句，其句法功能是修饰 谓语动词、其他动词、定语、状语或整个句子等， 在句中作状语，通常由从属连词引导。 状语从句不仅是初中英语学习的重点，而且 也是每年中考必考的内容之一。命题主要集中在 引导状语从句的连词、状语从句的时态等方面； 从九大状语从句来看，应将复习重点放在时间状 语从句、条件状语从句、结果状语从句和比较状 语从句这四种上。
1、地点状语从 句通常由where, wherever 引导。 例如：
Where I live there are plenty of trees. 我住的地 方树很多。 Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 不管我 在哪里我都会想到你。
2、方式状语从句通 常由as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though引导。 例如：
（1） as, (just) as…so…引导
的方式状语从句通常位于主 句后，但在(just) as…so…结 构中位于句首，这时as从句 带有比喻的含义，意思是"正 如…"，"就像"，多用于正 式文体，例如：
Always do to the others as you would be done by. 你希望人家怎样待你， 你就要怎样待人。 As water is to fish, so air is to man. 我们离不开空气，犹如鱼儿离不开 水。 Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds. 正如打扫房屋一样，我们 也要扫除我们头脑中落后的东西。
（2） as if, as though 两者的意义和用法相同， 引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟 语气，表示与事实相反，有时 也用陈述语气，表示所说情况 是事实或实现的可能性较大。 汉译常作 "仿佛……似的"，" 好像……似的"，例如：
They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed. 他们完全忽略了这些事实， 就仿佛它不存在似的。（与 事实相反，谓语用虚拟语 气。）
He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting. 他那样子就像 被雷击了似的。（与事 实相反，谓语用虚拟语 气。）
It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon. 看来天气很快就会好起 来。（实现的可能性较 大，谓语用陈述语气。）
说明：as if / as though也可以引导 一个分词短语、不 定式短语或无动词 短语，例如：
He stared at me as if seeing me for first time. 他目不转睛地看着 我，就像第一次看见我似的。 He cleared his throat as if to say something. 他清了清嗓子，像要 说什么似的。 The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger. 波涛冲击着岩石，好 像很愤怒。
3、原因状语从 句比较： because, since, as和for
（1）because语势最强，用来说明人 所不知的原因，回答why提出的问题。 当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所 知，就用as或 since。例如：
I didn't go, because I was afraid. Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.
because不能与并列连词so同时 在句中使用。 She was late for school because she missed the bus. = She missed the bus, so she was late for school.
（2）由because引导的从句如果 放在句末，且前面有逗 号，则可 以用for来代替。但如果不是说明 直接原因，而是多种情况加以推断， 就只能用for。
He is absent today, because / for he is ill. He must be ill, for he is absent today.
4、目的状语从句表示 谓语动词发生的目的 的从句，可以由that, so that, in order that, in case等词引导，例 如：
You must speak louder so that /in order that you can be heard by all. We used the computer in order that we might save time. Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold.
注意：so that既可引导目的状语从句， 又可引导结果状语从句。区别如下： 1)目的状语从句里往往带有情态动词can, could, may, might等。 2)从意思上看，目的状语从句往往表示的 目的很明确。例如： Speak clearly so that they may understand you. (目的状语从句) Jack is badly ill so that he has to rest. (结果状语从句)
5、结果状语从句常由 so… that 或 such…that 引导，掌握这两个句型， 首先要了解so 和 such与 其后的词的搭配规律。
比较：so和 such 其规律由so与such的不同词性 决定。such 是形容词，修饰 名词或名词词组，so 是副词， 只能修饰形容词或副词。 so 还可与表示数量的形容词 many, few, much, little连用， 形成固定搭配。 例如：
so foolish such a fool so nice a flower such a nice flower so many / few flowers such nice flowers so much / little money such rapid progress so many people such a lot of people
so many 已成固定搭配， a lot of 虽相当于 many， 但 a lot of 为名词性的， 只能用such搭配。 so…that与such…that之 间的转换既为 so与such之 间的转换。例如：
The boy is so young that he can?t go to school. He is such a young boy that he can?t go to school.
6、条件状语从句连接词主 要有 if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that 等。if 引 导的条件句有真实条件句和 非真实条件句两种。非真实 条件句已在虚拟语气中阐述。
1. As long as I live, I shall work hard. 2. You can’t learn it well unless you work hard. 3. If you want to know ,I can tell you.
unless = if not. Let's go out for a walk unless you are too tired. If you are not too tied, let's go out for a walk.
典型例题： You will be late ___ you leave immediately. A. unless B. until C. if D. or 答案A。 句意：除非你立即走，否 则你就会迟到的。可转化为 If you don?t leave immediately, you will be late. B、D句意不对，or表转 折，句子如为 You leave immediately or you will be late.
，有时它可以替代从句和主句，它就是“祈使句 +and/or +简单句”。其中and 表示句意顺承；or 则表示转折，意为“否则”。
If you work harder, you’ll pass the exam. = Work harder and you’ll pass the exam. If you don’t hurry up, you’ll miss the train. = Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train.
在条件状语从句中，若主句是一般将 来时，if, unless引导的从句要用一般 现在时表将来。若主句为祈使句或用 一般现在时或含情态动词，从句也用 一般现在时。
I won’t go unless I’m invited. If you work hard, you’ll make progress.
? though， although，as ? even if， even though ? however, Whatever , whenever等
(1)、让步状语从句通常 由 though, although 引 导。注意： 当有though, although时，后面的从 句不能有but，但是 though 和yet可连用。例 如：
Although it's raining, they are still working in the field.虽然在下雨， 但他们仍在地里干活。 He is very old, but he still works very hard.虽然他很老，但仍然努 力地工作。 Though the sore be healed, yet a scar may remain. 伤口虽愈合，但 伤疤留下了。 （谚语）
（1） ___she is young, she knows quite a lot. A. When B. However C. Although D. Unless
(2) ever if, even though.即使 We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad. (3) whether…or 不管……都 Whether you believe it or not, it is true.
(4)“no matter +疑问词” 或“疑问词+后缀ever” No matter what happened, he would not mind. Whatever happened, he would not mind.
替换： no matter what = whatever no matter who = whoever no matter when = whenever no matter where = wherever no matter which = whichever no matter how = however
注意：no matter 不能引导主语从 句和宾语从句。 例如：
（错）No matter what you say is of no use now. （对）Whatever you say is of no use now. 你现在说什么也没用了。 (Whatever you say是主语从句) （错）Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given, （对）Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. 囚犯们 只能给什么吃什么。
8、时间状语从句 引导时间状语从句的连词有：while, when, as, as soon as, till, until, not…until, before, after, since, etc． 当主句用一般现在时或表示将来含义时， 时间状语从句常用一般现在时表将来。
I’ll tell you the news when I come back. She will call me as soon as she arrives in Shanghai.
1）比较while, when, as
（1）as, when 引导短暂性动 作的动词。 Just as / Just when / When I stopped my car, a man came up to me.
（2）当从句的动作发生于 主句动作之前，只能用 when 引导这个从句，不可 用as 或 while。 When you have finished your work, you may have a rest.
（3）从句表示“随时间推移” 连词只能用as，不用when 或 while。 As the day went on, the weather got worse.日子一天 天过去，天气越变越坏。
束的时间。在肯定句中表示“ 直到…..为止”，主句要用延续 性动词。
My mother waited till/ until I came back.
2. 在否定句中，until/till表示 “直到…..才”，主句通常用瞬 间动词。这时until可用before 替换。常构成：not…until结 构，有时可用never, nothing 代替not. He didn’t leave until/ before I came back.
（1）Until可用于句首，而 till通常不用于句首。 Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. 直到你告诉我以前，出了什 么事我一点也不知道。
（2）Until when 疑问句中， until要放在句首。 ——Until when are you staying? 你呆到什么时候？ —— Until next Monday. 呆到下周一。
3）before 与 after
before “在….以前”，表示主句 的动作发生在从句动作之前； after “在……之后”，表示主句 的动作发生在从句动作之后。 I finished homework before I went to bed . I went to bed after I finished homework.
since，ever since引导的时间 状语从句，表示主句动作开始 的时间，译为“自….以来”。 主句常用一般现在时或现在完 成时，从句用一般过去时，常 用句型为： It has been … since 从句；It is +一段时间 +since从句。
It’s ten years since I worked in the hospital. He has taught us maths since he came here. Where have you been since I saw you last？
注意：对 since 引导的时间状语 提问要用how long.
5）表示“一…就…”的 结 构：
hardly/scarcely…when/bef ore, no sooner…than和as soon as 都可以表示“一…
I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain. I had no sooner got home than it began to rain. As soon as I got home, it began to rain.
注意：如果hardly, scarcely 或no sooner置于句首，句子 必须用倒装结构： Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.
1.时间状语从句? (1)引导词：when,while,as,before,after, as soon as,until,since.? (2)主句为将来时，从句用一般现在时代替。? (3)not...until的同义句替换。 ? 2.条件状语从句? (1)引导词：if,unless.? (2)主句为将来时，从句用一般现在时代替。? (3)if...not与unless及or的同义句转换。
3.原因状语从句? (1)引导词:because, since, as.? (2)对because 原因状语提问用“why”。? (3)because 不能与so连用。? (4)because,since，as,for的区别：? because 从句所表示的是对方不知道的直接的原因， 因此在回答以why引导的特殊疑问句时只可用 because,而as,since 引导的从句却不可；as， since从句所表示的往往是对方已知的原因；for往 往用于附加理由证明。 ?
4.目的状语和结果状语? (1)引导词：so，that.从句中常用情态动词。? (2)结果状语从句引导词：so...that,such...that.? (3)so与such的区别? ①so+形+a/an+名? such+a/an+形+名? ②so+many/much/few/little+形+名? ③such+形+不可数名词/可数名词复数 (4)so...that与too...to和...enough to间转换? ?
5.比较状语从句? (1)引导词：as...as,not as (so)...as,than? (2)not as (so)...as与than的同义句替换。? (3)as...as,not as (so)...as中间用形容词或副词的 原形。? 6.让步状语从句? (1)引导词：though,even though.? (2)though不能与but连用。? 7.地点状语从句? (1)引导词where,wherever.? (2)wherever=no matter where? 8.方式状语从句? 引导词：as if,as though.?
1. ______ they had worked for along time, everyone looked tired. A． While B． After C． Unless D． For 2. He has been a teacher ____ he came to the country. A． since B． until C． as D． when
3. He has had to cook by himself ______ his mother went on business to Beijing. A. during B. B since C. after D. when 4. It is ten years ______ I saw you last time. A A. since B. when C. that D. if
5. He always thinks I'm wrong, ______ I may say. A． no matter whatever C． what B． whatever D． that 6. ______ , Mother will wait for him to have dinner together. A． However late is he B． However he is late C． However is he late D ． However late he is
7. You should run the machine ______ the workers has shown you. A. B. and A as C. but D. so 8. You shall have the book _____ I have read it. A. so that B. though C C. as soon as D. since
9. The man put on a overcoat ____ keep himself warm. A. that B. so that to C. in order that D. D in order to 10. He has changed so much ____ I can hardly recognize him. A. as B. so that C. that D. but C
11. Wounded ______ he was, he refused to come back from the as引导的让步状语从句常以部分倒装的形式出 front. 现，被倒装的部分可以是表语、状语或动词原 A. as B. though 形； though有时也用于这样的结构，但 D both A and B C. although D. although 不可以这样用。 12. Would you please wait ____ I come back. A. if B. when C. because D.till D
13. Some people want to go hunting, ____ others want to go finishing. A. or B. because C. while D. since C 14. You must get up early in the morning, ______ we'll have to start out without you. A. and B. or B C. but D. so that
15. He couldn't come ______ he wanted to. A. as B. because C. D. for C although 16. ______ you gave a party and no one come, what would you do? B If A. Although B. C. Unless D. When
17. You may borrow the book _____ you keep it clean. A. as long as B. when C. after D. unless 18. John plays football ______ , if not better than, David. A． as well B． as well as C． so well D． so well as