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【语法专攻】2016年高考英语一轮精讲精练:英语句子结构和成分分析(含详解)


第一章 英语句子结构和成分分析
英语属于结构性语言。英语的句子成分要按照特定的顺序(句子结构)来组织。特定的句子成分要用特定的词性或语法 结构来充当,特定的词性或语法结构只能充当特定的成分。因此,要学好英语,一定要掌握好词性、句子成分和句子结构等 内容。学好这些内容是学习好其他语法知识的基础。

第1讲

相关概念
第一

个句子是正确的,what 是 do 的宾语。 第二个句子需要在 do 后加 it.

考点1. 词性的英文缩写 在英语学习中,掌握单词词性非常重要。如果我们在 记单词的时只记拼写、读音而不记词性的话,我们就不知 道如何使用它们,所以我们在记单词时一定要把单词词性 记准记牢。 缩写字母 n. v. vt. vi. modal v. aux. v. adj. adv. num. interj. pron. prep. art. conj 原词 noun verb transitive verb intransitive verb modal verb auxiliary verb adjective adverb numeral interjection pronoun preposition article conjunction 代表词性 名词 动词 及物动词 不及物动词 情态动词 助动词 形容词 副词 数词 感叹词 代词 介词 冠词 连词

E. think, insist, agree, reply 等词,后面可直接跟宾语从句, 但跟名词代词等作宾语时,是不及物动词,要跟介词。 I think it’s interesting. What do you think of the film? I replied that I was unable to help them. 我回答说我不能帮助他们。 He has not yet replied to my question. 他还没有回答我的问题。 He insisted that I (should) apologize to her. 他坚持我应该向她道歉。 He insisted on paying for the meal. 他坚持要付饭钱。 He insisted on immediate payment. 他坚持要求对方立即付款。 练习1. 指出下列句中斜体动词是及物动词还是不及物动 词,及物动词填 vt.,不及物填 vi.。 1. Most birds can fly.( ) ) ) )

2. The children are flying kites in the park. ( 3. It happened yesterday.( 4. My watch stopped.( )

口诀:n.为名,v.为动;adv.副 adj.形; prep.借,pron.代;num.数 art.冠, conj.连 interj.感叹 考点2. 及物动词和不及物动词 实义动词后面跟宾语时,这个动词是及物动词。实义 动词后面不跟宾语时,此时这个动词是不及物动词。 The door opened. (open 后面没跟宾语,此时,open 是不及物动词。) He opened the door. (open 后面有宾语 the door, 此时,open 是及物动词。) 注意:英语中一个动词是及物动词还是不及物动词,关键 是看它用在句中时后面是否跟宾语。 A. 有些动词既可作及物动词又可作不及物动词,词义相同。 如: The meeting began at six. < vi.> We began the meeting at six. < vt.> B. 有些动词既可作及物动词又可作不及物动词,但词义不 同。如: The man walked away. (walk 不及物动词,意为“走”) He walked the dog every day. ( walk 及物动词, “遛”) C. 英语中一些单词是及物还是不及物,可能与汉语不同。 He listens to the music every day. (listen 为不及物动词, 而 汉语中“听”是及物动词。) D. 有些动词只能作及物动词,就必须带宾语。 I don’t know what to do. I don’t know why/how/when to do. 1

5. The baby stopped crying when he saw his mother. ( 6. She spoke at the meeting this morning. ( 7. Shall I begin at once?( ) )

8. She began working as a teacher after she left school.( ( ) 9. When did they leave Beijing?( 10. They left last week.( 练习2. 改错: ) )



1. He never dreamed of that one day he would become President. 2. What do you think the plan? 3. He never replied any of my letters. 4. He insisted staying up to nurse the patient. 5. He entered into the classroom quietly. 6. He will marry with her next month. 考点3. 实义动词、助动词与情态动词 实义动词和助动词是根据动词在句子中的含义和作 用来划分的。实义动词也叫行为动词。 实义动词 指的是那些意义完全且能够独立作谓语的动词。如: He lives quite near. (live“住” ,有明确的意义,单独作谓 语,为实义动词。)

I like reading. (like “喜欢” ,意思明确,单独作谓语, 为实义动词。 ) I bought a pen yesterday. (bought “买” ,意义明确,单 独作谓语,为实义动词。 ) 助动词 助动词的“助”是“帮助”之意。因此,助动词是指 那些用来帮助构成时态、语态、虚拟语气、疑问句、否定 句、倒装句和帮助强调的词。这些词本身无词汇意义或意 义不完全,不能单独作谓语。 A. 帮助构成时态的: The boy is crying. (is 用来帮助构成现在进行时, 和 crying 一起作谓语,是助动词。) He has arrived. (has 用来帮助构成现在完成时,和 arrived 一起作谓语,是助动词。) I have been painting all day. (have been 用来帮助构成现 在完成进行时,和 painting 一起作谓语,都是助动词。 ) B. 帮助构成否定句和疑问句的: Does he like English? (does 帮助构成一般疑问句,没有 具体意义,是助动词。) He doesn’t have lunch at home. (does 只是帮助构成否定 句,没有具体意义,是助动词。) C. 帮助构成被动语态的 Trees are planted in spring. (are 帮助构成被动语态,没有 具体意义,是助动词。) The house has been pulled down. (has been 帮助构成时态 和语态,是助动词。) D. 帮助构成虚拟语气 If he had come yesterday, I wouldn’t have made such a mistake.(had, have 帮助构成虚拟语气,是助动词,属于谓 语的一部分。) E. 帮助构成倒装句的 So much did he love his mother that he bought her many presents on her birthday. (他如此爱他的母亲以至于他母亲生日那一天,他给她买 了许多礼物。did 只是帮助构成倒装句,没有具体意义, 是助动词。)

F. 帮助构成强调意义的 He did come yesterday. (他昨天确实来过。did 起强调作 用,没有具体意义,是助动词。) 因此可以看出,常见的助动词为 do, be, have,它们 为基本助动词。一个词既可以作实义动词也可以作助动 词,具体是哪一种,主要看它们在句中的功能。 ① He did his homework at seven o’clock. (did 单独作谓语, 意为“做” ,是实义动词。) Did he do his homework yesterday? (did 是助动词,帮助 构成一般疑问句,do 是实义动词,意为“做” ,是实义 动词。) ② He has had breakfast. (has 是助动词, 帮助构成现在完成 时,had 是实义动词,意为“吃” 。has had 一起构成了 句子的谓语。) 练习3. 指出下列斜体单词是实义动词还是助动词。 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Does ( He does ( Where does( He does ( He has ( I have ( He was ( ) he like ( ) like ( ) swimming? ) swimming.

) he live ( )? ) some washing after work. ) supper already. ) been( ) built( ) now. )waiting( ) for you all day.

) had ( ) been ( ) struck (

The bridge has(

) by a stone.

情态动词 情态动词同助动词一样,不能单独作谓语,要和实义 动词一起作谓语。因此,情态动词也称为情态助动词。情 态动词同基本助动词的区别在于,基本助动词本身无意 义,而情态动词有自己的意义。如: He can swim across the river. (can 的词义为“能够”) You must stay at home. (must 词义为“必须”) I might leave tomorrow.(might 的词义为“或许” )

第2讲 句子成分
状语 英语的句子成分主要有六种:即主 语、谓语、宾语、 定语、状语和补语。 (可以熟记为:主谓宾,定状补)除 了这六种主要成分之外,还有“表语”和“同位语”的说 法。但表语和系动词一起作谓语,因此划分成分时,划分 在谓语上。同位语分为主语同位语和宾语同位语,属于主 语或宾语的一部分。 考点4. 划分句子成分时的常用符号 英语中划分句子成分的符号 主语 谓语 宾语 定语 在下面画直线 在下面画曲线 在下面画双横线 在下面画虚线 (一行点使我们想到一排钉子, “钉”谐音为“定语”的“定” ) 2 补语 同位语 考点1. 主语 主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首,通常 由名词性的词来充当。 可以作主语的词性或语法结构: 1. 名词 2. 代词 3. 数词 4. 不定式 5. 动名词 6. 主语从句等表示。 7. 名词化的形容词(如 the rich) 在英语中, 形容词、 副词和介词短语是不能作主语的。 如果它们在句首时,句子可能是倒装句,真正的主语在后 面。 下面为短横线 (短横线使我们想到短木桩,木 桩撞(状)钟) 上一短横,下一短横(下一短横好像是为了弥 补上面短横间的空隙) 上下双曲线(都有曲折,上下位臵基本相同)

On the desk are some books. (主语是 books,所以用 are) Down jumps the boy. (主语是 the boy,所以用 jumps ) Gone are the days. (主语是 the days,所以用 are) 练习1. 在下面句子的主语下面画横线,并说出由什么充当。 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. We often speak English in class. One-third of the students in this class are girls. To swim in the river is a great pleasure. Smoking does harm to the health. The rich should help the poor. When we are going to have English test has not been decided. It is necessary to master a foreign language. That he isn’t at home is not true.

9. The truth is that he has never been abroad. 考点4. 宾语 宾语由名词性的词充当,表示动作的对象或承受者, 一般位于及物动词和介词后面。 宾语分为动词宾语和介词宾语。 练习3. 画出下列句中的宾语, 并说明由什么充当。 1. They planted many trees yesterday. 2. (How many dictionaries do you have?) I have five. 3. They helped the old with their housework yesterday. 4. I wanted to buy a car. 5. I enjoy listening to popular music. 6. I think(that)he is fit for his office. 考点5. 宾语补足语 宾语补足语和宾语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。换句话 说,在意思上,宾语相当于宾补的主语。 带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make 等)+宾语+宾补。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、 不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。 练习4. 用下划线画出下列句中的宾语补足语, 并指出是什么 词充当,同时体会宾补和宾语之间的逻辑关系。 1. His father named him Dongming. 2. They painted their boat white. 3. Let the fresh air in. 4. You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. 5. We saw her entering the room. 6. We found everything in the lab in good order. 7. We will soon make our city what your city is now. 8. I want your homework done on time. 考点6. 主补 对主语的补充。含有宾语补足语的句子在变成被动语 态,宾语作主语时,原来的宾补就成了主语补足语。 He was elected monitor. She was found singing in the next room. He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson. 考点7. 定语 定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或 句子,汉语中常用“……的”表示。定语通常位于被修饰 的成分前。 在英语中, 许多情况下, 定语是放在所修饰词后面的, 这点与汉语习惯不同,也是许多同学不能读懂长句的主要 原因。定语后臵常见的有以下几种情况: A. 副词用作定语一般要后臵。 People there are very friendly. (那儿的人们) He didn’t like the man downstairs. (楼下的那个人) B. 形容词短语作定语一般放在所修饰词之后。 单个形容词作定语一般放在所修饰词之前,而形容词短语 作定语一般放在所修饰词之后。 The next man is a scientist. 3

10. There comes the bus. 11. Beyond the village lies a small village. 12. Now comes your turn. 考点2. 谓语 谓语由动词充当,说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征 和状态。谓语的构成如下: A. 简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如: He practices running every morning. He reads newspapers every day. B. 复合谓语: ① 由情态动词或其他助动词加动词构成。如: You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. My sister is crying over there. I have been waiting for you all the time. I would stay at home all day. Has he come back? He didn’t attend the meeting yesterday. ② 由系动词加表语构成。系动词不能单独作谓语,要和 表语一起作谓语。如: We are students. Your idea sounds great. 考点3. 表语 表语多是形容词, 用以说明主语的身份、 特征和状态, 它一般位于系动词(如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、 数词、不定式、动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。 练习2. 画出下列句中的表语,并说明由什么充当。 1. Our teacher of English is an American. 2. Is it yours? 3. The weather has turned cold. 4. The speech is exciting. 5. Three times seven is twenty-one. 6. His job is to teach English. 7. His hobby(爱好)is playing football. 8. The machine must be under repairs.

The man next to me is a scientist.(我旁边的那个人) C. 介词短语作定语时要后臵。 The boy under the tree is Tom.(树下的那个男孩) The tallest boy in our class is John.(我们班最高的那个男 孩) D. 现在分词短语、过去分词短语、动词不定式作定语常后 臵。 I have something to say. (直译:我有要说的话) The boy crying over there is my classmate. (在那边哭的那个男孩) The house built last year is impressive. (去年建的那座房子) 练习5. 口头翻译下列句子,用下划线标出定语部分,留意 定语的位臵,并说明定语是由什么词性或结构充当。 1. The letter on the desk is for Mr. Wu. 2. The woman with a baby in her arms is his mother. 3. We need a place twice larger than this one. 4. She carried a basket full of eggs. 5. It’s a book worth no more than one dollar. 6. It’s a city far from the coast. 7. He has money enough to buy a car. 8. The man downstairs was trying to sleep. 9. There are lots of places of interest needing repairing in our city. 10. Tigers belonging to meat-eating animals feed on meat. 11. A boy calling himself John wanted to see you. 12. He picked up a wallet lying on the ground on the way back home. 13. There are many clothes to be washed. 14. Most of the singers invited to the party were from America. 15. Then the great day came when he was to march past the palace in the team. 考点8. 状语 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子, 说明动作或状 态特征的句子成分,叫作状语。 He writes carefully. He walks slowly. (认真地写,慢慢地走,修饰动词用副词,作状语) This material is environmentally friendly. (修饰形容词用副词,作状语) He runs very slowly. (修饰副词 slowly, 因此 very 是副词,作状语) Unfortunately, he lost all of his money. (修饰整个句子用副词,作状语) A. 几个并列状语的先后顺序:方式→地点→时间 一个句中有几个并列状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是: 方式→地点→时间。如: I found a lost pen outside our school He was walking slowly moment. yesterday morning. at that outside the park

后写几几年。 I invited him to watch a movie at 5 p.m. on Thursday, August 28th, 2015. I was born at 6 a.m., March 16, 2000. He lives at 1120 Green Street, London. C. 频度副词 often, always, usually, sometimes, never 等在句中 要放在情态动词、系动词、助动词之后, 实义动词之前。 You can never tell what he will do. He is often late. He is always helping others. He often came late. D. 状语按意义分类 在句子成分中,主语、谓语、宾语、定语、表语、补 语都比较好辨认,如果这几个成分都不是,那很可能就是 状语了。因此,状语的种类很多,可以表示时间、地点、 原因、目的、结果、程度、条件、方式和让步等。 练习6. 指出下列画线部分属于什么状语。 1. How about meeting again at six? 2. Mr. Smith lives on the third floor. 3. Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain. 4. She put the eggs into the basket with great care. 5. She came in with a dictionary in her hand. 6. In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder. 7. To make his dream come true, Tom becomes very interested in business. 8. The boy needs a pen very much. 9. The boy really needs a pen. 10. He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. 11. She works very hard though she is old. 12. I am taller than he is. 13. I shall go there if it doesn’t rain. 14. On Sundays, there is no student in the classroom. 15. Having to finish his homework, the boy needs a pen. 考点9. 同位语 同位语是在名词或代词之后的并列名词或代词,对前 者加以说明,近乎于后臵定语。如: We students should study hard. (students 是 we 的同位语, 都是指同一批“学生” ) It’s good to us students. 练习7. 画出下列句中的同位语。 1. 2. 3. The young man, my brother, works in the office. Our English teacher, Mrs. Wang, often helps us with study. They, some railway workers, are busy repairing the train.

B. 英语中时间状语、地点状语的排列一般是从小到大 先写时间,再写上/下午,再写星期几,再写几月几号。最 4

I.

单句改错

our life and work, in the future) B. 用形容词作后臵定语。 15. 你认识 Tom 旁边的那个人吗?(know, next to) 16. 尽早把他送到距你家最近的医院。 (send…to, nearest to, as soon as possible) 17. 我们有一个能容下 3000 学生用餐的餐厅。 (dining hall, large enough, hold) C. 注意状语的顺序。 18. 那时他正在教室内认真地写作业。 (do his homework, in the classroom, carefully, at that moment) 19. 上周日我们在校园内栽了很多树。 (plant lots of trees, in the schoolyard) 20. 他 昨 天 在 演 讲 比 赛 中 表 现 得 异 常 优 秀 。 ( perform incredibly well, speech contest) D. 注意频度副词的位臵。 21. 我永远不会忘记他那天对我讲的话。 (will, forget, what he told me, never) 22. 我经常去那家超市。 (frequently, the supermarket) 23. 他总是帮助别人。 (always, helping) 24. 我们什么时候都不能那样对待老人。 (never, treat an old man like that, should) 25. 活到老,学到老。 (one, never, too old to learn)

根据所学主语相关内容,改正下列句中的错误。 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Beyond the mountains lie a small village. Gone is the days when I had to go to school on foot. Play basketball is my favorite sport. Give up English is not an option.
[来源:学科网 ]

[来源:学+科+网 Z+X+X+K]

By doing part-time jobs can help them gain social experience. Without a friend will feel lonely. They planned______(take) two days off next week. He practiced ______ (speak) English every day. Here ______(be) your books.

II. 语法填空(每空至多填三词)

10. On the wall ______ (hang) two pictures. III. 写作技能提升 A. 注意句子主语的形式。 11. 在我看来,早睡早起将对我们的健康有好处。 (in my opinion, get up early, go to bed early, do a lot of good to, our health) 12. 他这次考试不及格使他不高兴。 ( he failed the exam, make, upset) 13. 在那两座高楼之间,矗立着我们教学楼。 (between the two tall buildings, stand, teaching building) 14. 我们现在正在学的知识对我们将来的生活和工作都很 有帮助。 (what we are learning now, be of great help to,

第3讲 简单句的五种基本结构
宾语(object) 状语 (adverbial) 表语(predicative) 定语(attribute) 补语(complement)

正确的英语句子都要符合一定的语法结构要求。英语 句子的结构可以归纳成五种基本句型。英语句子都可以看 作是这五种句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装构成的。掌 握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础,也 是学好其他语法知识的前提。 英语五种基本句型结构如下:

考点1. 基本句型一:S V (主+谓) 这类句子的谓语动词都是不及物动词,都不带宾语, 但可以带状语。如: It is raining now. (S V) We’ve worked for 5 hours. (S V) The meeting lasted half an hour. (S V) Time flies. (S V) 练习1. 分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种 基本句型中的哪一种。 1. Dark clo uds hung overhead. ( He is smiling all over his face. ( I did well in English. ( ) ) ) ) ) 2. 3. 4. 5. Gradually a smile appeared on her face. (

主语 谓语

用符号表示为: ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ S S S S S V V V V V (主+谓) O (主+谓+宾) o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) P (主+系+表) 谓语(predicate) 5

He talked loudly in the classroom yesterday. (

考点2. 基本句型三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 此结构是由“主语+及物动词(词组)+宾语”构成。

主语(subject)

She likes English. We planted a lot of trees on the farm yesterday.

宾语和宾语补足语构成逻辑上的主谓关系,它们一起 构成复合宾语。 看下面这句话: He asked me to lend him some money. 他让我借给他一些钱。 “me”是宾语, “to lend him some money”是宾补, 宾语和宾补合一起意思为 “我借给他一些钱” 。 从意思上看, 这像一句话, “我”是主语, “借给他一些钱”是谓语部分, 但在英语原句中,它们却不是真正的主谓关系,而是逻辑 上的“主谓关系” ,即:从意思上看像主谓关系,而实际上 不是。 练习4. 判断下列句中画线部分是否是宾语补足语。 (是的填 T,不是的填 F) 1. I want him to come at once. ( 2. He lent me some money. ( ) ) )

练习2. 分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种 基本句型中的哪一种。 1. People all over the world speak English. 2. Jim cannot dress himself. 3. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. 4. He did not know what to say. 5. He just wanted to stay at home. 6. He practices speaking English every day. 考点3. 基本句型四:SVoO(主+谓+间宾 +直宾) 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give“给” ,pass “递” ,bring“带” ,show“展示” 。这两个宾语通常一个 指人,为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一 般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。 如:He gave me a cup of tea. (S V o O) She bought me some books. (S V o O) 若直接宾语为人称代词,通常不能放在后面。如: 不能说 Bring me it, please.而要说 Bring it to me, please. 有时候为了强调间接宾语,把间接宾语放到后面,于是就 构成了: 动词 + 直接宾语 + 介词(to 或 for)+ 间接宾语。 He gave a cup of tea to me. She bought some books for me. Show this house to Mr. Smith. 常跟双宾语的及物动词有: 间接宾语放后面时前面要加 to 的动词:allow, bring, deny, give, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, sell, send, show, teach, tell, wish, write 等。 间接宾语放后面时前面要加 for 的动词:buy, choose, fetch, get, make, order, paint, play(演奏), save, sing, spare 等。 一般用 to 多些,用 for 的记住常用的三个就行:get, buy, make。 He got an English-Chinese Dictionary for me. She bought a book for John. My uncle made a kite for me. 练习3. 分析下列句子成分,口头说出间接宾语和直接宾 语。 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. She ordered herself a new dress. She cooked her husband a delicious meal. He brought you a dictionary. He denies her nothing. I showed him my pictures. I gave my car a wash. I told him that the bus was late. He showed me how to run the machine.

3. He made the boy cry again. ( ) 4. The teacher found him cheating in the exam. ( 5. Don’t leave the door open at night. ( ) 练习5. 分析下列句子并划分成分,在后面的括号内标明是 什么充当句子的宾语补足语。 1. They appointed him manager. ( ) 2. They painted the door green. ( ) 3. He pushed the door open. ( ) 4. They found the house deserted. ( ) 5. What makes him think so? ( ) 6. We saw him out. ( ) 7. He asked me to come back soon. ( ) 8. I saw them getting on the bus. ( ) 9. We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. ( 10. I’ll have my bike repaired. ( ) 11. We elected him monitor. ( ) 12. Don’t keep the lights burning. ( ) 考点5. 基本句型二: S V P (主+系+表) 系动词主要是 be; 但还有一些实义动词候有时候也可 作系动词,这类系动词有人称之为半系动词。 A. 如何辨别系动词 有些动词既可作连系动词,又可以作实义动词。如何 来辨别呢?有一个最简便的方法,即用连系动词 be 替换 句子中的这些动词, 句子仍然成立且句意变化不大就是连 系动词;反之,不能替换的,就是实义动词。如: ① She looks beautiful. (looks变为is之后,她是美丽的,句 意没有大的变化,looks是系动词。) Look at the picture.(look不能换为be, 为实义动词。) ② He felt the book with his right hand.(feel是 “摸” 的意思, 不能换为was, 是实义动词。) The silk feels soft.(这种丝绸摸起来很柔软, feels换为is 之后,句意变化不大,因此是系动词。) 可以看出:半系动词后面大部分情况跟形容词作表语。 练习6. 辨别下列斜体动词是系动词还是实义动词。 1. The door stays open at night. 2. He tasted the food, and the food tasted delicious. 3. The book still lies open on the desk. 6



考点4. 基本句型五:SVOC (主+谓+宾+宾补) 有些动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能 表达完整的意思,宾语后必须加上一个补充成分才能使意 思完整。所加的成分就是宾语补足语。

4. What he said proved true. 5. He can’t proved his theory(理论). B. 常见的系动词 i 状态系动词 用来表示主语状态,只有be一词。如: He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。 持续系动词 用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度, 主要有keep, remain, stay, lie, stand。如: He kept silent at the meeting. 他开会时保持沉默。 This matter remains a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。 The food stays fresh in the fridge. 食物在冰箱里仍然很新鲜。 The house stood empty for years.房子空了数年。 He lies awake in bed.他躺在床上,醒着。

9. Trees turn green in spring. 10. What you said sounds great. C. 系动词不能单独作谓语,要和表语一起作谓语 He is a student. (S V P) Your idea sounds great. (S V P) D. 在一个英语单句中,一般情况要有谓语动词 要注意:介词短语和形容词不能单独作谓语,要和系 动词一起作谓语。 改错: ① Our school very beautiful and we like it very much. ② Your book on the desk. 答案及解析: Our school is very beautiful and we like it very much. (句中 没有谓语动词) Your book is on the desk.(句中没有谓语动词) 考点6. there be 句型 此句型是由“there + be + 主语 + 状语”构成,用以 表达“存在有” 。它其实是倒装的一种情况,实义主语位 于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词(也有看作形式 主语的) ,并无实际意义。 A. be 要与其后的主语在人称和数上保持一致, 如果 be 后实 义主语是多个并列项时,要按就近一致原则,与第一项 保持一致。 There is a bird in the tree. (主语 a bird 是单数,所以用 there is) There are many apples on the tree. (主语 many apples 是复数,所以用 there are) There is a pencil and two rulers on the desk. (第一项是 a pencil,单数,所以用 there is) There are two rulers and a pencil on the desk. (第一项是 two rulers,复数,所以用 there are) B. 可用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive 等词 代替 be 动词。 此时还表示“存在有” ,但表意要 更具体一些。如: There lived an old man at the foot of the mountain. 在山脚下住着一位老人。 (不但“有” ,而且“住”在那里。 ) There exists no air on the moon. 月球上没有空气。 (exist 是“存在”的意思) There lies a book on the desk. 课桌上平放着一本书。 (不但“有” ,而且说明书是“平放”在那里。 ) There stands a tree on the hill. 山上矗立着一棵树。 (不但说明“有”树,而且说明了“树”很挺拔。 ) ① ______ a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of the work. A. It existed B. There existed C. They had D. There had ② ______ a beautiful palace ______ the foot of the hill. A. There stand; at B. There stands; under C. Stands there; under D. There stands; at 答案:B, D 7

ii

iii 表“像”系动词 用来表示“看起来像”这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look。如: Something seems wrong. 好像出差错了。 He appears young. 他看起来很年轻。 iv 感官系动词 感官系动词主要有look “看起来” , feel “摸起来” , smell “闻起来”, sound“听起来”, taste“尝起来” 。 This kind of cloth feels very soft. 这种布手感很软。 This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。 v 变化系动词 这些系动词表示主语变成什么样。变化系动词主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run。 He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。 She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。 He fell ill yesterday.他昨天病了。 Eggs go bad easily in summer. 蛋夏天容易变坏。 His face went red.他的脸变红了。 What he had dreamt of came true. 他的梦想实现了。 Still waters run deep.静水流深。

vi 终止系动词 表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达“证 实” , “变成”之意。如: The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。 His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。 (turn out表终止性结果) What he predicted turned out (to be) wrong. 他预言的结果是错的。 练习7. 用下划线画出下列句中的系动词。 1. His advice proved right. 2. The shop stays open till 8 o’clock. 3. The machine went wrong. 4. All these efforts seem in vain. 5. These words sound reasonable. 6. The room soon became crowded. 7. The days are getting longer and longer. 8. He fell ill yesterday.

C. there seem/ happen/ used to be 及 there live/ lie/ stand 句型 的否定句和疑问句的变法。 根据汉语提示完成句子: ①. 下周将有两场会,不是吗? There ______ going to be two meetings next week, ______ there? ②. 不会再有流血冲突,是吗? There will be no blood, ______there? ③. 似乎出了问题,不是吗? There seems to be something wrong, ______ there? ④. 似乎有误解,是吗? There appeared to be a misunderstanding, ______ there? ⑤. 碰巧那时附近有辆公交车。 There ______ (happen) to be a bus nearby at that time. ⑥. 过去这里有条小河,不是吗? There used to be a river here, ______ there? ⑦. 过去这个森林里生活着一只老虎,不是吗? There lived a tiger in the forest, ______ there? 答案:① are; aren’t ② won’t ③ doesn’t ④ didn’t ⑤ happened ⑥ didn’t/usedn’t ⑦ didn’t D. there be 与 have 的区别 there be …“某地有某物,某时有某事” ;have 表示 “某人拥有某物” 。 改错: ① There has a book on the desk. ② There will have a meeting this evening. 答案:①把 has 改为 is; ②把 have 改为 be。 提示:没有 there have 这种表示“有”的方法。 考点7. 双重谓语(仅供了解) 典型例句: ① He left this morning very gay. ② She left a shy girl and returned a young mother. 分析:双重谓语的基本形式是:行为动词 +表语,后面的 名词或形容词说明主语从事该行为时所处的状态。 用作 双重谓语的动词多为那些表示位臵移动变化的行为动 词,如 return,leave,go,come,arrive,start 等。 句①意为:上午离开时,他很开心。 句②意为:她离开时还是一个害羞的女孩,回来时却是 一位年轻的母亲。

5. 6.

【2013 四川】I’m sorry that I am abroad and can’t send your flowers, so I’m writing to you. 【2008 安徽】We thought the biscuits were great. “Let’s got some more,” I said, “They’re cheap and they really taste well.” (两处错误) Others, however, against staying at home. Exams should neither too difficult nor too easy. There are many taxi drivers are women.(可改多处)

7. 8. 9.

10. There has a big tree in front of our school. 11. They often lonely. 12. Eggs go badly easily in summer. II. 语法填空(每空至多填三词) 13. There ______ (exist) many problems with the project. 14. There ______ (be) going to be three meetings tomorrow. 15. The shop stays ______ (open) at night. 16. My mother bought a birthday cake ______ me. 17. There happened to ______ a bird flying above. 18. There ______ (lie) a swimming pool over there. 19. 【2014 湖北】The Public Square is an eye-catching sight of the city. There______(stand) many stone sculptures of famous historical figures. III. 写作技能提升 A. 不要忘了使用系动词。 20. 那食物很可口,我吃了很多。 (the food, delicious) 21. 那个电影好极了。 (the movie, fantastic) 22. 不过呢,一些人反对这个计划。 (however, against, the plan) 23. 他们的意见如下。 (their opinion, as follows) 24. 就我而言, 我赞成这个主意。 (as far as I’m concerned, in favor of) B. 活用双宾语句式,用两种方法翻译下列句子。 25. 他给我提了一些建议。 (offer, some advice) 26. 我欠他很多钱。 (owe) 27. 在我生日那天, 母亲给我买了一件很特别的礼物。 (buy, a special gift) 28. 他给我做了一个纸飞机。 (make, paper plane) 29. 他给我们读了一个有趣的故事。 ( read, an interesting story) 30. 他的叔叔留给他很多钱。 (leave, a lot of money) 31. 他让我们看了一张世界地图。 (show)

I. 1.

单句改错 【2007 辽宁】 Three plates were already on the table when the man closest to me pointing to one plate and asked me the name of the fish on it. 【2005 全国Ⅰ】For the most part, students working to earn money for their own use. 【2014 大纲卷】 So real friendship should able to stand all sorts of tests. 【2008 天津】I felt sadly. I learnt a lesson from this experience.

32. 请把熊猫的照片寄给我一张。 ( send, a photo of the panda) C. 正确利用两个“有”there be 与 have 33. 我有许多好朋友。 34. 今天晚上将有一场电影。 35. 公园内有许多人。 36. 树上有许多小鸟。 37. 一条狗有四条腿和一条尾巴。

2. 3. 4.

8

第4讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

9

同理,句②修改后,前面分别为原因状语从句和时 间状语从句,后面是主句。 句子按结构可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。 考点1. 简单句 只有一个主语 (或并列主语 )和一个谓语 (或并列谓语 )。 如: He often reads English in the morning. Tom and Mike are American boys. She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers. (画线部分为并列谓语,只有一个主语,仍为简单句。) 改错: It not only costs little money but also comfortable. 答案与解析:第一个谓语是实义动词,第二个是系表结 构,应带 be,因此要在 also 前加 is。 考点2. 并列句(参看 P.错误!未定义书签。错误!未找到 引用源。) 改错: ①. He likes English, his English is very good. × ②. His wife was ill, he had to stay at home. × 当一个句子中含有两个简单句时,就要考虑两个简 单句的连接问题了。直接用逗号连接两个简单句是错误 的。 这时我们可以用 and, but, or 等并列连词来连接这两 个句子;也可以用分号(;)来连接。此时,这两个简单 句(此时也可称作分句)之间是并列关系,不能说一个 分句作了另一个分句的什么成分。 用并列连词或分号连接起来的句子是并列句。 上两句可以改为: ①. He likes English; his English is very good. (用分号连接) He likes English, so/and his English is very good. ②. His wife was ill; he had to stay at home. (用分号连接) His wife was ill, so/and he had to stay at home. 考点3. 复合句 A. 用从属连词连接的句子是复合句。 还先看上面的两个错句: ①. He likes English, his English is very good. × ②. His wife was ill, he had to stay at home. × 我们还可以用从属连词来连接。这两句话可改为: ①. Because he likes English, his qq 329950885 English is very good. When he likes English, his English is very good. ②. Because his wife was ill, he had to stay at home. When his wife was ill, he had to stay at home. 先看第一个句子。当用 because 连接时,译为“因为 他喜欢英语,(所以)他的英语非常好”。主要说的是 “他的英语非常好”,“他喜欢英语”是他英语好的原 因。因此:“his English is very good”是主句,“because he likes English” 是原因状语从句。 当用 when 连接时,译为“当他喜欢英语时,他的英 语非常好”。 主要说的是“他的英语非常好”,“他喜 欢英语”是他英语好的时间。因此,“his English is very good”是主句,“when he likes English” 是时间状语从句。 10 像上面这样,用从属连词连接两个简单句之后,一 个句子是主要的(主句),另外一个句子(从句)是说 明主要句子发生的时间、原因、条件等,这样构成的句 子称为复合句。 B. 当简单句的一个成分从词或词组变为句子时,整个句 子就成为复合句了。从词或词组升级后的句子是从句 ,除从句以外的是主句,整个句子是复合句。 ① The boy over there is my brother. (只有一个主谓结构, 是简单句。 ) The boy who is wearing a hat is my brother. (当 over there 变为 who is wearing a hat 时, 句子就含 有两个主谓结构,一个是 The boy is my brother,是主 句;who is wearing a hat 是 the boy 的定语,称为定语 从句。who 既作从句成分,又起着从属连词的作用。 ) ② I was doing my homework at six. (只有一个主谓结构, 是简单句。 ) I was doing my homework when he came in. (I was doing my homework 是一个主谓结构,he came in 也是一个主谓结构。后面一个主谓结构作前一个的 时间状语, 是时间状语从句。 因此本句是复合句, when 是从属连词。 ) ③ It is wrong. (只有一个主谓结构,是简单句。 ) What he said is wrong. (what he said, 是一个主谓结构。 What he said is wrong. 是另外一个主谓结构,What he said 作主语, is wrong 系表结构作谓语,因此,本句是复合句。What he said 是主语从句;what 既作从句成分又起着从属连词的作 用) 从上面这几个句子,我们可以看出: C. 一个句子如果含有从句,如名词性从句(主语从句、 宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)、定语从句和状 语从句等,这个句子就是复合句。 练习1. 判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句。

1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. 2. The boy who offer ed me his seat is called Tom. 3. There is a chair in this room, isn’t there? 4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. 5. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two. 6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child. 7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so. 8. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it? 9. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree. 10. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 11. Right now it is the summer vacation and I’m helping my Dad on the farm. 12. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. 13. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. 14. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. 15. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him.

考点4. 引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句 子结构和句意来判别 练习2. 说出下列复合句中,where 引导的是什么从句。 ) ) ) ) )

注意: 有时 so, but 和 and 等词可以用在第一个分句句 首,实际上是和前面所说的相联系,而不是连接后一个分 句。如: So if you don’t like it, you can give up. 因此,如果你不喜欢,你可以放弃。 And when they get there, General Forrest will take care of them. 而且他们一到那里, 福雷斯特将军就会好好处理他们. 练习3. 利用英语句子结构规律做下列各题。

1. You can find it where you left it.( 2. Tell me the address where he lives.( 3. I don’t know where he comes from.( 4. Where he was born is not known yet.( 5. This place is where they once lived.(

考点5. 一个句子有两个主谓结构时,要考虑它们之间的连 接问题 直接用逗号连接的两个简单句是错误的。 一个句子如 果出现两个主谓结构,那它就不是简单句了,要么是并列 句,要么是复合句。这时我们就要考虑连接词的问题。这 时,我们有三种方法来改正这个错句: A. 改为并列句:我们可以使用 and, so, but 等并列连词来 把它们连接起来;或者把逗号改为分号。 B. 改为复合句:加上从属连词,把其中的一个分句改为 状语从句、定语从句或名词性从句。 C. 改为简单句:qq 329950885 把其中的一个主谓结构的 谓语破坏掉, 从而使其变成独立主格结构。 (参看 P. 错 误!未定义书签。 ) I like English, my English is very good. × 可以改为: 并列句: I like English and my English is very good. I like English, so my English is very good. I like English; my English is very good. 复合句: As/Because I like English, my English is very good. (含有原因状语从句的复合句) When I like English, my English is very good. (含有时间状语从句的复合句) 简单句: I liking English, my English is very good. (把一个分句改为独立主格结构) 再如:I have a house, its windows are very big. × 可以改为: 并列句: I hav e a house and/but its windows are very big. I have a house; its windows are very big. 复合句: I have a house, whose windows are very big. (含有定语从句的复合句) 简单句: I have a house, its windows very big. (后面为独立主格结构) 考点6. 两个分句一般只用一个连词 用了“因为(because, as, since 等)”不用“所以(so)”; 用了“虽然(although, though)”不用“但是(but)”。 改错: Because I like English, so I am good at it. Although he is not intelligent, but he does well in all his subjects. 答案: 第一句去 so;第二句去 but。 11

1. Five people won the “China’s green figure” award, a title ______ to ordinary people for their contributions to environmental protection. A. is given B. was given C. being given D. given 2. All the preparations for the task ______, and we’re ready to start. A. completed B. complete C. had been completed D. have been completed 3. 【2006 辽宁】 I was told that there were about 50 foreign students ______ Chinese in the school, most ______ were from Germany. A. study; of whom B. study; of them C. studying; of them D. studying; of whom 4. Everywhere you can see people in their holiday dress, ______ with smiles. A. their faces are shining B. whose faces shining C. their faces shining D. faces shining whose 5. Many students ______ around, I explained the story into details. A. stood B. standing C. to stand D. were standing 6. I have five friends, some of ______ are businessmen. A. that B. whom C. they D. them 7. I have five friends, but none of ______ are businessmen. A. that B. whom C. they D. them 8. 【2013 上海】________ at the photos, illustrations, title and headings and you can guess what the reading is about. A. To look B. Looking C. Having looked D. Look

I.

单句改错

A. 注意分句连接 1. 【2014 新课标Ⅰ】 Although we allow tomato plants to grow in the same place year after year, but we have never had any disease or insect attack problems. 2. 【2005 天津】 As she gave it to me, when the phone rang and she went to answer it. 3. 【2006 全国Ⅰ】They did not want breakfast because that they were going out early in the morning. 4. 【2004 全国Ⅱ】But I have spent most my money, so I cannot even go out of town. (不要受心理定势影响) 5. 【2013 辽宁】With little sleep and hardly any break, so he works from morning till night.

6. 【2013 新课标Ⅰ】He had a deep voice, which set him apart from others in our small town, he was strong and powerful. 7. 【2009 陕西】 Some friends of his go to see him everyday, they take him lots of good books and fresh fruit. 8. My name is Zhang Hong, and 20 years old. B. 注意并列成分 9. 【2014 大纲卷】The understanding between two friends means both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other. 10. 【2014 新课标Ⅱ】We can lie on the grass for a rest, or sat by the lake listening to music. 11. 【2005 湖北】In other words, they help to keep people strong and feel good. 12. 【2009 重庆】However, every kind of Chinese food is worth trying, because each has a delicious taste and good for health. 13. I didn’t communicate with others in English and not willing to practice it either. 14. 【2012 全国大纲Ⅰ】For example, qq 329950885how many times have you walked out of a room and leave the lights or television on when no one else was there? 15. 【2008 浙江】I headed for the company, feeling sure I would easily finish 300 envelops in five hours and to earn the money. 16. 【2015 课标Ⅱ】A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside a shop. II. 语法填空(每空至多填三词)

(由高考真题中改错题改编) 17. 【2004 天津】At weekends, we would play basketball, ______(游泳) in the pool or go for a picnic. 18. 【 2004 全国 Ⅱ 】 I am thinking of making a trip to London, and ______(visit)the British Museum and some parks. 19. 【2004 湖南】Then, I put my book under my desk, ______ (open) it and started looking for the answers. 20. 【2004 福建】 She stopped to look out of the window and ______ (find) a cloud of smoke coming out of her neighbor’s house. 21. 【2005 浙江】At first I was not quite willing to sit down and ______ (观看) the 90-minute football match. 22. 【2011 浙江】I guessed, even at that age, I would never be able to enjoy playing with the toy or ______ (面对) my cousin again. III. 写作技能提升 23. 非常感谢你,你不仅给了我生命,而且教我如何做一 个好人。 (thank you very much for, not only, but also) 24. 我特别喜欢坐在你身旁,听你讲故事。 ( particularly enjoy, tell stories) 25. 在过去, 我们不得不静静地坐在桌旁, 听老师讲。 (had to, in silence, pay attention to, what)

26. 我仍然记得那天很早就起床,对那个新世界感到忧
虑。 (remember, feel anxious about the new world) 27. 我 梦 想 站 在 教 室 的 讲 台 上 , 给 可 爱 的 孩 子 上 课 。 (dream of, platform, give lessons to)

12

答案

第一章 句子结构及成分
第1讲 练习1. 相关概念 指出下列句中画线动词是及物动词还是不及物动 词,及物动词填 vt.,不及物填 vi.。 1.vi. 2. vt. 3. vi. 4. vi. 5. vt. 6. vi. 7. vi. 8. vt.;vt. 9. vt. 10. vi. 1.去掉 of 3. replied 后加 to 5. 去掉 into 2. 在 think 后加 of 4. insisted 后加 on 6. 去掉 with 4. The speech is exciting.(分词/形容词,这样的分词已形 容词化了) 5. Three times seven is twenty-one.(数词) 6. His job is to teach English.(不定式) 7. His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) 8. The machine must be under repairs.(介词短语) 练习2. 9. The truth is that he has never been abroad.(从句) 练习3. 画出下列句中的宾语, 并说明由什么充当。

练习3.

指出下列斜体单词是实义动词还是助动词。 1. 助动词 实义动词 2. 助动词 实义动词 3. 助动词 实义动词 4. 实义动词 5. 助动词 实义动词 6. 助动词 助动词 实义动词 7. 助动词 助动词 实义动词 8. 助动词 实义动词 句子成分

1. They planed many trees yesterday.(名词) 2. (How many dictionaries do you have?) I have five.(数 词)

3. They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名 词化形容词) 4. I wanted to buy a car.(不定式短语) 5. I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) 6. I think that he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) 练习4. 用下划线画出下列句中的宾语补足语,并指出是什 么词充当。

第2讲

练习1. 在下面句子的主语下面画横线,并说出由什么充 当。 1. During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) 2. We often speak English in class.(代词) 3. One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) 4. To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式短语) 5. Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) 6. The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) 7. When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) 8. It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it 作形式 主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式) 9. That he isn’t at home is not true. (主语从句, that 不能 省略) 10. There comes the bus. (副词不能作主语, 本句为倒装句, 名词 the bus 作主语) 11. Beyond the village lies a small village. (介词短语不能作 主语,主语是后面的名词短语) 12. Now comes your turn. (副词不能作主语, 主语是后面 的名词) 练习2. 画出下列句中的表语,并说明由什么充当。

1. His father named him Dongming.(名词) 2. They painted their boat white.(形容词) 3. Let the fresh air in.(副词) 4. You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you (不定式 . 短语) 5. We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) 6. We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短 语) 7. We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从 句) 8. I want your homework done on time.(过去分词短语) 练习5. 口头翻译下列句子,用下划线标出定语部分,留意 定语的位臵,并说明定语是由什么词性或结构充 当。

1. The letter on the desk is for Mr. Wu. 桌子上的那封信是给吴先生的。 (介词短语作后臵定 语) 2. The woman with a baby in her arms is his mother . 怀里抱婴儿的那个妇女是他的母亲。 (with 的复合结构 作后臵定语) 3. We need a place twice larger than this one. 我们需要一个比这个地方大两倍的地方。 (形容词短语 作后臵定语) 4. She carried a basket full of eggs. 她提着一个装满鸡蛋的篮子。 (形容词短语作后臵定 语) 13

1. Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) 2. Is it yours?(代词) 3. The weather has turned cold.(形容词)

答案与解析 5. It’s a book worth no more than one dollar. 那是一本仅值一美元的书。 (形容词短语作后臵定语) 6. It’s a city far from the coast. 它是一座距海岸很远的城市。 (形容词短语作后臵定 语) 7. He has money enough to buy a car. 他有足够能买一辆车的钱。 (形容词短语作后臵定语) 8. The man downstairs was trying to sleep. 楼下的那个人正在尽力睡觉。 (副词作后臵定语) 9. There are lots of places of interest needing repairing in our city. 在我们城市有许多需要维修的名胜。 (现在分词短语作 后臵定语) 10. Tigers belonging to meat-eating animals feed on meat. 属于食肉动物的老虎以肉为食。 (现在分词短语作后臵 定语) 11. A boy calling himself John wanted to see you. 一个自称为 John 的男孩想见你。 (现在分词短语作后 臵定语) 12. He picked up a wallet lying on the ground on the way back home. 在回家的路上,他捡起一个躺在路上的钱包。(现在 分词短语作后臵定语;副词短语作后臵定语) 13. There are many clothes to be washed. 有许多要洗的衣服。意译为:有许多衣服要洗。 (动词 不定式短语作后臵定语) 14. Most of the singers invited to the party were from America. 大多数被邀请参加派对的歌手都来自美国。 (过去分词 短语作后臵定语) 15. Then the great day came when he was to march past the palace in the team. 接着,他要列队游行经过宫殿的那一天到了。(定语 从句修饰 the great day) 练习6. 指出下列画线部分属于什么状语。 2. 地点状语 5. 伴随状语 8. 程度状语 3. 原因状语 6. 目的状语 9. 程度状语 练习1. 分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种 基本句型中的哪一种。 5. 去掉 By,doing 改为 Doing; 介词短语不能作主语。 6. will 前加 we。介词短语不能作主语。 7. to take; plan 后跟动词不定式作宾语。 8. speaking;practice 后跟动名词作宾语。 9. are;副词 here 不能作主语,主语是后面的 books。 10. hang; 介词短语不能作主语, 倒装句, 主语是 pictures。 11. In my opinion, getting up early and going to bed early will do a lot of good to our health. 12. That he failed the exam made him upset. 13. Between the two tall buildings stands our teaching building. 14. What w e are learning now will be of great help to our life and work in the future. 15. Do you know the man next to Tom? 16. Please send him to the hospital nearest to your home as soon as possible. 17. We have a dining hall large enough to hold 3, 000 students. 18. He was doing his homework carefully in the classroom at that moment. 19. We planted many trees in our schoolyard last Sunday. 20. He performed incredibly well in the speech contest yesterday. 21. I will never forget what he told me that day. 22. I frequently go to the supermarket. /I go to the supermarket frequently. 23. He is always helping others. 24. We should never treat an old man like that.

25. One is never too old to learn.
第3讲 简单句的五种基本结构

1. 时间状语 4. 方式状语 7. 目的状语 10. 结果状语 13. 条件状语 15. 原因状语 练习7. 1.

11. 让步状语 12. 比较状语 14. 时间状语;地点状语

1. Dark clouds hung overhead.(SV) 2. Gradually a smile appeared on her face. (SV) 3. He is smiling all over his face. (SV) 4. I did well in English. (SV) 5. He talked loudly in the classroom yesterday. (SV) 练习2. 分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种 基本句型中的哪一种。

画出下列句中的同位语。

The young man, my brother, works in the office.

2. Our English teacher, Mrs Wang often helps us with study. 3. They, some railway workers, are busy repairing the train.

1. People all over the world sp eak English. (SVO) 2. Jim cannot dress himself. (SVO) 3. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. (SVO)

1. 把 lie 改为 lies; 介词短语不能作主语,主语是后面的 a small village。 2. 把 is 改为 are;句子的主语是 the days。 3. Play 改为 Playing;在这里指经常打篮球,要用动名词 作主语。 4. Give 改为 To give;在做决定时,放弃英语不是一个选 择。give up 指具体的某一次。 14

4. He did not know what to say. (SVO) 5. He just wanted to stay at home. (SVO) 6. He practices speaking English every day. (SVO) 练习3. 分析下列句子成分,口头说出间接宾语和直接宾 语。

1. She ordered herself a new dress. (SvoO)

答案与解析 2. She cooked her husband a delicious meal. (SvoO) 3. He brought you a dictionary. (SvoO) 4. He denies her nothing. (SvoO) 5. I showed him my pictures. (SvoO) 6. I gave my car a wash. (SvoO) 7. I told him that the bus was late. (SvoO) 8. He showed me how to run the machine. (SvoO) 练习4. 1. 练习5. 判断下列句中画线部分是否是宾语补足语。 T 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. T 为 good,taste 这里是系动词,后跟形容词作表语。 7. against 前面加 are;against 是介词,不能作谓语。 8. 在 should 后加 be;形容词不能单独作谓语。 9. 去掉 There are, many 改为大写;一个主谓结构不能有 两个谓语。 10. has 改为 is;存在有用 there be 句型。 11. 在 often 前加 are;形容词不能单独作谓语。 12. badly 改为 bad;go 是系动词,后跟形容词作表语。 13. exist;后面实义主语是复数。 14. are;后面 three meetings 是复数。 15. open;stay 是系动词“仍然处于” ,后跟形容词作表语。 16. for;buy sth. for sb. 17. be;there happen to be,碰巧有。 18. lies;后面是单数。 19. stand;主谓一致看后面名词。 20. The food was delicious and I ate a lot. 21. The movie is fantastic. 22. However, some people are against the plan. 23. Their opinions are as follows. 24. As far as I’m concerned, I am in favor of the plan. 25. He offered me some advice. /He offered some advice to me. 26. I owe him a lot of money. /I owe a lot of money to him. 27. My mother bought me a special gift on my birthday. /My mother bought a special gift for me on my birthday. 28. He made me a paper plane. /He made a paper plane for me. 29. He read us an interesting story. /He read an interesting story to us. 30. His uncle left him a lot of money. /His uncle left a lot of money to him. 31. He showed us a map of the world. /He showed a map of the world to us. 32. Please send me a photo of the panda. /Please send a photo of the panda to me. 33. I have many friends. 34. There is going to be a film tonight. 35. There are a lot of people in the park. 36. There are lots of birds in the tree. 37. A dog has four legs and a tail. 第4讲 1. pointing 改为 pointed; closest to me 是形容词短语作 the man 的后臵定语,pointed 在这里是谓语。 2. working 改为 work;work 是谓语,后面是目的状语。 3. 在 able 前加 be;should 后跟动词原形,而 able 是形容 词,需要和 be 连用。 4. sadly 改为 sad;feel 是系动词,后跟形容词作表语。 5. you 改为 your;you“你” ,your“你的” ;send 后跟双 宾语。 6. got 改为 get, 这里是省略 to 的不定式作宾补;well 改 练习1. 判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句。 1. 简单句。 2. 复合句, The boy is called Tom 是一个主谓结构,who offered me his seat 也是一个主谓结构,为定语从句, 作前一个主谓结构中主语 the boy 的定语。 3. 简单句,反义疑问句。 4. 简单句,my brother and I 是并列主语,后面 go to school 和 come back 为并列谓语,因此也只有一个主 谓结构。
[来源 :学,科 ,网 Z,X,X,K]

分析下列句子并划分成分,在后面的括号内标明是 什么充当句子的宾语补足语。

1. They appointed him manager. (名词) 2. They painted the door green. (形容词) 3. He pushed the door open. (形容词) 4. They found the house deserted. (形容词) 5. What makes him think so? (省略 to 的不定式) 6. We saw him out. (副词) 7. He asked me to come back soon. (动词不定式) 8. I saw them getting on the bus. (现在分词 ) 9. We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here.(名词) 10. I’ll have my bike repaired. (过去分词 ) 11. We elected him monitor. (名词 ) 12. Don’t keep the lights burning. (现在分词) 练习6. 辨别下列斜体动词是系动词还是实义动词。 2. 实义动词;连系动词 5.实义动词 3.连系动词

1.系动词 4. 连系动词 练习7.

用下划线画出下列句中的系动词。

1. His advice proved right. 2. The shop stays open till 8 o’clock. 3. The machine went wrong. 4. All these efforts seem in vain. 5. These words sound reasonable. 6. The room soon became crowded. 7. The days are getting longer and longer. 8. He fell ill yesterday. 9. Trees turn green in spring. 10. What you said sounds great.

简单句、并列句和复合句

15

答案与解析 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 并列句。 含有时间状语从句的复合句。 并列句。 复合句,what he said 也是一个主谓结构,名词性从句 作主语。 简单句,只有一个主谓结构。 简单句,前面为并列主语。 and 连接的并列句。 由 so 连接的并列句。 简单句。 but 连接前后为并列句,但后面又是一个含有定语从 句的复合句。 含有让步状语从句的复合句。 说出下列复合句中,where 引导的是什么从句。
[来源 :Zxxk.Com]

7. they 前加 and; 两个简单句直接用逗号连接是错误的。 8. and 后加 I’m;20 years old 的主语不是 My name。 9. trusting 改为 trust;trust 和 have 是并列的。 10. sat 改为 sit;sit 和 lie 构成并列谓语。 11. feel 改为 feeling;feeling good 和 strong 是并列的,都 是作 keep 的补语。keep 后跟现在分词作补语。 12. good 前加 is; 后句中 each 是主语, has a delicious taste 是第一个谓语,is good for health 是第二个谓语。 13. 在 not 前加 were;wi lling 是形容词,前面加 be 才能 作谓语。 14. leave 改为 left;left 和 walked 是并列的。 15. 去 to;earn 和 finish 是并列的,所以要用动词原形。 16. telling 改为 told; told 和 saw 是并列关系。 17. swim;play, swim 和 go 是并列关系。 18. visiting; visiting 和 making 是并列的, 都是 thinking of 的宾语。 19. opened;put, opened 和 started 是并列谓语。 20. found;found 和 stopped 是并列的。

练习2.

1. 地点状语从句 2. 定语从句 3. 宾语从句 4. 主语从句 5. 表语从句 练习3.

利用英语句子结构规律做下列各题。

[来源 :学科网]

1. D 2. D 3. D 4. C 5. B 6. B 7. D 8. D

21. watch;watch 和 sit 是并列的。 22. face;face 和 enjoy 是并列的。 23. Thank you so much for not only giving me life, but also teaching me how to be a good person. 24. I particularly enjoy sitting beside you and listening to you tell stories. 25. In the past, we had to sit at our desks in silence and pay attention to what the teachers were saying. 26. I still remember getting up early that day and feeling anxious about the new world.

1. but 去掉或者改为 yet; 两个简单句用一个连词连接就 行,用了“虽然” ,不用“但是” ,yet 可以作副词。 2. 去掉 when;the telephone rang 应为主句。 3. 去掉 that;because 本身就是连词,不能再用 that。 4. 在 my 前加 of;But 是在意思上与前面连接,因此后 面用 so 是正确的。 5. 去掉 so; 前面 with 的复合结构不是一个分句, 因此整 个句子还是简单句,所以后面不必用连词。 6. 后句的 he 前加 and;which 引导的是定语从句,其前 后的两个句子构成了并列句,要有并列连词连接。

27. I dream of standing on the platform in the classroom and
giving lessons to lovely boys and girls.

16


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