一、 不定式的作用 1、 作主语 不定式作主语时，谓语用单数。往往用 it 作形式主语，把不定式放在谓语后面。如： It took us two hours to finish the
job. It is impossible for us to get there on time. It is very kind of you to help us. 注意：（1）其他系动词如 look, appear 等也可用于此句型。 （2）当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时，不能用 It is …to…的句型。试比较： It is to negate my own idea to believe him.（错） To believe him is to negate my own idea .（对） （3）It is+ adj. of / for sb. to do sth. 结构中，当不定式的逻辑主语和前面的形容词可以构成系表结构时，用 of, 否则 用 for. 2、 作宾语 （1） 动词+不定式。如： He managed to escape from the fire. I find it hard to get along with him.（it 作形式宾语） 注： 下列动词通常用不定式作宾语： want, try, hope, wish, need, forget, know, promise, refuse, help, decide, begin,
start, learn, agree, choose, get 等 （2） 动词+疑问词+to , “特殊疑问句+不定式”相当于名词，作宾语。如： I don’t know what to do next/ how to do it next. I can’t decide when to go there. 注意：不定式短语作宾语时，如果还带有宾语补足语，往往把不定式短语放在宾语补足语之后，用 it 作形 式宾语。如：I find it necessary to learn a foreign language. 3、 作宾语补足语 （1） 动词+宾语+不定式（to do ）。如： He warned me to be careful. I want you to speak to Tom. What makes you think so?（不带 to 的不定式） 注：可以用动词不定式做宾补的动词有： ask, tell, order ,want ,get, would like, like, advise, invite, allow, help, wish,warn, expect, prefer, encourage （2） 表见解、看法的动词结构可为：动词+宾语+ to be 的不定式结构。如： We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class. The book is believed to be useful.（被动语态） (3) There +不定式。如： We didn’t expect there to be so many people there.我们没料到会有那么多人在那里。 注意：（1）有些动词需用 as 短语作补语，像 regard, think, believe, take, consider。如： We regard Tom as our best teacher. 我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。 Mary took him as her father. 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。 （2）在动词 feel （一感），hear, listen to（二听），have, let, make（三让），notice, see, watch, observe, look at（五看） (即：吾看三室两厅一感觉)等后面的补足语中，不定式不带 to，但变为被动语态后，必须带 to。如： They saw the boy fall off the tree. The boy was seen to fall off the tree. (3)help 后面作宾语补足语的不定式可以带 to,也可以不带 to. I often help him （to）clean the room. I helped him (to) find his things. 4、 作定语 不定式作定语，修饰名词或代词，不定式和它所修饰的名词之间有逻辑上的主谓关系、动状关系、同位关系或动宾 关系。不定式通常要放在这些被修饰的词后。如： I have a lot of work to do.（动宾关系） He is looking for a room to live in.（动状关系） He is the first person to think of the idea.（主谓关系） He has got a chance to go abroad.（同位关系） 注意：1.不定式的逻辑主语是句子的主语时，不定式用主动形式表被动。如： Do you have anything else to say? 2.如果作定语的不定式是一个短语，则要保留不定时短语中的副词或介词。如： I need a pen to write with . (I will wirte with the pen ) (我需要一直钢笔写字) I have a little baby to look after .(I must look after the little baby ) (我有一个婴儿要照看) 作状语，表示目的、结果、原因等，有时还有一些固定搭配的不定式短语，如 in order to , so as to, so…as to, such …as to, ….enough to, too…to 等。
（1） 做目的状语，to, only to （仅仅为了）, in order to, so as to, so(such)….as to…（如此· · · 以便· · · ）如： He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。 He came to the school to see his son. （2） 作结果状语，表事先没有预料到的，要放在句子后面。如： He hurried to the post office only to find it was closed. He searched the room only to find nothing. （3） 做原因状语。如： We were very excited to hear the news. I’m glad to see you. （4） 做条件状语。如：To turn to the left , you could find a post office. 5、 作表语 不定式可放在 be 动词后面，构成表语。如： The question is how to put it into practice. My question is when to leave. His dream is to be a doctor. Her work is to look after the babies. 注意：1.不定式在句中作表语时，对应的谓语动词用单数。 2.当助于是不定式时，表语不能用 Ving 形式，可用不定式。 如：To see is to believe. （眼见为实） 6、 独立结构。如： To tell you the truth, I don’t agree with you. To make matters worse, it began to rain. 二、 不定式的时态和语态 1、 不定式的时态 （1） 现在时：有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生，有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。如： He seems to know this. I hope to see you again. （2） 完成时：表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。如： I’m sorry to have given you so much trouble. He seems to have caught a cold. （3） 进行时：表示动作正在进行，与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。如： He seems to be eating something. （4） 完成进行时：表示动作从过去某个时间开始，一直延续到现在，并有可能持续下去。如： She is known to have been working on the problem for many years. 2、 不定式的语态 当不定式的逻辑主语是其动作的承受者时，就用被动式。如： He was seen to enter the hall. 三、 省 to 的动词不定式 He asked to be sent to work in Tibet.
1、 情态动词（除 ought 外，ought to） 2、 Would rather, had better. 3、 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice, observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel 等后作宾补，省略 to. 注意：在被动语态中 to 不能省略掉。如：
I saw him dance.
He was seen to dance.
The boss made them work the whole night.
They were made to work the whole night. 4、 使役动词 let, have, make. 5、 由 and, or 和 than 连接的两个不定式，第二个 to 可以省去。如：He wants to move to France and marry the girl. 6、 Help 可带 to ,也可不带 to, help sb. (to) do sth. 7、 Why…/Why not… 8、 But 和 except 前是动词 do 时，后面出现的动词用不带 to 的动词不定式。试比较： wants to do nothing but go out. He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine. 9、 通常在 discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand 等词后，可以省去 to be .如： He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。 ——I usually go there by train. ——Why not ______ by boat for a change? A A 四、 to try going learn B trying to go B to learn C to try and go C learned D learning She pretended not to see me when I passed by. D never drive D do not do D not eating D try going Paul doesn’t have to be made ______ . He always works hard. 动词不定式的否定式。如：Tell him not to shut the window. Mrs. Smith warned her daughter ______ after drinking. A never to drive A not to A to eat no B to never drive B not to do B eating not C never driving C not do it C not to eat The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ______. The patient was warned ______ food before the operation. He
一、 动名词的作用 1、 作主语 谓语用单数。It 代替动名词作主语，常用于如下结构： It’s no good/use doing···如：Seeing is believing. Playing with fire is dangerous. It’s no good waiting here. 2、 作宾语 I enjoy listening to music. He often practices playing the piano in the evening. He is fond of playing basketball. He has given up smoking. Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please? (1) 只能接动名词作宾语的动词： admit，advise 建议，risk，appreciate，envy 嫉妒，avoid 避免， consider 考虑，delay 延迟，deny 否认，dislike 不喜欢，enjoy，escape 逃避，excuse 原谅、宽恕， finish 完成，forgive 原谅，understand 理解，give up 放弃，imagine 想象，keep 保持，mind 介意、在乎，miss 未达
到，practise 训练，put off 推迟，resist 抵抗，suggest 建议、暗示 can’t help 禁不住，can’t stand 无法忍受，devote to(to 为介词)致力于· · · ，look forward to 期望、盼望， stick to 坚持，be used to 习惯于，object to 反对，be busy 忙于· · · ，fee like 想要· · · be surprised at 对……感到惊讶 be proud of 以……为骄傲 succeed in 在某方面成功 be afraid of 害怕 give up 放弃 (2) 只能接不定式作宾语的动词： happen 碰巧，offer 主动提出，promise 答应，agree 同意，refuse 拒绝，decide 决定， determine 决定、决心，pretend 假装，fail 未能够，learn，wish 希望，hope，expect，afford 负担得起。 (3) 接动名词、不定式均可，意义相同的动词：like，love，dislike，hate，begin，star，continue，prefer， can’t bear/endure 无法忍受，cease 停止 (4) 下列词接动名词和不定式均可，但意义不同的动词：forget，go on，mean，regret，remember，stop，try 等 Stop to do 停下来去做 Forget to do 忘记要做 Remember to do 记得要做 Regret to do 遗憾要做 Try to do 企图做，尽力做 Go on to do 继续做（另一件事） Mean to do 打算做 A waiting B to waiting stop doing 停止做 forget doing 忘记做过 remember doing 记得做过 regret doing 后悔做过 try doing 试着做 go on doing 继续做（同一件事） mean doing 意味做 C wait D to be waiting
In some parts of London, missing a bus means _______ for another hour. (5) Need, require, want 作“需要”讲，其后用动名词的主动式表示被动意义，be worth 也有类似用法。如： The flowers need watering/to be watered. The problem is worth discussing. 3、 作表语 此时的动名词可以和主语调换位置。如： My hobby is collecting stamps. Her job is washing, cleaning and taking care of the child 4、 作定语 动名词作定语，一般表示用途。如： a waiting room，a diving board，a reading room，a dining hall there are a lot of swimming pools in the city. 注：（1）现在分词作定语表动作，它与所修饰的名词之间存在逻辑上的主谓关系，可改写成一个定语从句。 如果为单词，放在被修饰 n 之前，为短语，放在被修饰 n 之后。 如：a sleeping boy =a boy who is sleeping a developing country =a country which is developing （2）动名词作定语通常表示它所修饰的名词的用途或性质，可改写成一个 for 的短语，两者不存在逻辑上的主谓关系。 如：a washing machine = a machine for washing a swimming pool = a pool for swimming 二、 动名词的时态和语态 动名词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前，通常要用完成式，否则都用一般式。如： We are interested in playing chess.
He was praised for having finished the work ahead of time. I’m sorry for not having kept my promise. 若主语是动名词所表示的动作的对象，动名词用被动语态。如： We must do something to prevent water from being polluted. I remember having been told a story. He was afraid of being scolded by the teacher. 及物动词 主动 一般时 完成时 doing having done 被动 being done having been done 不及物动词 主动 doing having done
现在分词和过去分词的区别： 在语态上，现在分词表示主动意义，过去分词表示被动意义； 在时间上，现在分词表示的动作往往正在进行或者与谓语动词同时发生，过去分词表示的动作已经完成或没有一定的 时间性。 如：falling leaves 正在下落的树叶 fallen leaves 已经落在地上的树叶 一、分词的作用 1、 作定语 （1） 单个分词作定语，分词前置。如： The sleeping boy is my son. The excited people rushed into the building. A lost opportunity never returns. He is a retired worker. （2） 分词短语作定语，分词后置；分词修饰不定代词 something 等要后置；个别分词如 give，left 等作定语也后 置。如： The girl standing under the tree is my niece. The building built last year is our library. This is the question given. There is nothing interesting. （3） 过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系，相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。如： Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists The first textbook ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A have written A A speaking are bought B to be written B spoken B bought C being written C be spoken C been bought D D written to speak What’s the language ______ in Germany? Prices of daily goods ______ through a computer can be lower than store prices. D buying. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ______ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.”
A 2、 作状语
C to read
现在分词和过去分词在句中可以作时间、原因、方式、伴随、条件、结果等状语。 Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call. As I didn’t receive any letter from him, I gave him a call. Given more attention, the trees could have grown better. If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.(条件) Walking along the street, I ran across my old friend. Bitten by a snake, he was taken to hospital(原因). Though defeated, he didn’t lose heart.(让步) He lay on the grass, looking into the sky.(伴随) He came running to tell me the good news.(方式) ______ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army. A Followed B Followed by C Being followed D Having been followed 答案：B There was a terrible noise______ the sudden burst of light. A followed B following C to be followed D being followed 答案：B ______ , liquids can be changed into gases. A Heating 答案：C 注意： （1） 选择现在分词还是过去分词，关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是由主句的主语发出，分词就用现在分词， 反之就用过去分词。试比较： （Being）Used for a long time, the book looks old.由于用了很长时间，这本书看上去很旧。 Using the book, I find it useful.在使用的过程中，我发现这本书很有用。 （2） 分词作状语时，其逻辑主语必须和主句的主语一致，如果不一致，就用独立主格结构，即在分词前加上它 的逻辑主语。现在分词的完成式主要用于作状语，一般不用作定语。 When______, the museum will be open to the public next year. A completed B completing C being completed C To suffer D to be completed D Suffered ______ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. A Having suffered B Suffering 3、 作表语 现在分词作表语多表示主语具有的特征，过去分词作表语多指主语所处的状态。如： The film is touching. The glass is broken. She looked tired with cooking. He remained standing beside the table. —I’m very______ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. —Mm, it does have a ______ smell. A pleasant; pleased B pleased; pleased C pleasant; pleasant D pleased; pleasant B To be heated C Heated D Heat
4、 作宾语补足语 分词和不定式一样，在一些感官动词或使役动词后作宾语补足语。如： I smell something burning. I heard him singing the song. I heard my name called. I can’t make myself understood in English. I found my car missing. I’ll have my watch repaired.我想把我的手表修一下。 The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year. A carry out B carrying out C carried out D to carry out 5、 作插入语 其结构是固定的，意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。 generally speaking 一般说来 strictly speaking 严格地说 all things considered 从整体来看 talking of (speaking of) 说到 judging from 从· · · 判断 taking all things into consideration 全面看来。如：
Judging from his face, he must be ill.从他的脸色看，他一定是病了。 Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs.总的来说，狗比猪跑得快。 一、 分词的时态 1、 与主语动词同时。如： Arriving there, they found the boy dead.刚一到那儿，他们就发现那男孩死了。 The secretary worked late into the night, ______ a long speech for the president. A to prepare B preparing C prepared D was preparing 2、 先于主语动词 分词作时间状语，如果先于主动词的动作，且强调先后，要用 having done。如： Having finished his homework, he went out for a walk. After he had finished his homework, he went out for a walk. 做完作业，他出去散步。 ______ a reply, he decided to write again. A Not receiving C Not having received 二、 分词的语态 B Receiving not D Having not received
1、 通常情况下，现在分词表示主动，过去分词表示被动。如： He is the man giving you/who gave you the book 他就是给你书的那个人 She is the girl stopped by/who was stopped by the car.她就是那个被车拦住的女孩。 2、 不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生。 像： gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned 等词。 如： a retired person 一个退休的人 a fallen ball 一个落下来的球 a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴