虚拟语气: 英语的动词一般带有三种不同的语气:陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。 一、陈述语气（The Indicative Mood） ：用来陈述一个事实或提出一种看法，有肯定、否定、疑 问、感叹等形式。eg. I like English. 二、 祈使语气 （The Imperative Mood） :用来表示请求、 邀请、 命令
、 警告或劝告等。 eg. Open the door, please. Don’t play in the street. 三、虚拟语气(The Subjunctive Mood):表示说话人所说的话不是事实，而是一种假设、愿望、 怀疑或推测。它通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示。虚拟语气主要用于 if 条件状语从句，也可用于主语 从句、表语从句、宾语从句等。 虚拟语气在 if 条件状语从句中的用法 含义 动词形式 If 从句 现在 与 事 实 相 反 过去 将来 一般过去时 一般过去时 were to +动词原形 should +动词原形 had +过去分词 Would/ should/ could/ might have +过去分词 1、 表示与现在事实相反的假设， 从句谓语动词用一般过去时 （be 用 were）主句谓语动词用 would, ， should, could, might+动词原形 eg. ①If I were you, I would go to see the film. ②What would you do if you were in my position? 2、 表示与将来事实相反的假设， 从句谓语动词用一般过去时 （be 用 were）were to do 或 should 、 do，主句谓语动词用 would, should, could, might+动词原形 eg. ①If it were to rain tomorrow, they would not go out. ②If the bad weather were to continue, we would have to call off the match. 3、表示与过去事实相反的假设，从句谓语动词用过去完成时，主句谓语动词用 would, should, could, might+现在完成时 eg. ①If you had left a bit earlier, you could have caught the train. ②If you had taken the doctor’s advice, you would have recovered.
例句 主句 Would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形 If we had enough money,we would buy a computey. If it rained tomorrow, we’d stay at home. If I were to ask, would you help me? If it should be necessary, I could come at six. If I had worked harder at school, I would have got a better job.
虚拟语气用在 wish 后的宾语从句中 含义 针对现状表达愿望 （与事实相反） 对过去发生事情 的表示遗憾或后悔 针对将来表达愿望 （虽然可能性极小， 但有实现的可能） 过去完成时 动词形式 一般过去时 例句 I wish I had a little lab of my own. I wish you had let me known earlier. Would/ could/ might I wish you wouldn’t smoke +动词原形 any more. I wish he could come tomorrow.
1、表示现在不能实现的愿望，从句谓语动词用一般过去式（be 用 were） eg. ①I wish it were spring all the year round. ②He wishes he could paint as well as a professional artist. 2、表示对过去事情的遗憾，从句谓语动词用过去完成时或 could+现在完成时 eg. I wish I had been with you yesterday. 3、表示对将来的愿望时，从句谓语动词用 would/could/ might +动词原形 eg. We wish the rain would stop. ※1、虚拟的条件有时可以不用条件从句表示，而是通过某些介词短语、副词或上下文等来表达，这 就是含蓄条件句。常用来表示含蓄虚拟条件的词或短语有：without, but for, but that, or(否 则), otherwise 等。 eg. ①Without electricity, human life would be quite difficult today. ②He was having a meeting, otherwise, he would have come to help us. ③But for the English test, I would have gone home this week. 2、 在虚拟语气中，当从句谓语中有 were, should, had 等助动词时，可将 if 省略，而将 were, should, had 提到句首。 eg. Were I you, I would not give up the job. 3、有时，在同一个句子中，虚拟语气与陈述语气可以混合使用。 eg. ①I could have passed the exam, but I was much too careless. ② I would have lent you some money, but I didn’t have any on me then. 4、有时，从句和主句中所表示的动作发生的时间是不一致的，这时就要根据其所表示的时间来进行 调整，这就是我们常说的错综时间条件句。 eg. ①If you had gone to see the doctor earlier, you would be all right now. ②Had you worked a little harder, your English wouldn’t be so poor now.
Exercises: 一、根据句意，用括号内动词的适当形式填空 1. If our headmaster 2. The children 3. If there 5. How I wish I 6. We wish we 7. We all wish she 9. You advice. 10. Should I win first prize, I 11. If he had not hurt his leg, John (treat) you to dinner. (win)the race. (be) here, everything would be all right. (go) out for a walk if the weather had been good. (be) any change about the date, I would inform you on time. (not complete) the task ahead of time. (be) as young as you! (pay) more attention to our pronunciation before. (recover) quickly from the operation. (not catch) fire.
4. Without you help, we
8. Had I turned off the electric heater, the house
(not make) such a serious mistake if you had followed my
12. Having failed in the college entrance exam, my brother wished he (not waste) so much time playing computer games. 陈述、虚拟混用 1.The train earlier. 2. I would have lent you my dictionary, but I 3. I’m glad I went over all my notes, otherwise I last exam. 4. She got caught in the heavy traffic, or she 5. If I had made better use of my time, I 二、单项选择 1. How I wish every family A. has B. had a large house with a beautiful garden. C. will have D. had had in love, (come)here earlier. (be) a college student now. (not take) it that day. (not do) so well in the (leave) ten minutes age. You should have arrived a bit
2. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I at the age of seven , with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen C. should fall B. had not fallen D. were to fall
3. If it were not for the fact that she A. could’t 4. off. B. should’t C. can’t
sing, I would invite her to the party. D. might not
fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut
A. Would you be B. Should you be C. Could you be 三、运用虚拟语气翻译下列句子 1、 如果我现在是一只鸟，我就能在天空中自由地飞翔。
D. Might you be
一、名词性从句中的虚拟语气 在下列句型中，从句谓语动词用“should+动词原形”表示虚拟语气，should 可省略。 1、 在表示 “请求、 建议、 要求、 命令” 等的动词如： request, require, desire, advise, suggest, propose, recommend, demand, order, insist 等后接的宾语从句中 eg. ①He desires that you (should) see him at once. ② The teacher ordered that the students (should) finish their homework by themselves. 2、 在表示 “请求、 建议、 要求、 命令” 等的名词如： request, requirement, advice, suggestion, proposal, order, idea 等后接的表语从句、同位语从句中 eg. ① The teacher’s order was that the students (should) finish their
homework by themselves. ② What do you think of his suggestion that boys and girls (should) learn from each other and help each other. 3 、 在 句 型 ”It’s + requested<required, suggested, proposed,
recommended>+that 从”中 eg. It’s required that all of us (should) be present at the meeting. 4、 在句型”It’s + necessary<important, natural, strange, essential>+that 从”中 eg. It’s strange that a well-dressed gentleman like him (should) be so cruel to a lady. ※ 1、suggest 作“表明、暗示”时，后接宾语从句用陈述语序 eg. His pale face suggested that he was in poor health, so we suggested that he
(should) go to the hospital. 2、insist 作“坚持说”时，后接宾语从句用陈述语序 eg. The man insisted that he hadn’t done anything wrong and that(坚持要求) he (should) be set free right away.
二、状语从句中的虚拟语气 1、在以 as if/as though 引导的方式状语从句中，谓语动词要用过去的某种时态表示虚拟，形式 与 wish 后的宾语从句相同 eg. ① Whenever he is asked about something, he talks as if he were an expect at it. ② He remembers everything exactly as if it happened yesterday. ※ 若 as if/as though 引导的从句是事实或可能性很大时，多用陈述语序，特别是在句型“It seems/looks as if?”中 eg. ① Dark clouds are gathering. It looks as if a big storm is just on its way here. ② It seems as if he isn’t happy. 2 、 在 so that 和 in order that 引 导 的 目 的 状 语 从 句 中 ， 从 句 谓 语 动 词 多 用 “may/might/can/could+动词原形”表示虚拟语气 eg. The teacher raised her voice in order that all the students could hear her clearly.
三、虚拟语气用在习惯句型中 1、在“It’s high /about time that?（是时候做某事了） ”句式中，引导的定语从句中常用一 般过去式表示虚拟语气 也可用 should+do 表示 eg. ① It’s high time that we took/should take measures to protect these endangered animals. ② My brother graduated from college half a year ago and it is high time that he found/should find a job. 2、在 would rather 后的宾语从句中，谓语动词用一般过去式（表示与现在事实相反）或过去完 成式（表示与过去事实相反）表示虚拟语气 eg. ① John wants to see me today, but I would rather he came tomorrow. ② I would rather you hadn’t told me the truth. 3、在 if only（但愿、要是?就好了）引导的表示遗憾的感叹句中，谓语动词要用过去的某种时态 表示虚拟语气 eg. ① If only I were a bird! ② If only I had taken the doctor’s advice!
4、虚拟语气还可用来表示祝愿、诅咒、禁止等。 eg. ① Good luck and bless you! ② May you have a long and happy life!
Exercises: 1. The doctor suggested that he fit. 2. We are considering his proposal that our daughter for further education. 3. It’s requessted that the problem 4. The headmaster’s advice was that we attend the conference. 5. It’s important that we (learn) to help others. (solve) within this week. (get) more people to (send) abroad (try) to lose weight in order to keep
6. The American speaks Chinese so well as if he (be) a native Chinese. 7. The two strangers talked warmly as if they years. 8. We all agree that it’s high time that we discussion. 9. I’d rather you 10. If only I 11. If only I school student! (stay) at home this evening. (have) more money. (make) better use of my time when I was a middle (put) an end to the (be) close friends for
虚拟语气练习题精选 1. The teacher demanded that the exam _____ before eleven. A. must finish B. would be finished
C. be finished D. must be finished 2. She made the demand that the journalists _____ at once ______ Iraq. A. leave; for B. leave; to C. left; to D. to be left; for 3. He is talking so much about America as if he _____ there. A. had been B. has been C. was D. has gone
4. The young man insisted that he _____ nothing wrong and _____ free. A. did; set C. should do; be set B. had done; should be set D. had done; must be set
5. I suggested there ____ be a kind of language all could understand and use ____ . A. can; it B. /; / C. would; it D. may; /
6. The suggestion has been made _____ the basketball game _____ put off. A. for; to C. which; should be B. that; be D. to; being
7. The order came that the medical supplies _____ to Beijing for the Sars soon. A. would be sent C. be sent B. should send
D. must be sent
8. It is important that we _____ wild animals. A. will protect C. shall protect B. should protect D. are protecting
9. Had you listened to the doctor, you _____ all right now. A. are B. were C. would be D. would have been 10. _____ any change about the date, please tell me immediately. A. Will there be B. Should there be C. There will be D. There should be
11. _____ today, he would get there by Friday. A. Would he leave C. Were he to leave B. Was he leaving D. If he leave
12. Should it rain, the crops _____ . A. would be saved C. will be saved B. would have been saved D. had been saved
13. You _____ come earlier. The bus left a moment ago. A. would B. should have C. may D. have
14. He treated me as though/as if _____ his own son. A. I am B. I would be C. I was D. I were
15. I _____ you some money, but I hadn’t any on me then. A. would lend C. could lend B. would have lent D. may have lent
16. A few minutes earlier and we _____ the rain. A. have caught B. had caught D. were to catch
C. could have caught
17. --- “Have you ever been to Beijing?” --- “No, but I wish I _____” A. have B. will C. do D. had
18. I’m glad I went over all my notes; otherwise _____ . A. I may have failed B. I’d fail
C. I’d have failed D. I’ll have failed 19. --- “What will you do during the summer holiday?” --- “I don’t know, but it’s high time _____ something.” A. I’m deciding C. I decided B. I’ll decide D. I decide
20. What should we do if it _____ tomorrow? A. should snow C. snow B. would snow D. will snow
21. If only I _____ my watch! A. hadn’t lost C. didn’t lost B. haven’t lost D. don’t lose
22. You _____ such a serious mistake if you had followed his advice. A.may not make B. might not make
C. shouldn’t have made D. might not have made 23. We _____ the work on time without your help. A. hadn’t had finished B. didn’t have finished
C. couldn’t have finished D. can’t have finished 24. --- “Where have you been?” --- “I got caught in traffic; otherwise __ sooner.” A. I would be here C. I had been here B. I have been here D. I would have been here
25. If it were not for the fact that you _____ ill, I would ask you to do this right now. A. were B. had been C. are D. should be