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汉译英之谓语的选择


汉译英之谓语的选择

一、汉英主谓结构的差别
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汉语的分析型(analytic)语言VS.英语的综合型 (synthetic)语言 汉语的复杂谓语成分VS.英语的单一谓语成分 汉语谓语的多主动式VS.英语谓语的多被动式

1. 分析型语言VS综合型语言
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汉语分析型语言 无词尾屈折变化 (inflection) 词没有阳性和阴性的变化,没有表阳性和阴性的词缀 英语综合型语言有丰富的屈折变化形式: 英语谓语形态稳定,受语法规范约束,需与主语保持一致关系 table/tables run/ran/run the boy?s She sings beautifully. 汉语语法呈隐含性(covertness),英语语法呈外显性(overtness)

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Isolating/analytic language A language in which word forms do not change, and in which grammatical functions are shown by WORD ORDER and the use of FUNCTION WORDS. Inflecting language A language in which the form of a word changes to show a change in meaning or grammatical function. Often there is no clear distinction between the basic part of the word and the part which shows a grammatical function such as number or tense. Agglutinating language A language in which various AFFIXES may be added to the stem of a word to add to its meaning or to show its grammatical function.

2. 谓语成分的复杂性VS单一性
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英语谓语比较单一,只能由动词或动词短语充 当,系动词可看成一种特殊为谓语。 英语同一主语下的并列谓语一般不超过三个, 多数句子只有一个谓语动词,其他动作概念以 非谓语动词、介词短语、名词短语或从句的形 式出现。 原文若是形容词、名词、数量词或介词短语作 谓语,译文中常常采用系表结构。

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她的未婚夫都60了。 快餐食品并不健康! 三星的手机外观很漂亮。 Her fiancé is already 60 years old. Fast food is not wholesome, after all. Samsung Brand cell phones look beautiful.
我想吃麦当劳。 历史是人民创造的。 他就会持枪劫车、杀人越货。 He wants to eat at the Macdonald?s. History is made by the people. He is good for nothing but hijacking vehicles and looting the goods by killing the drivers with his gun.

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3. 谓语的多主动式VS多被动式
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无形式标志的被动句,形式主动,意义被动 原文若为有/无形式标志的被动式,译文宜用被动式作谓 语; 若不知原文谓语动作的发出者是谁,或者原文的主语为 “人们”、“大家”等,或者句中含有 “据传”、“据 悉”等字眼,译文的谓语常用以 “it” 为形式主语的被动 句式; 问题解决了。 The problem has been solved. 大家都觉得这样做不妥。 It is generally considered not advisable to act that way. 必须采取措施来控制水污染。

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众所周知,中国人在四千年前就发明了指南针。 It is well known that the compass was invented in China four thousand years ago. 书到后应立即付款。 You are supposed to pay right after the books are delivered. 请您为大家表演一个节目。 You are requested to give us a performance. 流言蜚语使他们之间的友谊变成了怨仇。 Their friendship was turned into enmity through idle gossip.

确定谓语的原则
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1. 主谓一致+时态+语气 2. 谓语必须与主语在逻辑上搭配得当 3. 谓语必须与宾语在逻辑上搭配得当 4. 根据谓语和状语搭配确定谓语 5. 根据英语表达习惯 6. 谓语的确定应该基于表意的需要 7. 谓语的确定应该基于构句(语法)的需要

1. 主谓一致+时态+语气
谓语应该在人称、数、时态、语态上与主语一致 ? 他做实验时心不在焉,几乎引起化学药物爆炸。 ? His absent-mindedness during the experiments nearly caused an explosion of the chemical. ? 在西方,吃饭用的是刀和叉 。 ? In the west, fork and knife is used for having dinner. ? (三中全会的政策)谁想变也变不了。 ? No one could change this even if he wanted to. ? 当前,我国的职业教育和成人教育正在加快发展。 ? Vocational education and adult education are being pushed on energetically in our country. ? 她的独生子让车给轧了。 ? Her only son was run over by a car.

2. 谓语必须与主语在逻辑上搭配得当
如果原文的主谓语不符合英语主谓搭配逻辑,则需要改变主语或谓语。 ? 这件事告诉我们,他为人不诚实。 ? This incident showed that he was dishonest. ? 农村改革中的好多东西,都是基层创造出来的。 ? Many of the good ideas in rural reform came from people at the grassroots. ? Many of good ideas in rural reform are created by people at the grassroots. ? 世纪之交,中国外交空前活跃。 ? China’s diplomacy is most active at the turn of the century. (*) ? The turn of the century finds China most active on the diplomatic arena. ? 分析:前种译法不符合英文主谓搭配。后种译法以“时间”为主语, 以“find”为谓语,是比较典型的 “无灵主语句”。

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你的教学科研取得了长足的进步,但不应因此而自 满。 You have made great progress in teaching and research but you should guard against complacency. 本书精选中国南方26个少数民族的131则脍炙人口的 故事。 The book consists of 131 superb stories popular among 26 minority nationalities in the south of China.

3. 谓语必须与宾语在逻辑上搭配得当
动宾搭配是一种常见的搭配形式,汉译英时,如果原文的动 宾搭配不符合英语逻辑,而原文的宾语又不宜变动,我们 就需要重新选择谓语。 ? 秦朝第一位皇帝秦始皇于公元前221年统一六国…… ? unify the other six states? ? Qin Shihuang, the first Emperor of the Qin Dynasty, conquered the other six states in 221 BC. ? 热腾腾的晚餐已摆好在桌上。 ? Hot meals were served on the dinner table. ? 如译成: hot meals were put on the dinner table 就显得 过于呆板。而serve和meals联用最符合英语的动宾搭配习 惯。

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取得成就 把中国建设成为 犯个人主义的错误 我们有过这样的经验 热烈祝贺奥运会 争取运动成绩与精神文明双丰收 make achievements turn or transform China into. . make mistakes of succumbing to individualism It was our experience that. . . Hail / Greet the Olympic Games For better (athletic) records and sportsmanship

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(日本派大批的留学生到中国来学习中国文化。)自 然,他们也学会了中国的饮茶。 Accordingly, they became accustomed to the Chinese tea-drinking. 到麦当劳去吃什么? 有人总结说:吃时髦,吃清洁, 吃快捷,吃氛围,吃气派,吃档次,吃高雅。闹了半 天,还没有涉及“吃饱肚子”。 For what do we go to the McDonald’s? Summarized are the following answers: for its popularity, for its remarkable cleanness, for its instant services, for its exotic atmosphere, for showing off, for its super quality, for its elegant consumption. With so many “fors”, yet we have not come to “for our stomach”. (曾利沙译)

4. 根据谓语和状语搭配确定谓语
有时英汉谓状搭配习惯的不同,也可能影响谓语 的选择 ? 我们要在几个五年计划的时间内认真取得处理 这个问题的经验。 ? we shall seriously gain experience in…? ? We shall make serious efforts to gain experience in handling this problem within the space of several five-year plans.

5. 根据英语表达习惯
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灵活翻译谓语

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冬天如果你怕冷的话,可能到昆明。 fear, be afraid of? If you dislike the cold in winter, you can visit Kunming in south China. 花坛北面有一株腊梅花,南端是一丛南天竹。 A winter plum stood on the northern end of the terrace, and a nandina erected on the southern end. 译文运用“化静为动”的手法,将原文中“有”、“是”等静态 动词翻译成stand和 erect等动态动词,使译文更加生动活泼。

6. 谓语的确定应该基于表意的需要
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1) 中央政府不干预香港特别行政区的事务。 a. The Central Government has refrained from intervening in the affairs of the HKSAR. b. The Central Government has never intervened in the affairs of the HKSAR. 2) 中国的经济将融入世界经济的大潮。 a. The economy of China will merge into the tide of the world economy. b. The economy of China will converge with that of the world economy. 3) 这事到了现在,还是时时记起。 a. Even now, this remains fresh in my memory. b. Even now, I still often think about it. 4) 世纪之交,中国外交空前活跃。 a. The turn of the century finds China most active on the diplomatic arena. b. At the turn of the century, China is very active in its diplomatic activities. 5) 在同新闻界谈话的时候,上海人使用越来越多的最高级形容词。 a. When they talk to press, the Shanghai citizens use more and more adjectives of the superlative degree. b. You can hear Shanghai people using more and more adjectives of the superlative degree when they talk to the press.

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6) 我又闲了一个多月了啦! a. I’ve been idle for another month now. b. Another month now and I’ve had no work. 7) (颐和园)1900年遭八国联军破坏。 a. The palace was reduced to ruins by the allied forces of the eight foreign powers. b. The palace suffered ravage in the hands of the allied forces of the eight foreign powers. 8) 她们逐渐地镇定下来,有了自信。 a. They gradually calmed down, restored self-confidence. b. Gradually, they calmed down and regained self-confidence. 9) 封建社会代替奴隶社会,资本主义代替封建主义,社会主义经历一个过程发展 后必然代替资本主义。 Feudal society replaced slavery society, capitalism supplanted feudalism, and, after a long time, socialism will necessarily supersede capitalism. 10) (一个世纪以来,中国人民在前进道路上经历了三次历史性的巨大变化……) 第一次是辛亥革命,……第二次是中华人民共和国的成立,……第三次是改革开 放…… The first change was represented by the Revolution of 1911…The second change was marked by the founding of the People’s Republic of China…The third change was featured by the reform, opening-up policy…

7. 谓语的确定应该基于构句(语 法)的需要
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1) 农业搞好了,农民能自给,五亿人口就稳定了。 a. If agriculture is in good shape and the peasants selfsupporting, then the 500 million people will feel secure. b. If agriculture is in good shape and the peasants are selfsupporting, then the 500 million people will feel secure. 2) 关于如何改进市民的居住条件问题市政府给予了充分重视。 a. Full attention has been paid by the municipal government to the improvement of the housing conditions of the urban inhabitants. b. The municipal government has paid full attention to the housing conditions of the urban inhabitants.

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脍炙人口的传统京剧《白蛇传》讲的是源自明朝的故事。 The White Snake, one of the most popular traditional Peking operas, is based on a story handed down from the Ming Dynasty. 意大利著名旅游家马可· 波罗曾这样叙述他印象中的杭州:“这是世 界上最美妙迷人的城市,它使人觉得自己是在天堂。” The famous Italian traveler Marco Polo was so impressed by the beauty of Hangzhou that he described it as “the most fascinating city in the world, where one feels as if he was in paradise.” 英雄造时势,时势造英雄。 Heroes create the times, the times produce their heroes. 一踏进门槛,屋子里的混乱景象使我吃了一惊。 Crossing the threshold, I was taken aback by the mess in the house. 四川被称为“天府之国”。 Sichuan is noted as the “Land of Abundance”.

三、连动式谓语的翻译
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汉语连动式谓语就是两个或两个以上谓语动词共用一个主语的结 构,其特点是许多动词连用,组成几个句段或小句。 现代翻译家林同济先生曾提出汉语的“动词优势说”,他认为: “偏重动词着眼,运用大量的动词集结,根据时间顺序,一一予以 安排,甚至尽量省略关系词以达到动词集中、动词突出的效果— —这就是汉语造句手法的基本倾向。” 连动式谓语是一种复杂谓语,它的复杂性体现在这些动词的关系 之中,既有并列关系,也有隐含的其他关系(包括条件、方式、 承接、因果、假设、目的等)。 翻译时,要分析几个连动谓语之间的关系,分清主次关系和并列 关系,将主要动词译成谓语,次要动词视不同情况,译成各种从 属结构。 另外,汉语连动谓语通常按动作发生的先后顺序排列,但译成英 语时,则可依照英语习惯进行调整。

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他咳着从祖父的房间里慢慢走出来。(《家》) 原文中的“咳着”显然是表示状态的次要动词,因而在译文中转换成分词短语, 这种译文句子就主次分明,层次感很好。 Coughing, he strolled out of the room of Grandpa. 妻在屋里拍着闰儿,迷迷糊糊哼着眠歌。(《荷塘月色》) 显然,“拍着闰儿”是主要动词,而”哼着眠歌”是次要成分,故可译成伴随状 态的分词短语。 In the room, my wife was patting the son, Run-er, sleepily humming a cradle song. 王夫人提了暖壶下席来。(《红楼梦》) Lady Wang rose from her seat, with the wine pot in her hand. 可见,汉语中的非主要谓语动词也可译成介词短语。 双方见面寒暄几句,甚至海阔天空地聊一番就各自走开…… 四个动词连用。 “双方见面”是表示时间关系的从属成分,在译文中译成时间 状语,“寒暄几句” 和“聊一番”则是并列关系,可译成两个并列谓语。 When two strangers are introduced to each other, they will greet each other briefly, or even chat casually for quite a few minutes, and then excuse themselves.

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愚公批驳了智叟的错误思想,毫不动摇每天挖山不止。(《愚公移山》) 原文中的两个动词之间是时间先后关系,译文可通过完成现在分词短语来表示这 种关系。 Having criticized the wrong views of the Wise Old Man, they kept digging every day with unshakable determination.
我悄悄地披上了大衫,带上门出去了。 分析:三个并列谓语,也是时间先后关系。在翻译时可将“出去”作为主要动词, 其他两个动词可处理成分词短语。 Shrugging on an overcoat, I made my way out, closing the door behind me. --分析:很好地体现了英语多从属结构、少用并列谓语的特点。 海洋覆盖了地球表面的71%,是全球生命支持系统的一个基本组成部分。 The ocean, which covers 71 percent of the earth?s surface, is a basic component of the global bio-support system. 分析:可见,我们也可把汉语句子中的非主要谓语译成从句的形式。 后来,青蛇精在深山中修炼,习武多年,终于砸烂了那座塔,救出白蛇精。(《白 蛇传》) For many year afterwards, the Blue Snake Spirit hid in deep mountains and trained herself in martial arts and various supernatural powers. Eventually, she rescued the White Snake Spirit by smashing the tower. 原文如果译成一个句子,译文就显得冗长和拖沓,不够精练,根据原文的意群,将 原文在中间断开,译成两个句子。

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结语
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就译文本身而言,提高汉英翻译质量的一个关 问题是避免所谓“中文式英文” (“Chinglish”) 。翻译的最大课题之一就是摆脱 原文字面的束缚。 汉英翻译中,选择谓语要考虑搭配、习惯表达 方式、逻辑语法关系等多种因素。能找到意义 相符、功能相似的词或短语固然最好,若不能 则需要变通。词语间的恰当搭配是写作的基本 要求之一,也是翻译时要考虑的因素之一。弄 不好就会造成误解,甚至贻笑大方。

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我的手机电不足了。 他对这件事情漠不关心。 不同国家的社会习俗往往大相径庭。 这个月的销售额远没有达到我们的预期数目。 第二次世界大战是1945年8月15日结束的。 在新的职位上你会不断受到来自各方的批评。 星期天早晨他的身体状况仍未好转。 这种打字机轻便高效、经久耐用又经济实惠,适合高 中学生使用。 我禁不住流下了热泪。幸亏月光下的夜色,没让人看 到我的脆弱。 近年来,中、泰两国国民经济发展迅速,为两国的经 济、贸易合作提供了良好的基础。

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我的手机电不足了。 My mobile phone is low-powered( battery is low ). My mobile phone is running low on battery. 他对这件事情漠不关心。 He is indifferent to the matter. His attitude towards the matter is one of difference. 不同国家的社会习俗往往大相径庭。 Conventions in different country is often very different. Social customs are usually different from country to country. 这个月的销售额远没有达到我们的预期数目。 The sales volume this month is far from our expected targets. The sales volume this month has failed our expected targets by a large margin. 第二次世界大战是1945年8月15日结束的。 The Second World War ended on august 15th, 1945. World War II came to an end on August 15th, 1945. 在新的职位上你会不断受到来自各方的批评。 At your new post you will continuously (constantly) receive criticism from all sides. 星期天早晨他的身体状况仍未好转。 Sunday morning found him still unwell.

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这种打字机轻便高效、经久耐用又经济实惠,适合高中学生使用。 This type of typewriter is portable and durable, economical and practical for high school students. 我禁不住流下了热泪。幸亏月光下的夜色,没让人看到我的脆弱。 I felt tears streaming from my eyes. Thanks to the dimness of the evening under moonlight, I had been able to conceal my frailty. 近年来,中、泰两国国民经济发展迅速,为两国的经济、贸易合作提供了 良好的基础。 A. In recent years the national economies of China and Thailand have quickly developed, providing a good foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries. B. Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of the national economies in China and Thailand, which has prepared for good economic and trade cooperation between the two countries. C. China and Thailand, with the rapid development of their national economies in recent years, have laid a good foundation for their economic and trade cooperation. D. The rapid development of the national economies of China and Thailand in recent years has laid a sound foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

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power on/off,开机/关机 No tone power on/off.无开关机提示音. 占线.The line is busy. 手机没电了.The battery on your mobile phone has run out. 没有信号.The phone is out of service/has no signal. 坏了.there is some thing wrong with my mobile phone./my mobile phone is broken

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没电the battery is dead 未接电话 missed call 已接电话 received call 不在服务区 out of reach 限制呼叫 fixed dial 呼出通话 outgoing call 被叫通话 incoming call 近来的呼叫 recent call 呼叫转移 call divert 待机模式 standby mode 按键音 keypad tone 提示音 warning tone 手机实名制 mobile phone identification policy 双向收费 two-way charging scheme


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