? 构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。 ? 句子成分有主要成分和次要成分； ? 主要成分有主语和谓语； ? 次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补
(Subject) 1. 主语:是一个句子的主干部分之一,主语表 明是“什么人” ， “ 什么事”. 主语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动 名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等7种 表示。例如：
1.During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. （名词） 2.We often speak English in class. （代词） 3.One-third of the students in this class are girls. （数词） 4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure.
5.Smoking does harm to the health. （动名词） 6.The rich should help the poor.
7.When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. （主语从句） 8.It is necessary to master a foreign language.
(Predicate) 说明主语所做的动作或 具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语， 一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下： ? 1、简单谓语：由一个动词或动词短语构 成。如： He practices running every morning. The plane took off at ten o’clock.
（1）由情态动词加动词原形构成。如： You may keep the book for two weeks. （2）由助动词加动词原形,现在分词,过去分词构 成。如： Do you speak English？ They are working in a field. He has caught a bad cold. （3）由系动词加表语构成。如： We are students. 注意：谓语与主语在人称与数方面要保持一致。
它一般位于系动词（如be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem等）之后。 ? 表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数词、 副 词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语及表 语从句等10种情况表示。例如：
1.Our English teacher is an American. （名词） 2.Is it yours? （代词） 3.The weather has turned cold. （形容词） 4.The speech is exciting. （分词） 5.Three times seven is twenty one? （数词）
6.His job is to teach English. （不定式） 7.His hobby is playing football. （动名词） 8.The meeting is of great importance. （介词短语） 9.Time is up. The class is over. （副词） 10.The truth is that he has never been abroad. （表语从句）
注意：系动词（Linking verb)用于连接主语和 表语，说明主语的状态，性质特征和身份等。 1）状态系动词用来表示主语状态，只有be一词， 例如： He is a teacher. 2）持续系动词用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况 或态度，主要有keep, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如： He always kept silent at meeting. 3）表像系动词用来表示“看起来像”这一概念， 主要有seem, appear, look, 例如： He seems (to be) very sad.
注意：系动词（Linking verb)用于连接主语和表 语，说明主语的状态，性质特征和身份等。 4）感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, look 例如： This kind of cloth feels very soft. 5）变化系动词表示主语变成什么样，主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come.例如： Our country is becoming richer and richer. 6）结果是;证明是 prove, turn out, 例如： The rumor proved false. His plan turned out a success.
般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如： 1.He is doing his homework.
2.The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. （代词、动名词） 3.How many dictionaries do you have? I have five. （名词、数词）
4.They helped the old with their housework yesterday. （名词化形容词，名词） 5.He pretended not to see me.
6.I enjoy listening to popular music.
7.I think（that）he is fit for his office.
Lend me your dictionary, please. To: write, tell, pass, give, send, promise, show, hand, read, tell, bring, throw等，例如： He sent the novel to William yesterday. For: make, buy, sing,cook等，例如： She bought a gift for her mother. ? （2）复合宾语（宾语+宾补），例如： ? They elected him their monitor.
Complement）， 用于补充说明宾语的动作，一般位于宾 语之后，宾语与宾语补足语一起构成复 合宾语。需接复合宾语的动词有：tell， let，help，teach， ask，see，have， order，make等。“宾补”一般可由名 词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介 词短语充当。例如：
1.His father named him Xiaoming. （名词） 2.They painted their boat white. （形容词） 3.Let the fresh air in. （副词） 4.You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. （不定式短语） 5.We saw her entering the room. （现在分词） 6.We found everything in the lab in good order.
(Attribute)。 ? 定语可由以下等成分表示： 1.Guilin is a beautiful city.（形容词） 2.China is a developing country; America is a developed country.（分词） 3.There are thirty women teachers in our school.（名词） 4.His rapid progress in English made us surprised.（代词）
5.Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom. （不定式短语） 6.The teaching plan for next term has been worked out. （动名词） 7.He is reading an article about how to learn English. （介词短语） 8.She is the girl who sings best in my class. (定语从句)
动作或状态特征的句子成分，叫做状语 （Adverbial）。可由以下形式表示 ： 1.Light travels most quickly. （副词及副词性词组） 2.He has lived in the city for ten years. （介词短语） 3.He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.
4.He sat in the room, making a model plane.
5.Once you begin, you must continue.
1. How about meeting again at six? （时间状语） 2.Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.（原因状语） 3.I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.（条件状语） 4.Mr Smith lives on the third floor. （地点状语） 5.She put the eggs into the basket with great care. （方式状语）
She came in with a dictionary in her hand. （伴随状语） 6.In order to catch up with the others, I （目的状语） must work harder. 7.He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. （结果状语） 8.She works very hard though she is old.
9.I am taller than he is. （比较状语）
词或代词做进一步的解释，通常由名词、 数词、代词或从句担任，如： This is Mr. Zhou, our headmaster.
做一些附加的解释，通常有to be honest , I think (suppose, believe---)等，如： To be frank, I don’t quite agree with you.
The students got on the school bus. ? 2. He handed me the newspaper. ? 3. I shall answer your question after class. ? 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! ? 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. ? 6. His job is to train swimmers. ? 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. ? 8. There is going to be an American film tonight.
He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. ? 10. His wish is to become a scientist. ? 11. He managed to finish the work in time. ? 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. ? 13. He found it important to master English. ? 14. Do you have anything else to say? ? 15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good. ? 16. Would you please tell me your address? ? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. ? 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy.
He noticed a man enter the room. ? 20. The apples tasted sweet. ? 一、1、主语，定语；2、间接宾语；3、谓语， 状语；4、定语；5、状语，状语；6、定语，表 语；7、宾语，状语；8、谓语，主语；9、谓语； 10、主语，表语；11、谓语，宾语；12、状语； 13、形式宾语，真正宾语；14、宾语、定语； 15、插入语，状语；16、宾语(间宾+直宾)；17、 状语，状语；18、形式主语，表语，宾补；19、 宾补；20、表语
句子成分练习题( 二 ) 指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分： 1.Whether we’ll go depend on the weather . 2. People’s standards of living are going up steadily . 3. That was how they were defeated. 4.The nursery takes good care of our children . 5.I’ll return the book to you tomorrow . 6.We are sure that we shall succeed . 7.The woman with a baby in her arms is his other . 8.There are many films that I’d like to see.
9.Have you met the person about whom he was speaking ? 10.I have a lot of work to do . 11.Anyway I won’t stop you from doing it . 12. She was the first to learn about it. 13.How many new words did you learn last class? 14.Seeing this ,some comrades became very worried . 15.Much interested , he agreed to give it a try . 16. The old man was feeling very tired 17.We should serve the people heart and soul.
18. You will find it useful after you leave school. 19.Spring coming on , the tree turned green. 20.Some farmers saw something strange in the sky 21.We think it necessary that everyone should attend the meeting . 22.It’s strange that she doesn’t come today . 23.It was in the library that I found him today . 24.He likes drawing at times when he isn’t working . 25.We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door.
答案 1.主语从句 2谓语 3表语从句 4宾语 5.间宾 6.宾语从句 7.定语 8.定语从句 9.定语 10.定语 11.状语 12.定语 13.宾语 14.状语 15.状语 16.表语 17.状语 18.宾补 19.状语 20.定语 21.宾语从句 22.主语从句 23.状语 24.状语 25.状语
)1. ____ will leave for Beijing. ? A. Now there the man ? B. The man here now ? C. The man who is here now ? D. The man is here now ? ( ) 2. The weather ____. ? A. wet and cold B. is wet and cold ? C. not wet and cold D. were wet and cold ? ( ) 3. The apple tasted ____. ? A. sweets B. sweetly ? C. nicely D. sweet
) 4. He got up ____ yesterday morning. ? A. lately B. late ? C. latest D. latter ? ( )5. The actor ______at the age of 70. ? A. dead B. died ? C. dyed D. dying ? ( )6. ____ were all very tired, but none of ____ would stop to take a rest. ? A. We, us B. Us, we ? C. We, our D. We, we
)7. He found the street much ______. ? A. crowd B. crowding ? C. crowded D. crowdedly
) 8.I think _____necessary to learn English well. ? A. its B. it ? C. that D. that is
) 9. The dog ____ mad. ? A. looks B. is looked ? C. is being looked D. was looked
)10.I will never forget the day ______ I joined the army. ? A. that B. when ? C. in which D. where
1. Our school is not far from my home. 2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you 3. All of us considered him honest. 4. My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes. 5. He broke a piece of glass. 6. He made it clear that he would leave the city． 7. At last he got home, tired and hungry. 8. Trees turn green when spring comes.
9. They pushed the door open. 10. Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 11. He wrote carefully some letters to his friends. 12.All the students think highly of his teaching 13. We need a place twice larger than this one. 14. He asked us to sing an English song. 15. Don’t get nervous. Help yourself to what you like．
KEYS 分析下列句子成分 1.主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 2. 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 3. 主语 ＋动词 ＋ 宾语 ＋ 宾语补足语 4. 主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 5. 主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 6. 主语＋动词 ＋ 形式宾语 it＋ 宾语补足语+宾语 7. 主语 ＋不及物动词 8. 主语＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 9. 主语 ＋动词 ＋ 宾语 ＋ 宾语补足语 10. 主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 11. 主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 12 主语＋及物动词 ＋宾语 13. 主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 14. 主语＋动词 ＋ 宾语 ＋ 宾语补足语 15. 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语