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奥登


30 年代成为英国“新诗”的代表,被称为“奥登派”或“奥登一代”(The W.H.Auden Society)的 诗人。他的第一部《诗集》(1930)给英国诗带来了新内容、新方向、新技巧。 。 《雄辩家》(1932)是一部交替用诗与散文写的政治讽刺作品,也是他在诗的形式和技巧方 面进行长期实验的开始。 这个时期的代表作是诗集《看吧,陌生人》 (1936,1937 年在美国出版时改

名为《在这座岛 上》。1937 年发表长诗《西班牙》 ) ,声援西班牙人民的反法西斯斗争。1938 年访问中国以 后,与衣修午德(Christopher Isherwood) 《战地行》(1939),其中的一组十四行诗《战争 时期》 (1939)是奥登所写,对中国的抗战表示同情与支持。这一时期他还和衣修午德合作 写了三出诗剧: 《皮下之狗》(1935)、 《攀登 F6》(1936)与《在边界上》(1938),曾先后在伦 敦一个实验剧院上演。 诗集《另一次》 (1940)和长诗《新年书信》(1941)反映了第二次世界大战爆发前后他的思 想向右转的过程。他皈依基督教以后的宗教信仰和政治态度反映在三首长诗中: 《暂时》 (1945)、 《海与镜》(1944)与《忧虑的时代》(1948),后者曾获得 1948 年普利策诗歌奖。 主要诗作有《阿基琉斯的盾牌》(1955)、 《向克莱奥女神致敬》 (1960) 《在屋内》(1965) 、 与《无墙的城市》(1969)。 《染匠的手》(1963)与《次要的世界》(1968)。此外,他还和麦克尼斯合写过《冰岛书简》 (1937),和美国诗人切斯特· 考尔曼合写过几出歌剧的歌词。 奥登晚年整理并修订了自己的诗作,按时间次序编排,分两册出版《短诗结集 1927~ 1957》(1966)与《长诗结集》(1968)。

Auden published about four hundred poems, including seven long poems (two of them book-length). He also wrote more than four hundred essays and reviews about literature, history, politics, music, religion, and many other subjects.
This and other poems of the late 1920s tended to be in a clipped, elusive style that alluded to, but did not directly state, their themes of loneliness and loss. Twenty of these poems appeared in his first book Poems (1928), a pamphlet hand-printed by Stephen Spender.[41] In 1928 he wrote his first dramatic work, Paid on Both Sides, subtitled "A Charade," which combined style and content from the Icelandic sagas with jokes from English school life. This mixture of tragedy and farce, with a dream play-within-the-play, introduced the mixed styles and content of much of his later work.[7] This drama and thirty short poems appeared in his first published book Poems (1930, 2nd edition with seven poems replaced, 1933); the poems in the book were mostly lyrical and gnomic mediations on hoped-for or unconsummated love and on themes of personal, social, and seasonal renewal; among these poems were "It was Easter as I walked," "Doom is dark," "Sir, no man's enemy," and "This lunar beauty."[26] 在 1928 年,他写了他的第一部戏剧作品,双面支付,副标题为“夏利”相结合,从冰岛传奇 笑话英语学校生活的风格和内容。这种混合物的悲剧和闹剧,戏中戏的同一个梦想,推出了 混合样式和内容的多少对他后来的工作中。 [7]这部剧和 30 短诗出现在他首次出版的书诗 (1930 年,七言绝句取代第二版, 1933 年),在这本书的诗歌大多是抒情和格言调解希 望或没有完婚的爱和对个人,社会和季节性重建主题,在这些诗歌中, “这是复活节我走着 走着, “ ”毁灭战士是黑暗的, “主席先生,没有男人的敌人,”和“今年农历的美”。 [26] A recurrent theme in these early poems is the effect of "family ghosts", Auden's term for the powerful, unseen psychological effects of preceding generations on any individual life (and the title of a poem). A parallel theme, present throughout his work, is the contrast between biological

evolution (unchosen and involuntary) and the psychological evolution of cultures and individuals (voluntary and deliberate even in its subconscious aspects). [7] 这些早期诗歌中反复出现的主题是“家庭鬼” ,奥登的任期为强大的,看不见的心理影响 上一代对任何个人生活(一首诗的标题)的效果。一个平行的主题,出现在他的工作中,是 生物进化之间的对比和心理演变的文化和个人(即使在其潜意识方面的自愿和故意) ( unchosen 和自愿) 。 [7 ] [26] His verse drama The Dance of Death (1933) was a political extravaganza in the style of a theatrical revue, which Auden later called "a nihilistic leg-pull."[43] His next play The Dog Beneath the Skin (1935), written in collaboration with Isherwood, was similarly a quasi-Marxist updating of Gilbert and Sullivan in which the general idea of social transformation was more prominent than any specific political action or structure.[7][26] 死亡之舞(1933)是他的诗剧风格的剧场滑稽剧,奥登后来被称为“虚无主义的腿拉的政治 盛会。 ” [ 43 ]他的下一个玩狗的皮肤下“(1935) ,写伊舍伍德合作,是同样是准马克思 主义的最新吉尔伯特和沙利文在社会转型的总体思路是比任何具体的政治行动或结构更加 突出。 [7 ] [26] These tendencies in style and content culminate in his collection Look, Stranger! (1936; his British publisher chose the title, which Auden hated; Auden retitled the 1937 US edition On This Island).[26] This book included political odes, love poems, comic songs, meditative lyrics, and a variety of intellectually intense but emotionally accessible verse. Among the poems included in the book, connected by themes of personal, social, and evolutionary change and of the possibilities and problems of personal love, were "Hearing of harvests", "Out on the lawn I lie in bed", "O what is that sound", "Look, stranger, on this island now" (later revised versions change "on" to "at"), and "Our hunting fathers." 这些趋势在风格和内容上达到高潮,在他的收藏看,陌生人! ( 1936 年他的英国出版商 选择的称号,奥登恨;奥登改称在这个岛上的 1937 年美国版) [26]这本书包括的政治抒情 诗,爱情诗,漫画的歌曲,歌词冥想,各种智力激烈,但感情上访问的诗句。其中在本书中, 连接主题的个人,社会和进化的变化和个人的爱情的可能性和问题,包括诗歌, “听到丰 收” ,“草坪上,我趴在床上”, “O 什么那声音“,”看,陌生人,在这个岛上现在是“ (后 来修订版本”在“改变”上“ ) , ”我们的狩猎父亲。 “

In 1937, after observing the Spanish Civil War he wrote a politically engaged pamphlet poem Spain (1937); he later discarded it from his collected works. Journey to a War (1939) a travel book in prose and verse, was written with Isherwood after their visit to the Sino-Japanese War. 1937 年,在观察西班牙内战后,他写了一个积极参
与政治的小册子诗西班牙( 1937 年) ,他后来从他的文集丢弃。西游记的战争(1939) 旅游书的散文和诗歌,写了与伊舍伍德考察后的抗日战争。Auden's last collaboration with Isherwood was their third play, On the Frontier, an anti-war satire written in Broadway and West End styles.[12][26] 奥登的最后合作伊舍伍德是他们的第三个上场, 在边境, 写在百老汇和伦敦西区风格的反战 的讽刺。 [12 ] [26] Auden's themes in his shorter poems now included the fragility and transience of personal love ("Danse Macabre", "The Dream", "Lay your sleeping head"), a theme he treated with ironic wit in his "Four Cabaret Songs for Miss Hedli Anderson" (which included "O Tell Me the Truth About Love" and the revised version of "Funeral Blues"), and also the corrupting effect of public and official culture on individual lives ("Casino", "School Children", "Dover").[7][26] In 1938 he wrote

a series of dark, ironic ballads about individual failure ("Miss Gee", "James Honeyman", "Victor"). All these appeared in his next book of verse, Another Time (1940), together with other famous poems such as "Dover", "As He Is", and "Musé des Beaux Arts" (all written before he moved to e America in 1939), and "In Memory of W. B. Yeats", "The Unknown Citizen", "Law Like Love", "September 1, 1939", and "In Memory of Sigmund Freud" (written in America).[7] The elegies for Yeats and Freud are partly statements of Auden's anti-heroic theme, in which great deeds are performed, not by unique geniuses whom others cannot hope to imitate, but by otherwise ordinary individuals who were "silly like us" (Yeats) or of whom it could be said "he wasn't clever at all" (Freud), and who became teachers of others, not awe-inspiring heroes 奥登的主题在他的更短的诗现在包含的脆弱和短暂个人的爱 “探戈群魔乱舞” , “大梦” , ( “躺在你沉睡的头” ) , 一个主题, 他对待讽刺机智在他的“四歌厅歌小姐 Hedli 的安德森“ 其 ( 中包括”哦,告诉我爱情的真相吧“和修订版”葬礼蓝调“ ) ,也是个人生活的公众和官方文 化的破坏作用( ”赌场“ , ”学童“,”佛“ ) [ 7] [ 26 ]在 1938 年,他写了一系列的黑暗, 讽刺民谣有关个人的失败( ”啧啧小姐“ , ”詹姆斯·霍尼曼“ , ”维克托“ ) 。这些都出 现在他的下一本书的诗句,另一个时间(1940 年) ,连同其他著名的诗如“佛” , “因为 他是”和“美术博物馆” (全写之前,他于 1939 年移居美国) , “记忆叶芝”, “未知公民” , “像爱法” ,“ 1939 年 9 月 1 日” , “记忆弗洛伊德” (写在美国) 。 [ 7 ]挽歌叶芝和弗 洛伊德是部分报表奥登的反英雄主题, 在其中进行伟大的事迹, 而不是由人别人可以不希望 模仿的独特的天才,但谁是“像我们这样的愚蠢” (叶芝)或由其他普通个人,其中它可以 说“他不聪明” (弗洛伊德) ,谁成为了别人的老师,不凛然的英雄 In 1940 Auden wrote a long philosophical poem "New Year Letter", which appeared with miscellaneous notes and other poems in The Double Man (1941). At the time of his return to the Anglican Communion he began writing abstract verse on theological themes, such as "Canzone" and "Kairos and Logos." Around 1942, as he became more comfortable with religious themes, his verse became more open and relaxed, and he increasingly used the syllabic verse he learned from the poetry of Marianne Moore. 1940 年,奥登写长哲学诗“新年家书” ,这似乎与杂项票据及其他诗在双文( 1941 ) 。 在他返回英国圣公会的时间,他开始创作抽象的神学主题的诗句,如“合组歌”和“关键时刻 和标志。 ”大约在 1942 年,他变得更加舒适与宗教题材,他的诗歌变得更加开放和轻松的, 他越来越多地使用他学会了从玛丽安·摩尔的诗歌音节的诗句。 His recurring themes in this period included the artist's temptation to use other persons as material for his art rather than valuing them for themselves ("Prospero to Ariel") and the corresponding moral obligation to make and keep commitments while recognizing the temptation to break them ("In Sickness and Health").[7][31] From 1942 through 1947 he worked mostly on three long poems in dramatic form, each differing from the others in form and content: "For the Time Being: A Christmas Oratorio", "The Sea and the Mirror: A Commentary on Shakespeare's The Tempest" (both published in For the Time Being, 1944), and The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue (published separately 1947).[31] The first two, with Auden's other new poems from 1940 to 1944, were included in his first collected edition, The Collected Poetry of W. H. Auden (1945), with most of his earlier poems, many in revised versions 他在此期间的经常性主题包括艺术家的诱惑,他的艺术,而不是估值他们自己( “普洛斯彼 罗阿里尔” ) ,并在相应的道德义务,以使和保持承诺,同时承认打破他们的诱惑使用为 原料的其他人( “在疾病与健康” ) 。 [7 ] [31 ]从 1942 年到 1947 年,他的工作主要是

三个长诗以戏剧化的形式, 从其他每个不同的形式和内容: “对于当时的圣诞清唱剧” “海镜: 莎士比亚的暴风雨” (都发表在作为, 1944 年时) , “焦虑时代: à 巴洛克式的牧歌 1947 ( 年分别出版) 。 [31 ]的第一个 2 评论,奥登的其他新诗,被列入 1940 至 1944 年在他的 第一个收集到的版本,奥登(1945 )收集的诗,他早期的诗,在修订后的版本 After completing The Age of Anxiety in 1946 he focused again on shorter poems, notably "A Walk After Dark," "The Love Feast", and "The Fall of Rome."[31] Many of these evoked the Italian village where he summered in 1948-57, and his next book, Nones (1951), had a Mediterranean atmosphere new to his work. A new theme was the "sacred importance" of the human body[46] in its ordinary aspect (breathing, sleeping, eating) and the continuity with nature that the body made possible (in contrast to the division between humanity and nature that he had emphasized in the 1930s); his poems on these themes included "In Praise of Limestone" and "Memorial for the City."[7][31] In 1949 Auden and Kallman wrote the libretto for Igor Stravinsky's opera The Rake's Progress, and later collaborated on two libretti for operas by Hans Werner Henze. 焦虑的年龄在 1946 年完成后,他再次聚焦在更短的诗,特别是“黑暗后的散步, ”爱情盛宴 “ , ”罗马的堕落。“ [31]这些诱发许多意大利村庄,在那里他避暑在 1948 年至 1957 年, 他的下一本书, Nones (1951 年) ,他的工作的新地中海氛围。 [46]一个新的主题是“神 圣的重要性”人体在其日常方面(呼吸,睡觉,吃饭)和身体(相反,他的人类与自然之间 的分工与自然的连续性强调在 20 世纪 30 年代), 他对这些主题的诗歌包括“赞石灰石”和“城 市的纪念。 ” [7 ] [31 ]在 1949 年,奥登和卡尔曼写的唱词伊戈尔·斯特拉文斯基的歌剧浪 子的历程,以及后来合作的歌剧上两个利布雷蒂为汉斯维尔纳亨策。 Auden's first separate prose book was The Enchafè Flood: The Romantic Iconography of the Sea d (1950), based on a series of lectures on the image of the sea in romantic literature.[48] Between 1949 and 1954 he worked on a sequence of seven Good Friday poems, "Horae Canonicae", an encyclopedic survey of geological, biological, cultural, and personal history, focused on the irreversible act of murder; the poem was also a study in cyclical and linear ideas of time. While writing this, he also wrote a sequence of seven poems about man's relation to nature, "Bucolics." Both sequences appeared in his next book, The Shield of Achilles (1955), with other short poems, including the book's title poem, "Fleet Visit", and "Epitaph for the Unknown Soldier." 焦虑的年龄在 1946 年完成后,他再次聚焦在更短的诗,特别是“黑暗后的散步, ”爱情盛宴 “ , ”罗马的堕落。“ [31]这些诱发许多意大利村庄,在那里他避暑在 1948 年至 1957 年, 他的下一本书, Nones (1951 年) ,他的工作的新地中海氛围。 [46]一个新的主题是“神 圣的重要性”人体在其日常方面(呼吸,睡觉,吃饭)和身体(相反,他的人类与自然之间 的分工与自然的连续性强调在 20 世纪 30 年代), 他对这些主题的诗歌包括“赞石灰石”和“城 市的纪念。 ” [7 ] [31 ]在 1949 年,奥登和卡尔曼写的唱词伊戈尔·斯特拉文斯基的歌剧浪 子的历程,以及后来合作的歌剧上两个利布雷蒂为汉斯维尔纳亨策。 Extending the themes of "Horae Canonicae", in 1955–56 he wrote a group of poems about "history," the term he used to mean the set of unique events made by human choices, as opposed to "nature," the set of involuntary events created by natural processes, statistics, and anonymous forces such as crowds. These poems included "T the Great", "The Maker", and the title poem of his next collection Homage to Clio (1960). 扩展的主题“海悦 Canonicae ” ,在 1955 年至 1956 年,他写了一组诗歌,关于“历史”一词, 他用来指由人的选择, 而不是“自然”的一套独特的事件集非自愿通过自然过程, 统计和人群, 如无名的力量创建的事件。这些诗包括“T 大” , “创造者” ,并题诗一首,他的下一个收集 克里欧(1960)致敬。

In the late 1950s Auden's style became less rhetorical while its range of styles increased. In 1958, having moved his summer home from Italy to Austria, he wrote "Good-bye to the Mezzogiorno"; other poems from this period include "Dichtung und Wahrheit: An Unwritten Poem", a prose poem about the relation between love and personal and poetic language, and the contrasting "Dame Kind", about the anonymous impersonal reproductive instinct. These and other poems, including his 1955–66 poems about history, appeared in Homage to Clio (1960) 扩展的主题“海悦 Canonicae ” ,在 1955 年至 1956 年,他写了一组诗歌,关于“历史”一词, 他用来指由人的选择, 而不是“自然”的一套独特的事件集非自愿通过自然过程, 统计和人群, 如无名的力量创建的事件。这些诗包括“T 大” , “创造者” ,并题诗一首,他的下一个收集 克里欧(1960)致敬。

His prose book The Dyer's Hand (1962) gathered many of the lectures he gave in Oxford as Professor of Poetry in 1956–61, together with revised versions of essays and notes written since the mid-1940s.[31] While translating the haiku and other verse in Dag Hammarskj?ld's Markings, Auden began using haiku for many of his poems.[31] A sequence of fifteen poems about his house in Austria, "Thanksgiving for a Habitat", appeared in About the House (1965), with other poems that included his reflections on his lecture tours, "On the Circuit."[7] In the late 1960s he wrote some of his most vigorous poems, including "River Profile" and two poems that looked back over his life, "Prologue at Sixty" and "Forty Years On." All these appeared in City Without Walls (1969). His lifelong passion for Icelandic legend culminated in his verse translation of The Elder Edda (1969).
他的散文书代尔之手 (1962) 云集了众多的讲座, 他给牛津大学诗歌教授于 1956 年至 1961 年,与 20 世纪 40 年代中期以来的散文和书面说明的修订版本。 [31] 虽然翻译的俳句和其他诗在达格·哈马舍尔德的标志, 奥登开始使用他的许多诗俳句。 [31 ] 序列 15 诗约他在奥地利的房子, “感恩一品居” ,出现在关于在众议院(1965 ) ,包括 他的反射在他的巡回演讲, “在赛道上与其他诗”[ 7 ]在 20 世纪 60 年代末,他写了一些他 最有力的诗,包括“河简介”两首诗,回头一看,在他的生活, “六十年的序幕”和“四十年之 久。 ”所有这些出现在无墙之城(1969) 。他毕生的激情高潮冰岛传说上古埃达(1969) 在他的诗歌翻译。

He was commissioned in 1963 to write lyrics for the Broadway musical Man of La Mancha, but the producer rejected them as insufficiently romantic.[47] In 1971 Secretary-General of the United Nations U Thant commissioned Auden to write the words, and Pablo Casals to compose the music, for a "Hymn to the United Nations", but the work had no official status.[49]

A Certain World: A Commonplace Book (1970) was a kind of self-portrait
made up of favorite quotations with commentary, arranged in alphabetical order by subject. His last prose book was a selection of essays and reviews, Forewords and Afterwords (1973).[10] His last books of verse, Epistle to a Godson (1972) and the unfinished Thank You, Fog (published posthumously, 1974) include reflective poems about language ("Natural Linguistics") and about his own aging ("A New Year Greeting", "Talking to Myself", "A Lullaby" ["The din of work is subdued"]). His last completed poem, in haiku form, was "Archeology", about ritual and timelessness, two recurring themes in his later years.
在 1963 年他被委任为百老汇音乐剧的人拉曼恰写歌词, 但制片人拒绝了他们不够浪漫,[47] 在 1971 年联合国吴丹秘书长委托奥登写的字,卡萨尔斯谱写音乐,赞美诗“联合国” ,但没 有正式工作的状态。 [49]

奥登在 1970A 某些世界:一个老生常谈的书(1970)一种喜爱的解说语录,按字母顺序排 列的主题自画像。他的散文书的散文和评论,前言和后记(1973) [10]他的最后的诗句书 籍,书信龙芯( 1972)和未完成的,谢谢你选择,包括反光雾(死后出版,1974 年)诗 歌语言 “天然语言学” ) ( 和关于他自己的老化 “新年问候” , “自言自语”, “摇篮曲” “工 ( 作制服的喧嚣”] ) 。他最后完成的诗,俳句的形式, “考古”有关仪式和永恒,在他晚年 的两个反复出现的主题。 [31]

The following list includes only the books of poems and essays that Auden prepared during his lifetime; for a more complete list, including other works and posthumous editions, see W. H. Auden bibliography. In the list below, works reprinted in the Complete Works of W. H. Auden are indicated by footnote references.

[edit] Books
下面的列表包含的书籍只诗歌和散文,奥登准备在他的一生中,更完整的列表,包括其他工 程及谥版本,看到奥登的参考书目。 在下面的列表,转载的作品全集奥登表示脚注引用。
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Poems (London, 1930; second edn., seven poems substituted, London, 1933; includes poems and Paid on Both Sides: A Charade[44]) (dedicated to Christopher Isherwood). The Orators: An English Study (London, 1932, verse and prose; slightly revised edn., London, 1934; revised edn. with new preface, London, 1966; New York 1967) (dedicated to Stephen Spender). The Dance of Death (London, 1933, play)[44] (dedicated to Robert Medley and Rupert Doone).

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Poems (New York, 1934; contains Poems [1933 edition], The Orators [1932 edition], and The Dance of Death). The Dog Beneath the Skin (London, New York, 1935; play, with Christopher Isherwood)[44] (dedicated to Robert Moody). The Ascent of F6 (London, 1936; 2nd edn., 1937; New York, 1937; play, with Christopher Isherwood)[44] (dedicated to John Bicknell Auden). Look, Stranger! (London, 1936, poems; US edn., On This Island, New York, 1937) (dedicated to Erika Mann) Letters from Iceland (London, New York, 1937; verse and prose, with Louis MacNeice)[45] (dedicated to George Augustus Auden). On the Frontier (London, 1938; New York 1939; play, with Christopher Isherwood)[44] (dedicated to Benjamin Britten). Journey to a War (London, New York, 1939; verse and prose, with Christopher Isherwood)[45] (dedicated to E. M. Forster). Another Time (London, New York 1940; poetry) (dedicated to Chester Kallman). The Double Man (New York, 1941, poems; UK edn., New Year Letter, London, 1941) (Dedicated to Elizabeth Mayer). For the Time Being (New York, 1944; London, 1945; two long poems: "The Sea and the Mirror: A Commentary on Shakespeare's The Tempest", dedicated to James and Tania Stern, and "For the Time Being: A Christmas Oratorio", in memoriam Constance Rosalie Auden [Auden's mother]). The Collected Poetry of W. H. Auden (New York, 1945; includes new poems) (dedicated to Christopher Isherwood and Chester Kallman). The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue (New York, 1947; London, 1948; verse; won the 1948 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry) (dedicated to John Betjeman). Collected Shorter Poems, 1930–1944 (London, 1950; similar to 1945 Collected Poetry) (dedicated to Christopher Isherwood and Chester Kallman). The Enchafè Flood (New York, 1950; London, 1951; prose) (dedicated to Alan d [55] Ansen). Nones (New York, 1951; London, 1952; poems) (dedicated to Reinhold and Ursula Niebuhr) The Shield of Achilles (New York, London, 1955; poems) (won the 1956 National Book Award for Poetry)[56] (dedicated to Lincoln and Fidelma Kirstein). Homage to Clio (New York, London, 1960; poems) (dedicated to E. R. and A. E. Dodds). The Dyer's Hand (New York, 1962; London, 1963; essays) (dedicated to Nevill Coghill).[57] About the House (New York, London, 1965; poems) (dedicated to Edmund and Elena Wilson). Collected Shorter Poems 1927–1957 (London, 1966; New York, 1967) (dedicated to Christopher Isherwood and Chester Kallman). Collected Longer Poems (London, 1968; New York, 1969). Secondary Worlds (London, New York, 1969; prose) (dedicated to Valerie Eliot). City Without Walls and Other Poems (London, New York, 1969) (dedicated to Peter Heyworth).

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A Certain World: A Commonplace Book (New York, London, 1970; quotations with commentary) (dedicated to Geoffrey Gorer). Epistle to a Godson and Other Poems (London, New York, 1972) (dedicated to Orlan Fox). Forewords and Afterwords (New York, London, 1973; essays) (dedicated to Hannah Arendt). Thank You, Fog: Last Poems (London, New York, 1974) (dedicated to Michael and Marny Yates).

《死亡之舞》和《双重人》中的诗篇,奠定了他在 20 世纪文坛上的重要地位。 他的诗作《焦虑的时代》使他赢得了 1948 年的普利策奖。其他作品包括《短诗 集》、《阿喀琉斯之盾》、《长诗集》。

喜子的日记
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W.H.Auden W.H.奥登
2009-10-21 10:14:04

Wystan Hugh Auden was born in York, England, in 1907. He moved to Birmingham during childhood and was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. As a young man he was influenced by the poetry of Thomas Hardy and Robert Frost, as well as William Blake, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and Old English verse. At Oxford his precocity as a poet was immediately apparent, and he formed lifelong friendships with two fellow writers, Stephen Spender and Christopher Isherwood.

威斯坦· 奥登 1907 年生于英格兰约克郡。在孩童时移居到伯明翰并在牛津基督教教堂接受教 休· 育。年轻的时候,他受托马斯· 哈代和罗伯特· 弗洛斯的诗歌影响,还有威廉· 布莱克、艾米利· 狄 更森、杰勒德· 迈勒· 霍普克斯,以及古典英诗。在牛津时,作为一个诗人,他的早熟很快就显现 出来了,他与两位伙伴作家史蒂芬· 斯彭德和克里斯托弗建立了一生友谊。

In 1928, his collection Poems was privately printed, but it wasn't until 1930, when another collection titled poems (though its contents were different) was published, that Auden was established as the leading voice of a new generation.

1928 年,他的诗集私自印刷,但到 1930 年也没能出版,而另一本被冠名的诗集(尽管有些部 分不同)得以出版,使得奥登被誉为新时代的领导声音。

Ever since, he has been admired for his unsurpassed technical virtuosity and an ability to write poems in nearly every imaginable verse form; the incorporation in his work of popular culture, current events, and vernacular speech; and also for the vast range of his intellect, which drew easily from an extraordinary variety of literatures, art forms, social and political theories, and scientific and technical information. He had a remarkable wit, and often mimicked the writing styles of other poets such as Dickinson, W.B.Yeats, and Henry James. His poetry frequently recounts, literally or metaphorically, a journey or quest, and his travels provided rich material for his verse.

到目前为止, 奥登因他无法超越的技术性的鉴赏力和极尽想象的诗歌形式的写作能而被敬仰; 在 他的作品汇编里融合大众的文化、现实的事件以及本土的演讲;还有他强大的无边的理解力,极 其容易从某种异化多变的文化、艺术形式、社会和政治理论、科学和技术的形式里去描述。他有 卓越的智慧,常常模仿其他诗人的形式,例如狄金森、W.B.叶芝及亨利· 詹姆斯。他的诗歌常常 详细讲述,逐字逐句或隐喻地、一个旅行或追求。他的旅行为他的诗歌提供了丰富的素材。

He visited Germany, Iceland, and China, served in the Spanish Civil war, and in 1939 moved to the United States, where he met his lover, Chester Kallman, and became an American citizen. His own beliefs changed radically between his youthful career in England, when he was an ardent advocate of socialism and Freudian psychoanalysis, and his later phase in America, when his central preoccupation became Christianity and the theology of modern Protestant theologians. A prolific writer, Auden was also a noted playwright, librettist, editor, and essayist. Generally considered the greatest English poet of the twentieth century, his work has exerted a major influence on succeeding generations of poets on both sides of the Atlantic.

他去过德国、冰岛、中国,在西班牙内战中服过役,1939 年去到美国,遇见他的爱人切斯特· 卡 尔曼,并成为美国公民。在英国,他年轻时期的生涯期间他彻底变更自己的信仰,当时他是一个

热心的社会主义和弗洛伊德的心理学的倡导者, 他的余生都停留在美国, 那时他心灵的进驻者是 基督教和现代新教徒的神学家们的理论。作为一位多产作家,奥登也是一位著名的剧作家、词作 者、编辑以及随笔作家。通常被认为是 20 世纪最伟大的英文诗人,他的作品对大西洋两岸的同 时代成功诗人产生了重要影响。

W.H.Auden was a Chancellor of the Academy of American Poets from 1954 to 1973, and divided most of the second half of his life between residences in New York City and Austria. He died in Vienna in 1973.

从 1954 年到 1973 年,W.H.奥登是美国诗人学校的校长,大约有一半的生命段都居住在纽约城 和奥地利之间。1973 年在维也纳逝世。

A Selected Bibliography

精选的书目

Poetry

诗歌

Poems (privately printed, 1928) Poems (1930) The Orators prose and verse (1932) Look, Stranger! in Amercia: On This Island(1936) Spain (1937)

Another Time (1940) The Double Man (1941) The Quest (1941) For the Time Being (1944) The Sea and the Mirror (1944) Collected Poetry (1945)

诗歌 (私人印制 1928) 诗歌 (1930) 演说家的散文和诗歌 (1932) 看,陌生人!在美国:在这岛上 (1936) 西班牙 (1937) 另一段时光 (1940) 双面人 (1941) 寻找 (1941) 从这一刻开始 (1944) 海洋和镜子 (1944) 诗歌选集 (1945)

作为一位多产作家,奥登也是一位著名的剧作家、词作者、编辑以及随笔作家。通常被认为是 20 世纪最伟大的英文诗人,他的作品对大西洋两岸的同时代成功诗人产生了重要影响。 W.H.Auden was a Chancellor of the Academy of American Poets from 1954 to 1973, and divided most of the second half of his life between residences in New York City and Austria. He died in Vienna in 1973.

他的第一部《诗集》(1930)给英国诗带来了新内容、新方向、新技巧。在马克思 主义影响下,这些新诗在政治上是左倾的,反映了英国经济大萧条时期严重的政 治和社会问题。
《雄辩家》(1932)是一部交替用诗与散文写的政治讽刺作品,也是他在诗的形式和技巧方面 进行长期实验的开始。 这个时期的代表作是诗集《看吧,陌生人》 (1936,1937 年在美国出版时改名为《在这座岛 上》。1937 年发表长诗《西班牙》 ) ,声援西班牙人民的反法西斯斗争。1938 年访问中国以 后,与衣修午德(Christopher Isherwood) 《战地行》(1939),其中的一组十四行诗《战争 时期》 (1939)是奥登所写,对中国的抗战表示同情与支持。这一时期他还和衣修午德合作 写了三出诗剧: 《皮下之狗》(1935)、 《攀登 F6》(1936)与《在边界上》(1938),曾先后在伦 敦一个实验剧院上演。 诗集《另一次》 (1940)和长诗《新年书信》(1941)反映了第二次世界大战爆发前后他的思 想向右转的过程。他皈依基督教以后的宗教信仰和政治态度反映在三首长诗中: 《暂时》 (1945)、 《海与镜》(1944)与《忧虑的时代》(1948),后者曾获得 1948 年普利策诗歌奖。 。奥登晚期的诗歌创作带有浓厚的宗教色彩,同时也反映出他对日益堕落的西方现代文明和 日趋严重的政治和社会问题所感到的悲观失望。这个时期的主要诗作有《阿基琉斯的盾牌》 (1955)、 《向克莱奥女神致敬》 (1960)《在屋内》(1965)与《无墙的城市》(1969)。 、 奥登也是出色的文学评论家。主要评论集有《染匠的手》(1963)与《次要的世界》(1968)。 此外,他还和麦克尼斯合写过《冰岛书简》(1937),和美国诗人切斯特· 考尔曼合写过几出 歌剧的歌词。 奥登晚年整理并修订了自己的诗作,按时间次序编排,分两册出版《短诗结集 1927~ 1957》(1966)与《长诗结集》(1968)。


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