City Planning and Population
Look at the following pictures and match each of them with the words
and phrases given below.
Words and phrases for your reference:
air pollution; traffic congestion; homelessness; urban sprawl; slums; population explosion
keys: slums, homelessness, urban sprawl, congestion, population explosion
Nowadays, more and more megacities are emerging. Which cities are the top 10 biggest cities in the world in 2011? Can you rank the following cities according to the figures given below?
Annual Growth 0.60% 4.00% 1.40% 4.60% 2.90% 2.00% 0.30% 1.40% 2.50% 2.20%
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Megacity Tokyo Guangzhou Seoul Delhi Mumbai Mexico City New York City S?o Paulo Manila Shanghai
Country Japan China India India Mexico USA Brazil Philippines China
Continent Asia Asia Asia Asia
Population 34,200,000 24,900,000 24,500,000 23,900,000 23,300,000
South Korea Asia
North America 22,800,000 North America 22,200,000 South America 20,800,000 Asia Asia 20,100,000 18,800,000
Source: Th. Brinkhoff: The Principal Agglomerations of the World, 2011-01-01
Manila New York City Guangzhou Seoul S?o Paulo Tokyo Delhi
In the IELTS speaking test, there are many questions related to life in cities. Below are some sample questions from the IELTS speaking test. Practice these questions with your classmates. PART 2
Describe a city you have visited which has impressed you. You should say: Where is it situated? Why did you visit it? And explain why you were impressed?
You will have to talk about the topic for 1 to 2 minutes. You have one minute to think about what you are going to say. You can make some notes to help you if you wish.
PART 3 Discussion topics: Example questions:
1.What do you think is the difference between living in the city and living in the suburbs ? 2.What is the biggest problem of a city? 3.Do you want to live in the city or in the suburbs? 4.Why do young people like to stay in the city? 5.Do you think people with kids should live in the city?
Passage 1 (In-class Reading)
1. 2. 3.
Is your city or town getting bigger or smaller? Is it changing in any other ways? Is this a positive or negative thing?
Read the title of the article. Brainstorm reasons why you think growing cities might face major problems.
1. Find words from the article and write them next to the definitions. The paragraph number is given to help you. a. A poor area of town where the houses are in a very bad condition. ____________ (subtitle) b. The process of damaging the air, water or land with chemicals or other substances. ____________ (subtitle) c. All the people who are living in the world. ____________ (para 1) d. A plant or animal group whose members all have similar general features and are able to produce offsprings. ____________ (para 1) e. A change in something. ____________ (para 3) f. An adjective to describe countries which are poor and don‘t have many industries.
____________ (para 4) g. Conditions relating to people‘s health and especially the systems that supply water and deal with human waste. ____________ (para 4) h. The process of going to another place in order to find work. ____________ (para 7) i. A process in which a problem causes other problems, making the first problem worse. ____________ (para 8) j. Causing severe damage or harm. ____________ (para 10) keys: a. slum, b. pollution, c. humanity, d. species, e. shift, f. developing countries, g. sanitation, h. migration, i. vicious circle, j. destructive 2. Find words that are based on urban and poor and write them next to the definitions. (noun) (verb) To (noun) An (noun) is the process by which towns and cities grow bigger. means to make more like a city. is someone who lives in a city.
is a situation in which someone does not have enough money for their basic needs.
Keys: Urban-urbanization-a noun Urbanize- a verb Urbanite- a noun Poor-poverty-a noun
Growing cities face catastrophe
Growing cities face catastrophe, says UN ? Urban dwellers to outgrow rural population next year ? Big rise in poverty, slums and pollution is feared John Vidal, environment editor Thursday June 28, 2007 1. Humanity will make the historic move from a rural to an urban species sometime in the next year, according to the latest UN population figures. The move will be led by Africa and Asia, which are expected to add 1.6 billion people to their cities over the next 25 years. 2. The speed and scale of global urbanization is so great most countries will not be
prepared for the effect it will have, Thoraya Obaid, executive director of the UN Population Fund, says. ―In human history we have never seen urban growth like this.‖ Ms Obaid added: ―In 2008, half of the world‘s population will live in urban areas. The shift from rural to urban areas changes a balance that has lasted for millennia. Within one generation, five billion people, or 60% of humanity, will live in cities. The urban population of Africa and Asia will double in this time.‖ She said that each week the number of people living in cities grows by nearly a million. 3. ―Most cities [in developing countries] already have worrying problems, including crime, lack of clean water and sanitation, and slums. But these problems are not as serious as those that could be raised by future growth. If we do not plan ahead, it will be a catastrophe. The changes are too fast to allow planners to react, and so if governments wait, it will be too late.‖ 4. According to the State of the World Population Report, which Ms Obaid launched in London, large-scale population growth will take place in the cities of Asia, Africa and Latin America. The report suggests that the largest move to cities will occur in Asia, where the number of urbanites will almost double to 2.6 billion in 2030. The population of cities in Africa is expected to grow by 440 million in the same period, and in Latin America and the Caribbean by nearly 200 million. Rural populations are expected to decrease worldwide by 28 million people. 5. But urbanization can be positive. ―No country in the industrial age has ever achieved significant economic growth without urbanization, said Ms Obaid. ―Although there will be more poverty in the urban areas, moving to a city can also present poor people with the best chance of escaping it. The potential benefits of urbanization, which include easier access to health centres and education, are far greater than the disadvantages.‖ 6. However, the report warns that if we do nothing, the growth of urbanization will mean more slums and poverty, as well as a rise in migration away from poor regions. ―Today one billion people live in slums, 90% of whom are in developing countries. The fight against poverty will take place in the slums. To win it, politicians need to be proactive and start working with the urban poor. This is the only way to defeat urban poverty,‖ said Ms Obaid. 7. The climate is expected to increasingly shape and be shaped by cities. In a vicious circle, climate change will increase the energy demand as more people need air-conditioning in cities. This demand will add to greenhouse gas emissions which could raise temperatures in urban areas by 2-6 degree. ―Heat, pollution, smog and ground-level ozone [from cities] affect surrounding areas, reducing the amount of agricultural production, increasing health risks and producing tornadoes and thunderstorms. The impact of climate change on urban water supplies are expected to be dramatic,‖ the report says. Cities like New Delhi, in the drier areas, will be
particularly hard hit. 8. Developing countries are at a great disadvantage when they start to urbanize. They will require houses, power, water, sanitation and roads, and will have to build faster than any rich country has ever done. 9. Ms Obaid said: ―This problem concerns everyone, not just developing countries. If we plan ahead, we will create conditions for a stable world. If we do not, and do not find education, jobs, and houses for people in cities, then these populations will become destructive, to themselves and others.‖
Words and expressions
1. catastrophe [k?’t?str?fi] n. ▲ an event that causes one person or a group of people personal suffering, or that makes difficulties 灾难
synonym: disaster e.g. The attempt to expand the business was a catastrophe for the firm. We've had a few catastrophes with the food for the party. — catastrophic adj. — catastrophically adv.
2. dweller [?dwel?(r)] n. (especially in compounds) a person or an animal that lives in the particular place that is mentioned. 居民；居 住者
e.g. apartment dweller
[?a?t?ɡr??] vt. outgrow-outgrew-outgrown
outgrow something to grow too big to be able to wear or fit into something 过大而不适于, 长得比 ... 快(或大、高)
synonym: grow out of e.g. She's already outgrown her school uniform. The company has outgrown its offices.
4. slum [sl? m] n. ▲ an area of a city that is very poor and where the houses are dirty and in bad condition 贫民窟 e.g. a slum area city/urban slums e.g. She was brought up in the slums of Leeds. slum clearance schemes —slum vi. 5. humanity [hju? ?m?n ?ti] n. (uncountable) ▲ people in general 人类 e.g. crimes against humanity Note: The human race Man and mankind have traditionally been used to mean ?all men and women‘. Many people now prefer to use humanity, the human race, human beings or people. 6. sometime [? mta? m] adv. s? (also some time) at a time that you do not know exactly or has not yet been decided 改天，来日，某时 e.g. I saw him sometime last summer. We must get together sometime. —sometime adj. 以前的 7. scale [skeil] n. (singular, uncountable) the size or extent of something, especially when compared with something else 刻 度, 等级, 规模 e.g. They entertain on a large scale (= they hold expensive parties with a lot of guests). Here was corruption on a grand scale. scale of something e.g. It was impossible to comprehend the full scale of the disaster. 8. urbanization [.?:b?nai'zei? ?n] n. ▲ the process of being urbanized.城市化
e.g Urbanization will interact with the transformation of human societies by aging. urbanized adj. a. (OF AN AREA, A COUNTRY, ETC.) having a lot of towns, streets, factories, etc. rather than countryside（地区，国家）城市化了的 b. (OF PEOPLE) living and working in towns and cities rather than in the country （人）城市化了的 e.g. an increasingly urbanized society —urbanize vt. —urban adj. —urbanite n. 都市人 9. shift [? ift] n. shift (in something) a change in position or direction 移动；改变 e.g. a dramatic shift in public opinion shift v. a. to move, or move something, from one position or place to another 移动 shift something (from…) (to…) e.g. He shifted his gaze from the child to her. b. to change your opinion of or attitude towards something, or change the way that you do something 改变 shift something (from…) (to/towards/toward…) e.g. The new policy shifted the emphasis away from fighting inflation. 10. millennium [mi'leni?m] n. plural millennia [mi'leni?] a period of 1000 years, especially as calculated before or after the birth of Christ 一千年 e.g For millennia, it was accepted that the earth was at the centre of the universe. 11. launch [l? :nt? ] vt. ▲ launch something to start an activity, especially an organized one 发起, 推出（新 产品） e.g. to launch an appeal/an inquiry/an investigation/a campaign
We were going to launch a counterattack.
12. Caribbean ['k? ri'bi:?n, .k? r?'bi:?n] n./adj. the Caribbean the region consisting of the Caribbean Sea and its islands, including the West Indies, and the coasts which surround it 加勒比海 13. proactive [pr?u'? ktiv] adj. ▲ (OF A PERSON OR POLICY) controlling a situation by making things happen rather than waiting for things to happen and then reacting to them 先发制人的，积极的 e.g. a proactive approach Managers must be proactive in identifying and preventing potential problems. —proactively adv. 14. vicious ['vi? ?s] adj. ▲ a. violent and cruel 恶意的；恶毒的 e.g. a vicious attacka vicious criminal
Synonym: brutal b. (INFORMAL) very bad or severe 坏的，严重的 vicious circle n. a situation in which one problem causes another problem which then makes the first problem worse 恶性循环 15. smog [sm? g] n. a form of air pollution that is or looks like a mixture of smoke and fog, especially in cities 烟雾 e.g. attempts to reduce smog caused by traffic fumes —smoggy adj. 16. ozone ['?uz?un] n. (CHEMISTRY) a poisonous gas with a strong smell that is a form of oxygen 臭氧 17. tornado [t? :'neid?u] n. a violent storm with very strong winds which move in a circle. There is often also a long cloud which is narrower at the bottom than the top 龙卷风, 飓风, 旋风
e.g.Tornadoes ripped into the southern United States yesterday. 18. thunderstorm ['θ? nd.st? :m, 'θ? nd?.st? :m] n. a storm with thunder and lightning and usually very heavy rain 雷暴雨, 大雷雨 19. destructive [di'str? ktiv] adj. ▲ causing destruction or damage 破坏性的, 有害的 e.g.the destructive power of modern weapons the destructive effects of anxiety —destructively adv. —destructiveness n. 20. ground-level n. 地水准面 Expressions 21. present sb with something to cause something to happen or be experienced 导致…发生 e.g. Your request shouldn't present us with any problems.
1. Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Ms Obaid thought we have never witnessed such great and of global urbanization in human history, and many countries are not ready for this. She also maintained that urbanization is causing many problems that will not be as serious as those caused by . Without careful management, it will become a . Ms Obaid also analyzed the benefits of the urbanization, without which significant cannot be reached. Keys: speed, scale, future growth, catastrophe, economic growth
2. Complete the table using information from the article. The situation now Expected problems and the situation in the very near future Possible solutions
1. look at how these verbs are used in the article and write the preposition that follows them.
1. 2. 3.
Lasted Decrease Shaped
4. 5. 6.
Prepared According Raised
2. Now write the verbs + prepositions into the sentences. a. the report, the urban population is growing. b. Governments need to be the problems this will bring. c. The shift will change the balance that has thousands of years. d. A lot of problems could be this growth. e. The amount of people living in rural areas is expected to ____________ about 28 million. f. The changes in climate will be this urbanization. Keys: a) According to b) Prepared for c) Lasted for d) Raised by e) Decrease by f) Shaped by After-class exercises 1. Grammar focus—reporting verb. In the article we‘ve just learned, it‘s not hard to notice that the author indirectly quoted many words and sentences from Ms Obaid and her report. This is also very common to see in IELTS writing task 2. Whenever we report another person‘s words, be it an imperative sentence, a question, or a simple statement, we can consider replacing the more common say, tell, or ask with a more accurate reporting verb. The need to carefully select a reporting verb is greater in formal situations. In an academic or professional setting, a higher level of vocabulary is often expected so that we can be more accurate in our communication. Example: However, the report warns that if we do nothing, the growth of urbanization will mean more slums and poverty, as well as a rise in migration away from poor regions. (Line 1, Para. 6, Growing cities face catastrophe)
MEANING/ PURPOSE Commands/ orders Directions/ instructions Emotional statements Invitations Neutral statements Purposeful statements Questions Requests Responses
REPORTING VERBS tell, command, demand, order, wish tell, advise, caution, instruct, recommend cry, exclaim, shout, shriek, yell ask, invite add, comment, express, mention, note, observe, predict, remark, say, state accuse, announce, apologize, argue, assert, challenge, forbid, prohibit ask, inquire, question, wonder tell, ask, plead, urge answer, clarify, confirm, explain, insist, reply, respond
REPORTING VERBS EXAMPLE Many reporting verbs use the same structure as say. Examples: admit, She agreed that it was [ _?_+ that clause] agree, claim, confess, decide, best to go by train. deny, promise, swear, recall advise, ask, beg, encourage, forbid, [ __?__+ whom + She advised me to see a invite, instruct, order, promise, infinitive] doctor. remind, request, tell, urge, warn agree, beg, claim, consent, decide, [ __?__+ infinitive] demand, request, swear, threaten, He threatened to quit. volunteer acknowledge, admit, advise, He recalled meeting [ __?__+ gerund] confess, deny, recall, recommend, Susan at a party last year. suggest accuse (whom) of blame (whom) for dissuade (whom) from She dissuaded me from [ _?_+ whom + congratulate (whom) on forgive writing the complaint preposition + gerund] (whom) for warn (whom) against / letter. about [ _?_+ that + base ask, demand, propose, He demanded that the verb] (Use of the recommend, suggest, urge manager apologize. subjunctive)
Exercise: Choose the best sentence that describes the situation. Example: Jay doesn't believe that Erin is happy at work, but Erin says he's wrong. "I love my job," she said. "Really I do." a. Erin admitted that she loved her job. b. Erin insisted that she loved her job. c. Erin denied that she loved her job. (The correct answer should be b.) 1. Mark is worried that his roommate is studying too hard. "Staying up late to study will only make you feel sleepy in class tomorrow," he says. a. Mark warned his roommate that staying up late to study would only make him feel sleepy in class the next day. d. Mark confessed to his roommate that staying up late to study would only make him feel sleepy in class the next day. e. Mark agreed with his roommate that staying up late to study would only make him feel sleepy in class the next day. 2. Barbara strongly believes that the board of directors has made a poor decision. "Please reconsider," she says. a. Barbara blamed the board of directors for reconsidering. b. Barbara urged the board of directors to reconsider. c. Barbara invited the board of directors to reconsider. 3. Neil isn't sure why Tina takes a three-hour lunch break every Tuesday. He's very curious. "Where does she go on Tuesday afternoons?" he asked another co-worker. a. Neil wondered where Tina goes on Tuesday afternoons. b. Neil confessed where Tina goes on Tuesday afternoons. c. Neil volunteered where Tina goes on Tuesday afternoons. 4. Jordan is upset that his team is spending too much time on discussion and too little on getting the job done. ―We need to talk less and do more,‖ he said to his co-workers. a. Jordan acknowledged that they needed to talk less and do more. b. Jordan predicted that they needed to talk less and do more. c. Jordan complained that they needed to talk less and do more.
5. The workers want more money. Some think it may be time to look for another job. "If we don't get a raise soon," they tell their boss, "we‘ll quit." a. The workers consented to quit if they didn‘t get a raise soon. b. The workers threatened to quit if they didn‘t get a raise soon. c. The workers begged to quit if they didn‘t get a raise soon. 6. Julia is a very observant supervisor. ―Productivity in our office seems lower at the end of the week.‖ a. Julia noted that productivity in their office seems lower at the end of the week. b. Julia recommended that productivity in their office be lower at the end of the week. c. Julia confirmed that productivity in their office seems lower at the end of the week. 7. Jeanine is sneezing and her eyes are watery. A classmate asks how long Jeanine has had a cold. ―I‘m not sick,‖ Jeanine tells her classmate. ―I have allergies.‖ a. Jeanine explained to her classmate that she wasn‘t sick but simply had allergies. b. Jeanine swore to her classmate that she wasn‘t sick but simply had allergies. c. Jeanine advised her roommate that she wasn‘t sick but simply had allergies. 8. Peter was impressed with Roger‘s presentation. ―You did a great job,‖ Peter tells him. a. Peter wished Roger a great presentation. b. Peter congratulated Roger on a great presentation. c. Peter announced that Roger gave a great presentation. 9. Victoria bumps into Charles and immediately apologizes. ―That‘s all right,‖ he says. a. Charles accused Victoria of bumping into him. b. Charles dissuaded Victoria from bumping into him. c. Charles forgave Victoria for bumping into him. 10. The boss stated that last year‘s sales were good and this year‘s sales would be even better. He asked the workers if they agreed. ―Yes!‖ said the confident, dedicated workers.
a. The workers clarified their agreement. b. The workers mentioned their agreement. c. The workers shouted their agreement. Keys: abacb aabcc (edited from: http://www.englishcafe.com/blog/reported-speech-reporting-verbs-27093)
a) 即将出台的房屋限购令对房地产开发商来说无疑是个灾难性的打击。(catastrophe) The forthcoming ―Property Purchasing Restriction Order‖will undoubtedly be a major catastrophe for real estate developers. b) 从 计 划 经 济 向 市 场 经 济 的 转 型 使 中 国 的 国 民 生 产 总 值 有 了 明 显 提 高 。 (shift...from…to) The shift from planned economy to market economy has greatly improved China‘s GDP. c)通货膨胀造成世界经济恶性循环。 (vicious circle) A vicious circle is formed in world economy due to the inflation.
d) 媒体对我们的新型产品投放作了有利的报导。(launch) We have got good media coverage for the launch of the new model. e) 现在的年轻人认为在大城市工作就等同于工资即高生活又便利。 (as well as)
Young people today consider working in big cities is equal to high salary as well as convenient life. f) 如今在广州，再也找不到没有被开发的土地了。 (no 引导的双重否定)
Nowadays, no land in Guangzhou is left unexploited. g) 对于城市规划中的问题，政府应该具有前瞻性。 (be proactive in) Government must be proactive in dealing with potential problems in urban planning.
Passage 2 (After-class Reading 1)
1. Mega Cities, Mega Issues. Magacities often cause a lot of problems. What do you think these problems might be? Please complete the following concept map according to your understanding.
economic increasing housing prices slums transportation congestion sociological
2. Key words Match the words with their meanings.
connected with a large or capital city a large area covered with buildings that spreads from the city into the countryside in an ugly way the state of having more than one possible meaning having many different aspects to be considered to move towards a place from different directions and meet
c) d) e)
5. Ambiguity Key
Keys: 1-a, 2-e, 3-d, 4-b, 5-c 3. Find the information 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. of China's electricity comes from coal. The UN forecasts that today's urban population of will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030, when people will live in cities. By , people in the world will be living in slums. World coal consumption was about in 2006 and is expected to increase to 9.98 billion short tons by 2030. In 1950, there were with populations exceeding one million;
Keys: 68.7%, 3.2 billion, three out of five, 2030, over 2 billion, 6,743,786,000 short tons, 48%, 83 cities
What is a megacity?
A megacity is usually defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people. Some definitions also set a minimum level for population density (at least 2,000 persons/square km). A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge. In 2011, 21 megacities were in existence – with conurbations such as Mumbai, Tokyo, New York City, and Mexico City having populations in excess of 10 million inhabitants. History In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities, a figure that has risen to 47% by the end of the twentieth century. In 1950, there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million; by 2007, this number had risen to 468. If the trend continues, the world's urban population will double every 38 years. The UN forecasts that today's urban population of 3.2 billion will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030, when three out of five people will live in cities. This increase will be most dramatic on the least-urbanized continents, Asia and Africa. Surveys and projections indicate that all urban growth over the next 25 years will be in developing countries. One billion people, one-sixth of the world's population, now live in shanty towns. In many poor countries overpopulated slums exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care. By 2030, over 2 billion people in the world will be living in slums. Over 90% of the urban population of Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda, three of the world's most rural countries, already live in slums. By 2025, according to the Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia alone will have at least 10 megacities, including Mumbai (33 million), Shanghai (27 million), Karachi, Pakistan (26.5 million), Dhaka, Bangladesh (26 million) and Jakarta, Indonesia (24.9 million people). Lagos, Nigeria has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated 12.5 million today, and the Nigerian government estimates that the city will have expanded to 25 million residents by 2015. Challenges Slums
According to the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 2005. However, due to rising population, the absolute number of slum dwellers is rising. The majority of these come from the fringes of urban margins, located in legal and illegal settlements with insufficient housing and sanitation. This has been caused by massive migration, both internal and transnational, into cities, which has caused growth rates of urban populations and spatial concentrations not seen before in history. These issues raise problems in the political, social, and economic arenas. Slum dwellers often have minimal or no access to education, healthcare, or the urban economy. Homelessness Megacities often have significant numbers of homeless people. The actual legal definition of homelessness varies from country to country, or among different entities or institutions in the same country or region. Traffic congestion Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. Urban sprawl Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density, auto-dependent development on rural land, with associated design features that encourage car dependency. As a result, some critics argue that sprawl has certain disadvantages, including, longer transport distances to work, high car dependence, inadequate facilities e.g.: health, cultural. etc. and higher per-person infrastructure costs. Discussions and debates about sprawl are often obfuscated by the ambiguity associated with the phrase. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area. But others associate it with decentralization (spread of population without a well-defined center), discontinuity (leapfrog development), segregation of uses, etc.
Environmental problems Air pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the
natural environment into the atmosphere. Many urban areas have significant problems Swith smog, a type of air pollution derived from vehicular emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. Smog is also caused by large amounts of coal burning, which creates a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. World coal consumption was about 6,743,786,000 short tons in 2006 and is expected to increase 48% to 9.98 billion short tons by 2030. China produced 2.38 billion tons in 2006. India produced about 447.3 million tons in 2006. 68.7% of China's electricity comes from coal. The USA consumes about 14% of the world total, using 90% of it for generation of electricity. Words and Expressions 1. metropolitan [.metr?'p? lit?n] adj. ▲ connected with a large or capital city 大都市的 e.g. the New York metropolitan area metropolitan districts/regions —metropolis n. 大都市，重要中心 —metropolitanism n. —metropolitanize v. 2. converge [k?n'v?:d? ] vi. ▲ [INTRANSITIVE] converge (on…) (OF PEOPLE OR VEHICLES) to move towards a place from different directions and meet 聚合, 集中, 会聚 e.g. Thousands of supporters converged on London for the rally. Opposite: diverge —convergent adj. —convergence n. 3. conurbation [.k? n?'bei? ?n] n. (FORMAL) a large area where towns have grown and joined together, often around a city 集合城市(具有许多卫星城的大城市) 4. projection [pr?'d? ek? ?n] n. [COUNTABLE] an estimate or a statement of what figures, amounts, or events will be in the future, or what they were in the past, based on what is happening now 预测
e.g. to make forward/backward projections of population figures Sales have exceeded our projections. 5. shanty ['? ? nti] n a small house, built of pieces of wood, metal and cardboard, where very poor people live, especially on the edge of a big city 简陋小屋 6. margin ['mɑ:d? in] n. ▲ [USUALLY PLURAL] the part that is not included in the main part of a group or situation 边缘 e.g. people living on the margins of society Synonym: fringe 7. transnational [tr? ns'n? ? ?n?l] adj. existing in or involving many different countries 跨国的, 超越国界的 e.g. transnational corporations 8. spatial ['spei? ?l] adj. relating to space and the position, size, shape, etc. of things in it 空间的 e.g. changes taking place in the spatial distribution of the population —spatially adv. 9. arena [?'ri:n?] n. ▲ (FORMAL) an area of activity that concerns the public, especially one where there is a lot of opposition between different groups or countries 竞技场 e.g. the political/international arena 10. entity ['ent?ti] n. plural entities (FORMAL) something that exists separately from other things and has its own identity 实 体, 存在, 本质 e.g. The unit has become part of a larger department and no longer exists as a separate entity. These countries can no longer be viewed as a single entity. 11. vehicular [v?? kj?l?(r)] adj. h?
(FORMAL) intended for vehicles or consisting of vehicles 车辆的, 以车辆作为媒介 的 e.g. vehicular access The road is closed to vehicular traffic. 12. sprawl [spr? :l] n. a large area covered with buildings that spreads from the city into the countryside in an ugly way 扩张，蔓延 e.g. attempts to control the fast-growing urban sprawl —sprawl v. 13. multifaceted [.m? lti'f? s?tid] adj. ▲ (FORMAL) having many different aspects to be considered 多层面的 e.g. a complex and multifaceted problem 14. inadequate [in'? dikwit] adj. ▲ not enough; not good enough 不够的，不充分的 e.g. inadequate supplies inadequate for something e.g. The system is inadequate for the tasks it has to perform. inadequate to do something e.g. The food supplies are inadequate to meet the needs of the hungry. Opposite: adequate Synonym: insufficient —inadequacy n. —inadequately adv. 15. obfuscate [? b'f? skeit] v. [INTRANSITIVE, TRANSITIVE] obfuscate (something) (FORMAL) to make something less clear and more difficult to understand, usually deliberately 弄暗, 使模糊, 使迷乱 Synonym: obscure —obfuscation n.
16. ambiguity [? mbi'gju:?ti] n. ▲ plural ambiguities [UNCOUNTABLE] the state of having more than one possible meaning 模棱两可, 含 糊不清 e.g. Write clear definitions in order to avoid ambiguity.A lot of humour depends on ambiguity. —ambiguous adj. —ambiguously adv. 17. commentator ['k? m?n.teit?] n. commentator (on something) a person who is an expert on a particular subject and talks or writes about it on television or radio, or in a newspaper 评论员, 解说员, 注释者 e.g. a political commentator 18. discontinuity [.disk? nt?'nju:?ti] n. a break or change in a continuous process 断绝, 中断, 不连续 e.g. Changes in government led to discontinuities in policy. Opposite: continuity 19. leapfrog ['li:pfr? g] n. [UNCOUNTABLE] a children's game in which players take turns to jump over the backs of other players who are bending down 跳蛙游戏, 跳背游戏 —leapfrog v. 20. segregation [.segri'gei? ?n] n. (FORMAL) the act of separating people or things from a larger group 隔离, 种族隔 离, 分离 e.g. the segregation of smokers and non-smokers in restaurants —segregate v. —segregational adj. —segregationist n. 隔离主义者 21. particulate [ p?'tikj?.leit] adj. relating to, or in the form of, particles 微粒的
e.g. particulate pollution particulate matter 颗粒物质 —particulate n. 22. organism ['? :g?niz?m] n. a living thing, especially one that is extremely small 有机体, 生物体, 有机组织 23. photochemical [.f?ut?'kemik?l] adj. caused by or relating to the chemical action of light 光化作用的, 光化学的 e.g. photochemical smog 24. combustion [k?m'b? st? ?n] n. a chemical process in which substances combine with the oxygen in the air to produce heat and light 燃烧 —combust v. —combustible adj. 可燃的 25. sulfur dioxide ['s? lf?] [dai'? ksaid] [化] 二氧化硫 26. short tons a unit for measuring weight 2000 pounds (in US) 短吨(2000 磅) 27. in excess of ▲ more than 超过 e.g. The increase will not be in excess of (= more than) two per cent. 28. derive from derive from something （be derived from something） to come or develop from something 得到, 获得, 来自, 起源于 e.g. The word ‘politics’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘city’.
Comprehension check The following questions are based on the reading passage above. Use the information in the text to match with the statements listed below. NB You can use any choice more than once. Some of the choice may not be used.
A. B. C. D. E. F. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Homelessness Air pollution Smog Traffic congestion Urban sprawl Slums
increases people‘s dependency on cars. is originated from vehicular emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes can be easily found in China, USA, and India. are caused by massive migration. People who live in the have limited living recourses. increases expenditure on infrastructure.
Keys: 1. E, 2. C, 3. C, 4. F, 5. F, 6. E Word Building Fill the table Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the words in the table. NOUN Excess Metropolis convergence combustion Ambiguity inadequacy obfuscation segregation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. VERB -------metroplolitanize converge combust --------------obfuscate segregate ADJECTIVE excessive metropolitan convergent combustible Ambiguous Inadequate --------Segregational
The writer often the real issues with petty details. This hospital has rooms for the epidemic victims. The definition will be given by experts in the field so as to avoid possible . New York is the of North America. Our school has in of 800 students enrolled. Considering the losses in the disaster area, our support was an utterly
measure. The roads Don't smoke near
just before the station. materials.
Keys: obfuscates, segregational, ambiguity, metropolis, excess, inadequate, converge, combustible
(After-class Reading 2)
Early this year (2001), a rumor has been spread worldwide. It‘s said that city planners in south China have laid out an ambitious plan to merge together the nine cities that lie around the Pearl River Delta. Even though the Chinese government later clarified this piece of news as untrue, whether or not there should be more megacities in China has sparked many arguments. What do you think of this plan? Discuss your idea with your classmates.
2. Key vocabulary Match the words with their meanings.
1. Mandate 2. Agglomeration 3. Vibrant 4. Tap 5. Incentive 6. Holistic
a) b) c) d) e) f)
a group of things put together in no particular order or arrangement full of life and energy very important and needing immediate attention or action the best possible; producing the best possible results a feature that makes a place pleasant, comfortable or easy to live in to put a new piece of equipment into a machine that did not have it when it was built; considering a whole thing or being to be more than a collection of parts something that encourages you to do something to give somebody, especially a government or a committee, the authority to do something to make use of a source of energy, knowledge, etc. that already exists 27
8. Retrofit 9. Optimal 10. Imperative
Keys: 1-i, 2-a, 3-b, 4-j, 5-h, 6-g, 7-e, 8-f, 9-d, 10-c
3. Following passage has eight paragraphs, A-H. Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-E from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i~viii, next to question 1~5. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Developing megacities needs cooperative efforts. The right attitude towards urbanization Government plays an important role in megacity developing. It‘s possible to create megacities in China. How to develop legacy megacities. Developing megacities is imperative. Planning as a whole is quite important for developing megacities. How the team makes recommendations for Beijing.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Passage A Passage B Passage C Passage D Passage E
Keys, i, ii, iv, v, vii.
Planning China’s megacities
By Sean C. S. Chiao 1 February 2011 A. Whether or not we support urbanization, it is happening at an increasing rate. As citizens, governments, developers, planners, designers, environmentalists, and climate and energy experts, we must learn how to manage rural-to-urban migration rather than wring our hands over this unstoppable trend. The fact is, urban agglomerations will provide the best models for efficiency—if we put in place the right planning, design, and development strategies to bring out the best in them. Indeed, nothing about megacities should be organic or left to chance; they must be planned and managed in a careful and innovative way. B. Megacities will grow out of the most vibrant urban centers, making it imperative that we learn how to use resources as efficiently as possible. Here‘s the good news: we already have workable and optimal approaches for planning, building, and managing
megacities. By optimal, I mean that we have ways of creating, enhancing, and sustaining energy- and resource-efficient megacities. By definition, megacities lend themselves to efficiency; the bigger the city, the higher the concentration of people, resources, information, capital, and goods. This means that serving customers, supplying energy, and providing information—as well as the amenities most vital to urban residents, such as transportation, public health, and safety services—can be highly efficient and cost effective. The answer to the question of how big can cities get: as big as we want them to become, as long as we create and manage them correctly. Not surprisingly, urbanization is happening fastest in developing countries such as China, where I lead a team of designers, architects, engineers, and management-service specialists. China already has seven cities with more than ten million people—Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Tianjin—and Wuhan is quickly hitting the ten million–resident mark. For China, with its high population density and its land and water scarcity, megacity development is probably the most efficient option. Chinese megacities will be hubs for jobs, culture, leisure, and education, a model that will be radically different from the manufacturing-center model that forms the basis of many Chinese cities today. Chinese megacities will also, very likely, be hubs for small and medium-sized satellite cities that will spring up around them. C. As an architect and urban designer, I believe that the right approach to both retrofitting an existing megacity or building a new one from scratch is holistic planning, with commitment flowing from both the public and private sectors. For Chinese megacities to function properly, there must be clear state policies on how to build and run them, as well as strict audits to ensure that the laws are followed. Rules and guidelines on how to build a ―green‖ infrastructure—from buildings, bridges, transport networks, and sanitation systems to power grids, incentives for consuming power efficiently, and disincentives for energy abuse and malpractice must be mandated and put into practice. Continuous investments are required from both the government and the private sector. D. For this reason, the planning, design, and development of megacities should be multidisciplinary. The work should be left in the hands of planners and builders, energy specialists, architects, economists, environmentalists, transportation planners, and sustainability consultants, all working in concert. Neither the government nor the private sector by itself can enhance or create a megacity. Both sectors must work together for a project as complicated as this. E. In China, not only are new megacities certain to spring up and expand, but legacy megacities (like Beijing and Guangzhou) will get even larger and more complex. They will need ―retrofitting‖ to become more energy efficient for the future. Toward this end, my team and I are conducting a study with Beijing Planning and Design Institute in what we have dubbed the Global Cities Program (GCP) to help the capital expand sustainably. Our approach has been to evaluate the gaps between Beijing‘s current
planning situation and the performance of other ―world cities‖ in four critical areas: transportation, municipal infrastructure, energy, and watershed development. We‘re looking at both big-picture questions (for example, how do other world cities determine the correct level of investment in transportation) and at more granular issues (like how do other world cities provide infrastructure for bicycles, including lanes, parking facilities, and rental facilities). Based on our analysis, we will make recommendations for how Beijing can close these gaps. F. In addition to solutions, we‘ll be looking at how cities like Hong Kong, London, Los Angeles, New York, Singapore, and Tokyo have managed the changes needed to make themselves more livable and more sustainable. We want to know how they decided when to upgrade systems or build new ones and how they implemented those decisions. G. China will continue to grow exponentially, and bigger towns and cities will consume energy and resources in potentially terrifying amounts. This is why the Chinese government must ensure that the country‘s cities don‘t just grow at all costs but truly tap the potential urban agglomerations hold for the productive and efficient provision and use of resources. Efficient megacities need not only sound policies but also innovative management and operations, with collaboration among governments, the private sector, and civil groups. H. Megacities will work, but only if we apply holistic and multidisciplinary approaches to planning and building to help them become truly sustainable. 1. megacity ['meg?.siti] n. ▲ (人口超过 100 万的)大城市 Mega- pref. 表示―大, 百万‖: megastar, megabytes, megapixel 2. unstoppable [? n'stɑ:p?b?l] adj. that cannot be stopped or prevented 无法停止的, 无法阻碍的 e.g. an unstoppable rise in prices 3. agglomeration [?.gl? m?'rei? ?n] n. ▲ (FORMAL)a group of things put together in no particular order or arrangement 结 块，凝聚
e.g. an ugly agglomeration of buildings —agglomerate v. —agglomerate adj.
4. organic [? :'g? nik] adj. (FORMAL)happening in a slow and natural way, rather than suddenly 顺其自然 发生的
e.g. the organic growth of foreign markets 5. innovative ['in?uveitiv] adj. ▲ introducing or using new ideas, ways of doing something, etc 创新的, 革新的 e.g. There will be a prize for the most innovative design. Synonym: original 强调独创性 —innovate v. 改革, 创新 —innovation n.创新, 革新 —innovational adj. 革新的 6. vibrant ['vaibr?nt] adj. ▲ full of life and energy 充满活力的, 精力充沛的 e.g. a vibrant city Thailand is at its most vibrant during the New Year celebrations. synonym: exciting —vibrancy n. 7. imperative [im'per?tiv] adj. ▲ [NOT USUALLY BEFORE NOUN] (FORMAL) very important and needing immediate attention or action 紧要的, 必要的, 祈使的 imperative (that…) e.g. It is absolutely imperative that we finish by next week. imperative (to do something) e.g. It is imperative to continue the treatment for at least two months. Synonym: vital indispensable crucial essential paramount —imperative n. 8. optimal = optimum ['? pt?m?l] adj. ▲ 最理想的, 最佳的 e.g. optimum growth the optimum use of resources Synonym: ideal
9. amenity BrE [?? mi? n?ti] AmE [?? men?ti] n. [USUALLY PLURAL] plural amenities a feature that makes a place pleasant, comfortable or easy to live in 适意, 舒 适, 便利设施 e.g. The campsite is close to all local amenities. Many of the houses lacked even basic amenities (= baths, showers, hot water, etc.). 10. hub [h? b] n. [USUALLY SINGULAR] hub (of something) the central and most important part of a particular place or activity 中心, 轮毂, 轮轴 e.g. the commercial hub of the city The kitchen was the hub of family life. to be at the hub of things (= where things happen and important decisions are made) 11. radical [? d? kl] adj. r? concerning the most basic and important parts of something; thorough and complete 激进的, 彻底的, 基本的 e.g. the need for radical changes in education demands for radical reform of the law radical differences between the sexes Synonym: far-reaching —radical n. 激进分子 —radically adv. 12. satellite cities 卫星城市 13. retrofit ['retr?fit] v. -ttretrofit something to put a new piece of equipment into a machine that did not have it when it was built; to provide a machine with a new part, etc (飞机等）式样翻新, 改进 e.g. Voice recorders were retrofitted into planes already in service. They retrofitted the plane with improved seating. —retrofit n. 14. holistic [h?u'listik] adj. (INFORMAL) considering a whole thing or being to be more than a collection of parts 整体的, 全盘的 e.g. a holistic approach to life —holistically adv.
15. audit ['? :dit] n. an official examination of business and financial records to see that they are true and correct 审计, 查帐 e.g. an annual audit a tax audit —audit vt. 16. grid [grid] n. (ESPECIALLY BRITISH ENGLISH) a system of electric wires or pipes carrying gas, for sending power over a large area 电网 17. incentive [in'sentiv] n. ▲ incentive (for/to somebody/something) (to do something) something that encourages you to do something 刺激, 鼓励, 动机 e.g. tax incentives to encourage savings There is no incentive for people to save fuel. Opposite: disincentive —incentive adj. 18. malpractice [m? l'pr? ktis] n. careless, wrong or illegal behaviour while in a professional job 失职, 行为不当 e.g. medical malpractice He is currently standing trial for alleged malpractices. Mal- prefix 坏的, 不正常 maltreat, malnutrition, malfunction 19. mandate ['m? ndeit] vt. ▲ [OFTEN PASSIVE] (FORMAL) mandate somebody/something to do something to give somebody, especially a government or a committee, the authority to do something 委任，指令, 要求 e.g. The assembly was mandated to draft a constitution. —mandate n. 20. multidisciplinary [.m? lti'disiplin?ri] adj. involving several different subjects of study 包括各种学科的 e.g. a multidisciplinary course 21. dub [d? b] v. -bbdub something (into something) to replace the original speech in a film/movie or television programme with words in another language 配音 e.g. an American movie dubbed into Italian
22. watershed ['w? :t?? ed] n. a.a line of high land where streams on one side flow into one river, and streams on the other side flow into a different river 流域, 分水岭 b.watershed (in something) an event or a period of time that marks an important change e.g. The middle decades of the 19th century marked a watershed in Russia's history. 23. granular ['gr? njul?] adj. consisting of small granules; looking or feeling like a collection of granules 由小粒 而成的, 粒状的 —granule n. 24. exponential [.eksp?u'nen? ?l] adj. (FORMAL) (OF A RATE OF INCREASE) becoming faster and faster 成指数的般增长的 e.g. exponential growth/increase —exponentially adv. 25. tap [t? p] v.–ppto make use of a source of energy, knowledge, etc. that already exists 开发, 利用 tap something e.g. We need to tap the expertise of the people we already have. tap into something e.g. The movie seems to tap into a general sentimentality about animals. 26. provision [pr?'vi? ?n] n. [COUNTABLE] a condition or an arrangement in a legal document 规定, 条款 e.g. Under the provisions of the lease, the tenant is responsible for repairs. Expressions: 27. wring your hands to show that you are very sad or anxious about a situation but do nothing to improve it.紧张得不知所措 e.g. It’s too bad your grades have dropped, but if you just wring your hands over it, nothing will improve.
28. put in place to set up e.g. WWF will continue to pressure all governments to put in place effective
conservation programmes. 29. bring sth out to make something appear 使明显, 拿出 e.g. A crisis brings out the best in her. 30. lend itself to something to be suitable for something 对…合适 e.g. Her voice doesn't really lend itself well to blues singing. 31. spring up v. ▲ to appear or develop quickly and/or suddenly 跳起, 发生, 萌芽, 出现 e.g. Play areas for children are springing up all over the place. Opposition groups are springing up like mushrooms. 32. from scratch from the very beginning, not using any of the work done earlier 从零开始, 从头做 起 e.g. They decided to dismantle the machine and start again from scratch The company isn't starting from scratch. 33. in concert ▲ in concert with somebody/something (FORMAL) working together with somebody/something 一致, 异口同声, 一齐 4. Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage? Write TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this 1.
2. 3. 4.
The author thinks that the right way to develop megacities is combining the efforts of both public and private sectors. Only new megacities in China are expanding. Beijing and Guangzhou need to be renewed because they are not modern. The study be the author‘s team focuses on the sustainable development of Beijing. The author believes that the Chinese government should do all they can to develop the city no matter what cost it involves.
5. In this article, the author uses many phrases and idioms, such as spring up, in concert etc. What do you think are the functions of these phrasal expressions? Try to figure out the meaning of these words in the passage first, then complete the following sentences with the phrases given in the box below.
In concert 1. 2. 3. 4. wring sb‘s hands from scratch spring up lend itself to sth . .
We lost all our work in the fire and had to We knew it was really spring when all the flowers Several companies are working It's not enough for us to stand by and take action. It was surprising how well her book film.
to improve delivery of electricity. - we've got to
being turned into a
Keys: from scratch, sprang up, in concert, wring our hands, lend itself to
Countries such as China, India and Japan have unsustainable population growths patterns. In fact many experts are of the opinion that the population ‘explosion’ which is now a very worrying concern, is the most serious threat to life on this planet. What is your opinion about this issue?
The gap of living in cities and the countryside is larger and larger. What are the reasons in your country and how to reduce the differences? Do you agree or disagree with the following statement. Housing shortage in big cities can only be solved by the government
Some people think old buildings should be destroyed and replaced with modern buildings. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Writing sample for the main writing exercise: It is true that the population ?explosion‘ which has taken place over the last century, is a very serious problem. One of the main reasons for this unacceptable population growth is a lack of understanding about the environment. Over-population is the major reason for water, soil and air pollution. It is also often the cause of starvation and even wars. Experts have put forward many suggestions to address this problem. The following are just a few of these. The most important weapon we have to fight population growth is education. This should start at a very early age i.e. before children even go to school. TV cartoons and children‘s programs can be used to educate the very young. At high school, students can be taught about the problem more directly. At university level, scholarships should be made available to students who wish to study further in this field. International exchange groups may also help to increase awareness. Another important means of controlling population growth is to disadvantage people who have more than one or two children. This can be done, as it is in China, by means of a higher tax. Although it is controversial, persons who come forward to be sterilized could be given a sum of money. It may also be possible to make it advantageous for people to have only one child by giving such couples a special tax deduction. It should also be possible to make contraception devices free to the public and easily obtainable. This problem is a very difficult one to address but we should make every effort to do so. There are many other problems which are related to over-population such increasing crime, illiteracy and population. So by addressing one problem we would be addressing the others as well.