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关系分句(Relative Clause)

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定义: 关系分句(Relative Clause)是由关系词(Relative Word)引导的分句结构。这种分句结构又称“定 语从句”(Attributive Clause),因为这种分句的 主要功能是作名词修饰语(即“定语”)。但是, 关系分词除作“定

语”外,还可以表示其他意义, 因此本书仍按其结构特征名之为“关系分句”。

1)限制性关系分句

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限制性关系分句在口语中前后没有停顿,在书写 中通常不用逗号。例如: The man who did the robbery has been caught. The chair which I sat in was a broken one. Can you show me the house where Shakespeare once lived? The reason why I was along in the mountains is that I had a difficulty with my guide.

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限制性关系分句通常出现在下列搭配中:当名词 中心词带有表示类别的不定冠词时,其后的关系 分句通常为限制性关系分句。例如: She was a woman who must be treated decently. He spoke to me in a tone which I don’t at all like. 当名词中心词带有前照应定冠词时,其后的关系 分句也必定是限制性的。例如: He is the man who told me the news. This is the car I brought last year.

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当名词中心词带有all, any, some, every, no等不定限定词时, 其后的关系分句也通常是限制性的。例如: The first flame from Rain barrow sprang into the sky, attracting all eyes that had been fixed on the distant conflagration(大火). Any man who smokes cigarettes is the doctors say risking his health. Some friends that I made in college were more interested in grades than in learning. He has read almost every book on linguistics that he could get hold of in the library. No visitors who come to Beijing would fail to see the Great Wall.

2)非限制性关系分句
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如前所示,非限制性关系分句和它的先行项之间只有比 较松散的关系。这种分句在口语中有停顿,在书写中常 用逗号隔开。非限制性关系分句的引导词通常是who, whom, whose和which等词,但也并不绝对排除that.例如: The Chairman, who spoke first ,sat on my right. His speech, which bored everyone, went on and on. The Chairman’s daughter, whose name is Ann, gave me a patient smile. She is devilish like Miss Cutter, that I used to meet at Dumdum.

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关系副词where和when也能引导非限制性关系分 句。例如: Many of our Welsh people(威尔士人)are going to settle in North Carolina, where land is cheap. I’m seeing the manager tomorrow, when he will be back from New York.

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非限制性关系分句,就其意义来说,再句中有时 相当于一个并列分句。例如: They had a fine walk too, which had done his liver good.(=They had a a fine walk too, and it had his liver good.)

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有时,非限制性关系分句在语义上起状语分句的作用, 表示原因、目的 、 结果 、 条件 、 让步等意义。例如: It is in line with the Charter(联合国宪章),which recognizes the value of regional effort to solve problems and settle disputes.(这里的which...相当于for it...或as it...的意思, 表示原因。) Chinese delegations have been sent to Asian-African countries, who will negotiate trade agreement with the respective governments.(这里的who will...相当于so that they may...的 意思,表示目的。) He would be a rash man, who should venture to forecast the results of this event.(这里的who...相当于if he...的意思,表 示条件。) Dr lee, who had carefully read through the instructions before doing his experiments, could not obtain satisfactory results, because he followed them mechanically.(这里的who...相当于 though he...的意思,表示让步。)

1)在限制性关系分句中关系代词的 选择
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这里主要介绍在限制性关系分句中作主语、宾语 和介词补足成分的关系代词的选择问题。
a)在限制性关系分句中作主语的关系代词的选择, 按照一般规则是用who/that指人,用which/that指 物。但在实际使用中,大多数是用who指人,较 少用that;大多数是用that指物,较少用which;尤 其在口语中是如此。例如: He's the man who lives next door to us. He drives a car that can travel 150 miles an hour.

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b)在限制性关系分句中,关系代词作宾语,正式语体分 别用whom,which指人和指物;非正式语体用who,that 指人,用that指物,而且通常可以省略。例如: {(whom)} Where is the man{=(who)} I saw this morning? {=(that)} {(whom)} Is that the man {=(who) }you gave your tickets to? {=(that) } {(which)} Where is the book {=(that)} I bought this morning? Is that the address {(which)} you sent the telegram to? {=(that)}

3)在非限制性关系分句中关系代词 的选择
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如前所述,在非限制性关系分句中,通常用who (m)/whose指人,用which指物。例如: The driver, who was very young, had only just got his license(执照)。 This book, which only appeared a year ago, has already gone through several editions. 在非限制性关系分句中,which的先行项还可以是 上文整个的分句。例如: He tried to stand on his hands for five minutes, which-as you know-is rather a difficult thing to do. which还能指前面句子的一部分: I have known men far more able than Bowles, but not half so interesting, which is quite a different thing.

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在这里,which指的是上文部分内容,即指(men) not half so interesting (as Bowles)。以上文整个分 句为先行项的关系代词which还可引导独立分句, 这时which和that可以交替使用。例如: Every bottle of "BUZZ"(饮料名)has been tested in our laboratories. Which/That is why we're so sure of our guarantee. 不过,在这里,that不是关系代词,而是指示代词。 上述这类句子有时也能用which fact,which matter 等引导。例如: He admires Mrs. Brown, which fact/matter surprises me. 但这种用法不如用which普通。

4)关系词的省略问题
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引导限制性关系从句的关系词在下列场合可以省 略。 a)当关系代词在分句中作宾语时: The table you just saw is made of plastics. Tom is not the boy I gave the ticket to. The stranger I spoke to came again. b)当关系代词that在分句中作补语时: He's changed. He's not the man he was. It's a puzzle to me what has made him the man he is.

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c)当关系代词在分句中作主语时,只有当主句是 由it is, that is, there is引导的场合才能省略: It isn't everybody can learn a foreign language so easily. That was his brother just went by. There was someone asked for you, Bill. 上述省略现象通常只见于非正式语体,但在下列 结构中,关系代词的省略并不限于非正式语体: This is the fastest train there is to Beijing. He asks for the latest book there is on the subject.

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d)三个关系副词when,where,why可以在the time when,the time where,the reason why结构中引导限 制性关系分句,这通常用于正式语体;在非真实语 体中,通常还可以省略关系副词when和why: I shall never forget the day (when) we first met. I remember the morning (when) he first came to school. The reason (why) he came so early is her own affair. 也可用介词后置的方法代替where: The room he worked in his now kept in good repair. Do you happen to know anybody in the university this dictionary was compiled at?

That’s all

Thanks!


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