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高中语法点 with复合结构和独立主格


高考总复习:with 复合结构和独立主格
真题再现 1. The old couple often take a walk after supper in the park with their pet dog ____ them. A. to follow B. following C. followed D. follows . B. to permit D. pe

rmit 2. The party will be held in the garden, weather A. permitting C. permitted last March. A. has been launched C. being launched A. finished B. finishing B. having been launched D. to be launched C. having finished my mind, I almost break down. C. to fill C. As for C. went on D. being filled D. Because of D. to go on D. was finishing

3. The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ______at the end of

4. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work_____, he gladly accepted it. 5. —Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work A. filled A. Besides A. going on B. filling B. With B. goes on

6. ________two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend. 7. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise ________. 8. They started off late and got to the airport with minutes to _______. A.spare B.catch C.leave D.make 1. B。with 后接非谓语复合结构,pet dog 和 follow 构成主谓关系,用 following。 2. A。此处主句的主语 party 和 weather 不一致,所以 weather 保留,作 permitting 的逻辑主 语,构成独立主格结构。另外,weather 与 permit 之间是主动关系,故用现在分词。 句意:如果天气允许,聚会将在花园举行。 3. B。 此句前后句没连词, 只有逗号是不能连接两个句子的, 所以后边 the most recent ______ at the end of last March 就是独立主格的形式了,在句中做伴随状语。 4. A。and 连接前后两个并列句。在后一个句子中,with 结构为独立主格结构,对于 finish 的逻辑主语 his work 来说,是“被完成” ,而且不能用谓语结构,选用过去分词表示被动关 系。 5. B。在句子中,with 结构为独立主格结构,对于 fill 的逻辑主语 too much work 来说,是主 谓关系,而且不能用谓语结构,选用现在分词表示主动关系。 6. B。从句子的结构看这里必须要填一个介词,而不能填连词, “as for” 意思是“至于、关 于” ;because of 意思是“由于、因为” ,其后不能跟复合结构,所以不能选择 C 和 D。在所 给的选项中只有 with 才符合构成“ with + n. / pron. + to do ”结构。句意是:由于担心这两 门考试,本周末我得真的用功了。 7. A。 “with+宾语+现在分词”作宾语补足语,在句中作 couldn’t do my homework 的原因状语.

而 all that noise 与 go on 在逻辑上是主谓关系,而且强调动作正在进行,所以用现在分词做 宾语补足语。 8. A。 此题考查 “with+宾语+不定式” 作宾语补足语, 在句中作结果状语。 而 minutes 与 to spare 在逻辑上是主谓关系,而且强调动作没有完成,所以用不定式做宾语补足语。 知识讲解 with 复合结构 with 复合结构是由“with+复合宾语”组成,常在句中做状语,表示谓语动作发生的伴 随情况、时间、原因、方式等。其构成有下列几种情形: 带介词的复合结构 He was asleep with his head on his arms. The teacher came into the classroom with a book in his hand. We sat on the dry grass with our backs against the wall. 带现在分词的复合结构 I won’t be able to go on a holiday with my mother being ill. With winter coming on, it’s time to buy warm clothes. (As winter comes on, it’s time to buy warm clothes.) 注意:with 和 as 都译为“随着” ,但是 with 为介词,后接分词结构;as 为连词,后接从句。 Ann fell asleep with the light burning. With the price of gold going up, South Africa’s economy was good.■ with + 名词 (或代词) + 过去分词, 过去分词和前面的名词或代词是逻辑上的动宾关系。 The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back. (伴随情况) I sat in my room for a few minutes with my eyes fixed on the ceiling.(伴随情况) She had to walk home with her bike stolen.(原因状语) with + 名词 (或代词) + 动词不定式,不定式表示将发生的动作。 With nothing to burn, the fire became weak and finally died out. (原因状语) With no one to talk to, John felt miserable.(原因状语) With a lot of work to do, he wasn't allowed to go out.(原因状语) with + 名词 (或代词) + 形容词 I like to sleep with the windows open.(伴随情况) With the weather so close and stuffy, ten to one it’ll rain presently.(原因状语) With his son so disappointing, the old man felt unhappy. (原因状语) With his father well-known, the boy didn’t want to study. (原因状语) with + 名词 (或代词) + 介词短语 With the children at school, we can't take our vacation when we want to.(原因状语) The soldier had him stand with his back to his father.(行为方式) with + 名词 (或代词) + 副词 He fell asleep with the light on.(伴随情况)

The boy stood there with his head down.(伴随情况) With production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. (原因状语) 独立主格结构 非谓语动词作状语时, 它的逻辑主语应该是句子的主语。 但有时非谓语动词带有自己的 主语,从而在结构上与主语不发生关系,我们称之为独立主格结构。其实,所谓“独立主格 结构”也并非真正独立,它还是一种从属的结构。在独立主格结构中,非谓语动词和它前面 的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系或动宾关系。 不定式“独立主格结构” 在“逻辑主语+动词不定式”结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上 的主谓关系。这种结构也可用一个从句或并列分句来表达。 An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help.(借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞 机模型。 ) They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore. (他们道别后, 一个回了家,一个去了书店。 ) -ing 形式“独立主格结构” 表示时间的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” : Everyone being ready, the teacher began his class.(Everyone being ready 相当于一个时间状语 从句 When everyone was ready) The chairman began the meeting, everyone being seated. (The chairman began the meeting 相当 于一个时间状语从句 after everyone was seated) 表示原因的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” : The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange cave. (The boy leading the way 相当于一个原因状语从句 Because the boy led the way) Many eyes watching him, he felt a bit nervous. (Many eyes watching him 相当于一个原因状语从句 As many eyes were watching him) 表示条件的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” : Time permitting, we will have a picnic next week. (Time permitting 相当于一个条件状语从句 If time permits) My health allowing, I will work far into the night. (My health allowing 相当于一个条件状语从句 If my health allows) 表示方式的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” : The students are walking in the school happily, each wearing a card in front of his chest. (each wearing a card in front of his chest 相当于一个并列分句 and each wears a card in front of

his chest) The boy lay on the grass, his eyes looking at the sky. (his eyes looking at the sky 相当于一个并列分句 and his eyes were looking at the sky) 含有 being 的独立主格结构: It being National Day today,the streets are very crowded. = As it is National Day today, the streets are very crowded. There being no further business to discuss, we all went home. = As there was no further business to discuss, we all went home. There being nothing else to do, I went to bed. (表示原因) There having been no rain, the ground was dry. (表示原因) There being another chance, I’ll do it better.(表示条件) 下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的 being(或 having been)不能省略: 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。 It being Sunday, we went to church. 在 There being+名词的结构中。 There being no bus, we had to go home on foot. -ed 形式“独立主格结构” 与逻辑主语+动词的-ing 形式一样, 如果-ed 形式的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致的话, 就需 要用-ed 形式的独立主格结构。 The book written in simple English, English beginners were able to read it. (独立主格结构在句中作原因状语,The book written in simple English 相当于一个原因状语 从句 As the book was written in simple English) He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. (独立主格结构在句中作 方式状语) = He was listening attentively in class, and his eyes were fixed on the blackboard. 他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。 The task completed, he had two months' leave. (独立主格结构在句中作时间状语,The task completed 相当于 When the task had been completed, he had two months’ leave.) 独立主格结构三种形式比较 动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生,动词-ed 形式表示动作已经结束,动词-ing 形式 往往表示动作正在进行。 The manager looks worried,many things to settle. 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的事情要处 理。 (事情还没有处理,而且是由经理本人来处理,用不定式 to settle) The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了,经理看上去很轻松。 (事情已经处理好了,用动词-ed 形式 settled 表示动作已经结束)

The food being cooked, the boy was watching TV. 小孩一边做饭,一边看电视。 (两个动作同 时进行) The food cooked, the boy went to bed. 饭做好了,小孩去睡了。 (两个动作有先后,饭已做好, 小孩才去睡觉的) 名词/主格代词+形容词。 An air accident happened to the plane, nobody alive.(那架飞机遭遇了空难,无一人生还 。 ) So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. (这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。 ) 名词/主格代词+副词。 He put on his sweater wrong side out. (他把毛衣穿反了。 ) The meeting over, they all went home. (会议一结束,他们就都回家了。 ) 名词/ 主格代词+介词短语。 The boy goes to the classroom, book in hand. (男孩们进了教室,手里拿着书。 ) Mary was sitting near the fire, her back towards the door. (玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。 ) 独立主格特点 独立主格结构没有所有格形式。 The chief-editor arriving, we began the meeting. 主编来了,我们开始开会。 (比较动名词复合结构:The chief-editor ’s arriving made us very surprised. ) 独立主格结构作时间或原因状语时,可用完成时,表示该动作发生在谓语之前。 The listeners having taken their seats, the concert began. 听众坐好后,音乐会开始了。 Tom having been late over and over, his boss was very disappointed. 由于汤姆一再迟到,他的老板非常失望。 某些表示说话人态度的一些惯用分词表达, 它们在用作状语时其逻辑主语可以与句子主语不 一致。 Generally speaking, women live longer than men. 一般说来,女人比男人活得长。 Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed. 从你的话看,他应当能成功。 Considering the distance, he arrived very quickly. 考虑到路程,他到达得很快。 Taking everything into consideration, you should leave. 考虑到各种因素,你最好离开。 当分词已转化为介词或连词,此时也无需考虑主语一致问题。 Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do? (supposing 为连词,意为“假若”) Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. (given 为介词,意为“考虑到”) 当分词暗含的逻辑主语为表示泛指意义的 one 或 you 时, 也无需考虑主语的一致性问题。 如: In doing such work, patience is needed. (=When one does such work, patience is needed.) 状语从句和独立主格结构的转换:

当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不是指同一个对象时, 可用独立主格结构取代状语从句, 但 不再保留连词。 After class was over (=Class being over/Class over), the students soon left the classroom. After the work had been done (= The work done), we went home. It being Sunday (= Because it is Sunday), you needn't go to school.


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