Period 5 Grammar The General Idea of This Period This is the fifth period, which will center on the grammar: using the past participle as the adverbial and attribute.At the beginning of the p
eriod, the teacher should offer some time to go over what the students learned in the last period.? Later the teacher had better present some sentences containing the past participle used as the adverbial and attribute on purpose by asking the students to do some exercises.Get the students to find all the sentences containing the past participle in the two passages.After finding them, the teacher can ask the students to analyze them and understand the function of the past participle in those sentences.While doing it, the students should be given some explanation about how to use the past participle.? The following step is to practise more about the grammar.The teacher should arrange some activities carefully and creatively.First let them do some simple exercises.For example, combine the two sentences using the past participle as the adverbial and attribute.Then ask them students to make some sentences using the past participle.? Besides that, the teacher should help the students to review the other usages of the past participle.In the end, let them write a passage using the past participle properly.? Apart from the usage of the past participle, the teacher had better make the students understand the difference between the past participle and the present participle.In order to have the students master it, the teacher should choose some exercises to supply the students with some problems to deal with.By doing and practicing more, the students may master the grammar.? Teaching Important Points To learn about the past participle used as the adverbial and the attribute.? Teaching Difficulties To know the difference between the past participle and the present participle.? Teaching Aids Multi-media classroom and other normal teaching tools.? Three Dimensional Teaching Aims Knowledge Aims To learn about the past participle used as the adverbial and the attribute.? Ability Aims To use the past participle used as the adverbial and the attribute freely and properly in speaking and writing.? Emotional Aims Encourage the students to study by themselves.? Make them know only by doing more exercises can they learn the grammar well.? Teaching Procedure Step 1 Greeting? T: Hello, my friends.? Ss: Hello, Miss Wang.? Step 2 Revision? T: Do you still remember what you learned in this unit?Please say something about the life in the future. S: The life in the future is quite different from the present life.?
S: People in the future will travel b y hovering carriage, which will be driven by computer.? S: People wil l suffer from the lack of fresh air, but they will wear masks to feel much better. S: In the future, equipment will make life much more convenient than now.? Ss: ...? T: Good.Now please answer some questions according to the passage: I Have Seen Amazing Things. Where did he visit in the first place?What did he find there?? S: His first visit was to a space station considered the most modern in this part of space.It is an enormous round plate, which spins slowly in space to imitate the pull of the earth’s gravity. Inside, it is divided into zones with extraordinarily different atmospheres and gravities. There the alien creatures live while they work with human space scientists searching for new worlds.? T: Excellent.Would you please describe the friendliest cr eatures he met?? S: The friendliest creatures are the mu-mu, a family from the Pleiades group of stars.They can see in the dark so they live in an area without light of any kind.They have assisted in the discovery of planets round the fourth star in the Pleiades system.They speak in whispers and eat food that contains carbon.They have six arms and one shell-covered leg.They moved forward by slowly shaking from side to side and they are tall and thin with white and black faces.? T: You did a good job.What about the most interesting creatures?? S: The most interesting creatures are the tiny dimpods from a galaxy near NGC6240.They skip around the pipes and between the wooden walls of the space station.They require the same atmosphere as humans and are great engineers.They will be able to travel many light years away from the earth.They also can produce a special liquid from their bodies.They are not easy to talk to, because you have to use a language-changer to help and they shout loudly in your ear.They are very small with many arms and legs.They a re purple or blue and the color changes depending on the ir mood.? Step 3 Presentation T: Can you find the following sentence in the reading passage?? Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.? T: In this sentence the past participle is used as an adverbial phrase.It is a way of joining two clauses together: As I was worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.Now please pick out three more sentences from the reading passages with past participles used as the adverbial.You are allowed to find as many sentences as possible in two minutes.? (Two minutes later, ask the students to report what they have found.)? S: Well-known for their expertise, his parents’ company named“Future Tours”transported me safely into the future in a time capsule.? S: Confused by the new surroundings, I was hit by the lack of fresh air.? S: Exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep.? S: Described as an enormous round plate, it spins slowly in space to imitate the pull of the earth’s gravity.? T: Good.You just found all the sentences containing the past participles used as the adverbials?.Besides using as the adverbials, the past participles can also be used as the attributes.Can you find the sentences with past participles used as attributes?Finish it in two minutes.? (Two minutes later, let the students read these sentences with past participles as the
attributes.) S: My first visit was to a space station considered the most modern in this part of space.? S: Well-known for their expertise, his parents’ company named“Future Tours”transported me safely into the future in a tome capsule.? S: Soon I was back on my feet again and followed him to collect a hovering carriage driven ? by computer.? S: Tomorrow you will be ready for some visits organized by the company.? S: The mu-mu drink a strange mixture of carrot juice and cocoa, while the dimpods drink lemonade m ixed with herbs.? S: They move forward by slowly shaking from side to side on a shell-covered“leg”.? Step 4 Practising T: From the sentences mentioned just now, what do you know about the usage of past participles as adverbials and attributes?? S: We use past participles as attributes when we want to join two clauses together, which is an attributive clause.? T: Yes.过去分词作定语, 在语态上, 表被动; 在时间上, 表示动作已经发生或完成, 与它 所修饰的名词有逻辑上的动宾关系。过去分词作定语时, 所修饰的名词在逻辑上相当于被动 句中的主语, 过去分词相当于谓语。? 过去分词作定语表示动作在谓语动作之前发生, 已经完成并具有被动意义。 有时也不表 示时间性。 作定语的过去分词一般由及物动词变来, 因为只有及物动词才有被动意义。 例如: He is a teacher loved by his students.他是个很受学生爱戴的老师。? 也有用不及物动词的过去分词作定语的情况, 一般作前置定语, 它不表示被动意义, 只 表示主动意义, 强调动作完成。 不能像及物动词的过去分词那样放在名词后面作定语。 例如: fallen leaves 落叶 ? retired workers 退休工人 ? the risen sun 升起的太阳? T: Now combine these two sentences using the past participle as the attribute.? Soon we lost sight of that famous astronomer.He is called Li Qiang.? S: Soon we lost sight of that famous astronomer called Li Qiang.? T: I am going to buy a painting.It is copied from Vincent Van Gogh.? S: I am going to buy a painting copied from Vincent Van Gogh.? T: I like that old private house.It is built of wood and mud.? S: I like that old private house built of wood and mud.? T: The room is completely empty.The room is connected to the rest of the house by a long passage. S: The room connected to the rest of the house by a long passage is completely empty.? T: The queen was sitting in a royal carriage.The carriage was drawn by four horses.? S: The queen was sitting in a royal carriage drawn by four horses.? T: The vehicle is mentioned in the book.The vehicle is unknown to me.? S: The vehicle mentioned in the book is unknown to me.? T: The castle is under repair.It was built in 1432.? S: The castle built in 1432 is under repair.? T: Just now we practiced past participles used as attributes.There are still some notes we should pay attention to.?
注意下面过去分词作定语的几种情况: ? 1.单个的过去分词作定语一般放在被修饰的名词之前。例如: ? We needed much more qualified workers.我们需要更多的合格工人。? My friend is a returned student.我的朋友是个归国的留学生。? 单个分词也可以作后置定语, 用以强调动作。例如: ? They decided to change the material used.他们决定更换使用的材料。? 2.过去分词短语作定语要放在被修饰的名词后面, 作后置定语, 其作用相当于一个定语 从句。例如: ? The student dressed in white is my daughter.(=The student who is dressed in white is my daughter.)穿白色衣服的学生是我的女儿。? 3.如果被修饰的词是由 every/some/any/no+thing/body/one 所构成的复合代词或指示代词 those 等时, 即使一个单一的分词作形容词用, 也要放在被修饰词的后面。例如: Is there anything unsolved?还有没解决的问题吗？ There is noting changed here since I left this town.? 自从我离开这个城镇以来, 几乎没有什么变化。? 4.单个过去分词前加一个名词或副词, 常用连字符将它们连接起来构成一个复合形容词, 放在其修饰的名词前, 作前置定语。分词前加的名词表示分词的动作或行为主体, 所加的副 词表示方式、时间、程度、性质等意义。例如: ? This is a state-owned factory.这是一家国有工厂。? This is our school-run factory.这是我们的校办工厂。? T: Now let’s learn past participles used as adverbials.? 分词作状语分词在句子中作状语, 可以表示时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、伴随等。 分词作状语时, 它的逻辑主语与句子的主语一致。作状语的分词相当于一个状语从句。? 例如: ?? Accompanied by his friend, he went to the railway stat ion.? Given better attention, the plants could grow better.? He looked tired and depressed, visibly disturbed by the news of his mother’s illness.? 分词在句子中作状语, 使用何种分词, 要取决于分词与句子主语的关系: 主谓关系用现 在分词, 动宾或被动关系用过去分词。例如: ? 1.Not having enough hands, we turned to them for help.(We don’t have enough hands.)? 2.Taught by mistakes and setbacks, we have become wiser and handled our affairs better?.(We are taught by mistakes and setbacks.)? 3.Inspired by the International, the working people of all countries have been fighting for their final liberation.(The working people were inspired/inspire the working people.)? 4.No matter how frequently __________, the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.(CET-4 1995, 6) A.performing B.performed C.to be performed D.being performed? 本句中贝多芬的作品被反复表演, 可见分词与句子的主语之间是被动关系, 应该用过去 分词, 故答案为 B。? 5.__________as it was at such a time, his work attracted much attention.(CET-4 1996, 1)? A.Being published
B.Published C.Publishing D.To be published 本句中 as 引导的是让步状语从句, 意思为: 他的作品尽管在被这样的时候出版, 还是引 起了关注, 可见分词与句子的主语之间是被动关系, 应该用过去分词, 故答案为 B。? T: Now let’s combine these two sentences using the past participle as the adverbial.? I was frightened by the loud noise.I went to see what was happening.? S: Frightened by the loud noise, I went to see what was happening.? T: He was hit by the lack of fresh air.He got a bad headache.? S: Hit by the lack of fresh air, he got a bad headache.? T: I felt very tired after the long journey.I still enjoyed meeting the aliens on the space station. S: Tired after the long journey, I still enjoyed meeting the aliens on the space station.? T: The little girl was frightened by the noise outside.The little girl d ared not sleep in her bedroom. S: Frightened by the noise outside, the little girl dared not sleep in her bedroom.? T: The museum was built in 1910.The museum is almost 100 years old.? S: Built in 1910, the museum is almost 100 years old.? T: The student was given some advice by the famous scientist.The student was not worried? about his scientific experiment any more.? S: Given some advice by the famous scientist, the student was not worried about his scientific? experiment any more.? Step 5 Applying(output)? T: Now let’s do some exercises to apply past participles.? 1.Once __________ (recover), he threw himself into his work and made every effort to do it well. 2.If__________ (translate) word by word, the passage will be difficult to understand.? 3.After a night __________ (spend) in excitement and sleeplessness, I forced myself to take a long walk along the beach the next day.? 4.He walked up and down, __________ (lose) in thought.? 5.Susan seldom speaks in class until __________ (speak) to.? 6.With the water pipe __________ (choke), there wasn’t any more water for use.? 7.Without anything __________ (leave) in the kitchen, the Wangs decided to eat out.? (The teacher should let the students do it first and then check the answers.)? Suggested answers: 1～7: recovered, translated, spent, lost, spoken, choked, left? Step 6 Consolidation T: In this period, we mainly focus on the past participle used as adverbials and attributes. After class, would you please write a passage containing past participles and present participles, which shows that you have known how to use past participles properly?Besides that, you will also have to finish the exercises on Pages 57 and 58 to practise using the past participle.? The Design of the Writing on the Blackboard Unit 3 Life in the future Period 5 Grammar
Past participles used as adverbials 1.Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days. 2.Given more time, the slow learners would have done better. 3.Exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep. 4.Well-known for their expertise, his parents’ company named“Future Tours”transported me safely into the future in a time capsule.
Past participles used as attributes. 1.My first visit was to a space station considered the most modern in this part of space. 2.Well-known for their expertise, his parents’ company named“Future Tours”transported me safely into the future in a tome capsule. 3.Soon I was back on my feet again and followed him to collect a hovering carriage driven by computer.
Research and Activities Suppose you are Sherlock Holmes, the great detective.You are telling us the story like this: One day I was sitting at my desk, absorbed by what I was reading when the doorbell rang.A young lady came in, frightened and puzzled, which could be read in her eyes.I asked her what I could do for her.Then she began to tell me an alien creature called Future, ...Please continue the story with your imagination.Because it is fictional, whatever you make up is possible.You had better make your description sound reasonable and attractive on condition that there are some sentences with past participles used as adverbials and attributes.? Reference for Teaching Grammar 现在分词和过去分词的用法? 现在分词和过去分词主要差别在于: 现在分词表示“主动和进行 ”, 过去分词表示“被动 和完成”(不及物动词的过去分词不表示被动, 只表示完成)。分词可以有自己的状语、宾语或 逻辑主语等。? 1)分词作状语分词在句子中作状语, 可以表示时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、伴随等。 分词作状语时, 它的逻辑主语与句子的主语一致。 作状语的分词相当于一个状语从句。 例如: Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.? Using what you know of word stems and word formations, you can make a guess at the meaning of a new word.? The students went out of the classroom, laughing and talking.? Accompanied by his friend, he went to the railway station.? Given better attention, the plants could grow better.? He looked tired and depressed, visibly disturbed by the news of his mother’s illness.? 分词在句子中作状语, 使用何种分词, 要取决于分词与句子主语的关系: 主谓关系用现 在分词, 动宾或被动关系用过去分词。例如: ? 1.__________the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would fall off the edge.(CET-4 1996, 6) A.Having believed B.Believing C.Believed D.Being believed? 本句意思为: 相信地球是平的, 许多人担心哥伦布会从边上掉下去。许多人与相信之间 是主谓关系, 及分词与主语之间为主谓关系。因此, 应用现在分词, 答案为 B。? 2.No matter how frequently __________, the works of Beethoven always attract large
audiences.(CET-4 1995, 6) A.performing B.performed? C.to be performed D.being performed? 本句中贝多芬的作品被反复表演, 可见分词与句子的主语之间是被动关系, 应该用过去 分词, 故答案为 B。? 3.__________as it was at such a time, his work attracted much attention.(CET-4 1996, 1)? A.Being published B.Published C.Publishing D.To be published? 本句中 as 引导的是让步状语从句, 意思为: 他的作品尽管在被这样的时候出版, 还是引 起了关注, 可见分词与句子的主语之间是被动关系, 应该用过去分词, 故答案为 B。 2)“while ( when, once, until, if, though 等连词)＋分词”结构现在分词或过去分词作状语时, 有时可以在分词前加 while, when, once, although, until, if 等连词。例如: ? When leaving the airport, she waved again and again to us. While waiting for the train, I had a long talk with my sister about her work.? Once recovered, he threw himself into his work and made every effort to do it well.? Although working very hard, he failed to pass the final exam.? 3)分词作定语分词作定语时, 单个的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前, 分词短语一般置 于所修饰的中心词后面。现在分词修饰的是发出该动作的名词(即与名词有主谓关系), 过去 分词修饰承受该动作的名词(即与名词是动宾关系)。例如: 1.We will go on with our experiment as soon as we get the added fund.? 2.This is really an exhausting day to all of us!? 3.We can see the part of the moon lighted by sunlight.? 4.After a night spent in excitement a nd sleeplessness, I forced myself to take a long walk along the beach the next day.? 5.More and more developing countries established strategic partnership with developed countries. 6.The young sitting between my sister and my brother is my cousin Jack.? 7.As early as 1649 Ohio made a decision that free, tax-supported schools must be established? in every town__________50 households or more.(CET -4 1998, 1) ? A.having B.to have C.to have had D.having had? 后面由分词作定语, 而且 town 本身有 50 或以上人家, 故 town 与分词间为主谓关系, 应 该用现在分词, 答案为 A。? 4)分词作宾语补足语现在分词在 see, watch, hear, observe, notice, feel, find, glimpse, glance 等感官动词和 look at, listen to 等短语动词以及 have, keep, get, catch, leave, set, start, send 等使役动词后面与名词或代词构成复合宾语, 作宾语补语的成分。例如: On the top of the hill, we could see smoke rising from the chimneys in the village.? The little boy sat beside the railway line and watched the trains roaring by.?
We should not leave him wondering what he should do.? I am sorry to have kept you waiting for such a long time.? I caught him dozing off in class.? 过去分词可以在 allow, ask, consider, desire, expect, feel, find, get, have, hear, imagine, keep, like, make, observe, order, permit, prefer, remember, request, require, see, urge 动词等后面作宾 语补足语。例如: After my encounter with her, I found myself greatly shaken.You should keep her informed? of what is going on here.? The teacher expected the students well prepared for the examination.? 在动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice, perceive, observe, listen to, look at 后既可用现在分词 作补语, 也可用不定式作补语。用现在分词表示动作正在进行, 用不定式表示的动作的全过 程已经完成。例如: I saw Mr.White get off a bus.? I saw Mr.White looking into a shop window.? —Do you hear someone knocking at the door?? —Yes, I did.I heard him knock three times.? 5)分词作表语分词作表语通常看作形容词来用。现在分词表示主语的性质, 而且主语多 为物; 过去分词表示主语的感受或状态, 主语多为人。例如: The film“Pearl Harbor”is really exciting.I am excited about it.? His response to the question was quite disappointing.I felt disappointed at his response. 具副词功能的过去分词短语? 和现在分词及短语一样, 过去分词（past participles）或过去分词短语（past participial phrases）也可以充当副词, 修饰谓语动词。? 过去分词短语可以表达下列四种意思: (一)方法或活动方式, 如: ? He walked up and down, lost in thought.? I sat before the desk until after mid-night, absorbed in writing.? Surrounded by a host of fans, the film star left the airport excitedly.? (二)原因, 如: ? Greatly disappointed, some staff decided to leave the place.? Taken by surprise, the enemy surrendered.? (三)时间, 如: ? Born and bred in a turbulent age, the older generation of people experienced all sorts of hardships. Thrown to the floor, the boy regained his footing a few minutes later.? (四)条件, 如: ? Given more time, the slow learners would have done better.? Criticized by someone else, Tony would not have flared up like that.? 除了直接修饰动词之外 , 过去分词或短语也可以和连词合组成短语 , 表示下列四种意 思: ⒈ 由 when, whenever, while, until 等连词引导, 表示“时间”, 如: ? When asked about his previous job, Bill said he had been a motor mechanic.? Susan seldom speaks in class until spoken to.? ⒉ 由 where, wherever 连词引导, 表示“地点”, 如:
Mosquitoes should be completely exterminated where found.? Retirees in good health should be invited to return to work wherever needed.? ⒊ 由 if, unless 引导, 表示“条件”, 如: If kept for too long, some medicines will lose their effectiveness.? We have made a point of not attacking unless attacked.? ⒋ 由 though, although, even though 连词引导, 表示“让步”, 如 : ? Though warned of the danger, they still went mountaineering. Even though defeated for a second time, our team did not give up hope for the ultimate victory.? 此外, 过去分词短语还可以和介词“with”或“without”连用, 具副词作用。如: ? With the water pipe choked, there wasn’t any more water for use.? Without anything left in the kitchen, the Wangs decided to eat out.? 最后, 过去分词短语, 在适当情况下, 可以有自己的主语而变成独立结构（the absolute construction）, 如: ? The old man listened, his head inclined to one side.?