The Attributive Clause
从句叫定语从句。 被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词叫 2.先行词： 先行词（antecedent）。
关系代词： Who, whom, who
se, which, that等
关系副词： When, where, why等
Eg: 1.Those who want to go please sign your names here. 2.This is the house where he was born. 3. Bill, who was here yesterday, asked me a lot of questions.
指 代 That Which Who Whom whose 人；物 物
人 人 人、物
主语；宾语 作宾语可省 主语；宾语 宾语 定语 作宾语可省 可省 不可省
Eg:1.He is such a man who never tells a lie. 2. He is the model worker whom/who we should learn from.
3. A dictionary is a book which often helps us
to know the meanings of the words.
4. This is the film which I like best.
5. The boy whose father is a professor is one of
my best friends.
6. The house whose roof was blown away by the storm will be rebuilt soon.
7. It was 11 o’clock when the accident happened last
8. This is the village where I was brought up.
This is the best film that I have ever seen. The first man that arrived at the class was our headteacher. This is the only ticket that I got yesterday. This is the very book that I’m looking for. Is there anything that I can do for you? All that you have to do is to press the button. There is no time that we can waste. The car and its driver that knocked down the old lady have been taken to the police station. The student that was punished is the monitor who studies hard.
Who is the person that is standing at the gate.
2）先行词被the only,the very,the same,the last修饰时。
3)先行词是不定代词 all,few,little,much,something,nothing,anything等. 4）先行词被all,any,every,each,few,little,no,some等 修饰。 5）先行词既有人又有物时。
6)如果有两个定语从句, 应避免重复 7)当句中已有who/ which时,定语从句要用that 而不用who(m) / which
This is the question about which we’ve had so much discussion.
当关系代词that用来代人时，关系代词who和 that在许多情况下可以通用。但有时须用who， 而不用that：
a．先行词是one，ones，anyone和those时，须 用who。如： One who has nothing to fear for oneself dares to tell the truth． b．在there be开头的句子中。如： There is an old man who wants to see you． c．一个句子带有两个定语从句，其中一个定语 从句的关系代词是that，另一个须用 who。如 The girl that you met last week is the monitor who studies very hard．
B he saw at the 1.They asked him to tell them everything _____ front.
A. what B. that C. which D. where
D she 2.In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person _______ could turn for help. (1992)
A.that B. who C. from whom D. to whom
A 3. I don’t like __________ you speak to her. (1993上海)
A.the way C.the way which B.the way in that D.the way of which
Correct the following sentences:
1.This is the best film which I have seen. This is the best film that I have seen. 2.That’s all which want to say.
That’s all that I want to say.
3.Is there anything which you want in this
shop? Is there anything that you want in this shop? 4.He talked about some writers and books which/who were unknown to us all.
He talked about some writers and books that were unknown to us all. 5.The room in that she lives is a large one.
The room in which she lives is a large one.
关系副词when, where, why的用法
1.Do you still remember the day whenwe went to visit the museum together? Do you still remember the day on whichwe went to visit the museum together?
2.This is the factory wheremy father once worked.
This is the factory in which my father once worked. 3.This is the reason whyhe was late.
This is the reason for which he was late.
1.---- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. (1999)
A you had a few days off? --- Is that the reason_______
A.why B. when C. what D. where
A 2.I’m going to visit the school _________ my mother taught physics ten years ago.
A.where B. that C. which D. what
C 3.Do you still remember the day ___________ I first came to Beijing?
A. which B. that C. when D. where
? 关系副词when, where和关系代词that, which的区分
同样是修饰一个地点，有时使用where，有时使用that/which； 同样是修饰一个时间，有时使用when， 有时使用that/which 选择关系代词与关系副词的关键取决于关系词在从句中所担当的成 分：如果关系词在从句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语时，只能用 关系代词；如果关系词在从句中作状语（时间、地点、原因）则 用关系副词。
? This is the park that we visited last year ? This is the park where we held a birthday party. ? That’s the date that she won’t forget for ever. That’s the date when we went to the college. ? I like the time that we had together. I like the time when we lived together.
修饰成分，否则主句的意思不完整或不成立。 非限制性定语从句只对所修饰的词作进一步 的说明，去掉之后主句的意思照样完整。
Compare the following sentences: A man who does not try to learn from others can’t
There’re many plays (that) I’d like to see.
This note was left by Xiao Wu, who was just here.
Yesterday Mr Brown paid a visit to Hangzhou, which is famous for its West Lake.
They have invited me to visit their country, which is very kind of them. Summarize:
A ① He has three sons, none of _____ is a doctor. B is a ② He has three sons, but none of ____ doctor. D ③ He has three sons, _______ are doctors. ④ He has three sons; ____ C are doctors. A. whom B. them C. they D. who
B 1.________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. (2001)
A.It B. As C. That D. What
A 2.He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. (1998)
A. which I think is
C. which I think it
B.which I think it is
D. I think which is
B I lived in the country 3.I shall never forget those years ______ with the farmers, __________ has a great effect on my life. (1994 上海)
A. that; which B.when; which C.which; that D.when; who
? Correct mistakes for the following sentences.
? 1. Under the big tree are 34 students, many of them come from whom class two. whose ? 2. My mother has a good book, which cover looks terrible. ? 3. Who are the young girls who are having dinner in the that restaurant? are ? 4. She is one of the girls who is very interested in maths. likes ? 5. Tom is the only one of the boys who like playing football. ? 6. Who is the girl that you talked to her just now? 去掉her ? 7. This is the very pen that you gave it to me before. 去掉it ? 8. There is an old woman, that is holding a stick. who
1. 某些感官动词和系动词加形容词可以表 示被动意义，如look, smell, taste, feel, prove, wear, sound等 1) The flower smells sweet. 2) The dish tastes delicious. 3) The cloth feels very soft. 4) The stones have worn smooth.
2. 某些及物动词后加副词（有些可不加副词） 表示事物固有的属性或特征,也可以表示被 动意义，如wash, write, sell, read, open, cut, lock, peel, pack, play, shut, spot, split, strike, record, act, clean, draw, iron, keep, photograph等 1) This type of recorder sells well. 2) That kind of shirt washes very well. 3) Ripe apples peel easily. 4) The plays won’t act. 5) Nylon dries quickly.
6) The novel reads well. 7) The door opens with difficulty. 8) The wood won’t burn. 9) Water heats rapidly. 10) This kind of shirt cleans easily. 11) Her coat caught in the door/ on the nail.
? 比较： 1. The box doesn’t lock. 这个箱子锁不上。 （箱子本身的性质） 2. The box was not locked. 这个箱子没有上锁。（箱子当时的状态） 3. The theory proved to be correct. 那个理论证明是正确的。（含有自身证明的特征） 4. The theory was proved to be correct. 那个理论被证明是正确的。（被人证明）
3. want, need, require,和be worth等词的后面可以 用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。 1) The book is worth reading. 2) The coat requires mending. 3) The children needs looking after. 4) The table wants cleaning.
这规则需要下 点功夫才能学会。 那是不堪想象的。
某些作表语(expensive, cheap, difficult, fit, hard, light, heavy, easy, 的形容词后， 用不定式形式表示被动意义。
1. The box is too heavy to lift. 2. She is easy to approach. 3. The fish is not fit to eat. 4. He is hard to please. 5. The passage is difficult to read. 6. The jewel is too expensive to buy. There are a lot of work to do/ to be done. There are a lot of work for us to do.
The Passive Voice 被动语态
2、形式: 1） 一般现在时：am/is/are+P.P 2) 一般过去时：was/were+P.P 3) 情态动词+be+P.P 4) 一般将来时：will +be +p.p 5) 现在完成时：have/has+been+P.P
1.Bananas are grown in Hainan.(海南种植香焦。）
2.Many more trees will be planted in our school next year.（我们学校明年将种更多的树。）
3.Were the trees planted by him.这些树是他种的吗？
4.Young trees must be looked after.
5. The building is being built.
6.The homework has been finished yet.
1.He teaches English in our school.
English is taught in our school by him.
宾提前变主，主变介 by宾，被动be加done, 时态看主动
2.We planted many trees last years. Many trees were planted by us last year.
3.We should plant many more trees. Many more trees should be planted by us.
4.She will teach Class 6.
Class 6 will be taught by her.
5. Many countries have sent up satellites into space. Satellites have been sent up into space
by many countries .
6.She is teaching Class 6. Class 6 is being taught by her.
7.She gave me a book.
I was given a book by her. A book was given to me by her.
如 遇双宾语，最好变间宾， 如若变直宾，间宾前to/for （pass,lend,buy,write,bring, show,tell…）
8.He made me do the work. I was made to do the work by him.
这些动词真奇怪，主动句中to 离开，被动句中to回 来。 （feel,listen to,hear,let have,make,look at,see,watch…)
9.They take good care of the baby. The baby is taken good care of by them.
1Stamps______by people for sending letters. D A.use B.using C.used D.are used. 2.Must old people_____to politely? D A.speak B.spoken C.be spoke D.be spoken 3. Bike mustn’t_____everywhere. B A.be up B.be put C.put C.putting
4.The woman fell off the bike and ____on the road. A
A.lay B.was lain C.lied D.has lain
D 5.The old man and the children_____in our country.
A.must take good care .B.must be take good care of
C.must take good care of Dmust be taken good care of
6.All trees must_____well when it is dry. D
A.be water B.watering C.water D.be watered
D 7.__I think the shop_____________.
__No,it’s open. It_____________at six.
A. close, close C.closed;closes B closed, closed D. is closed ,closes
将下列句子变为被动语态，每空一词。 1. We can finish the work in two days. The work can _____ be _____ _____ in two days. finished 2. They produce silk in Suzhou. Silk __ is _________ produced in Suzhou. 3. The children will sing an English song. will ____ be _______ sung An English song ____ by the children. 4. You needn't do it now. It _________ _____ by you now. needn’t _____ be done 5. Lucy sent me a New Year Card last week. A New Year Card ____ ____ was ____ sent to me by Lucy last week. 6.He made me do that for him. I ____ for him. was ____ made ____ to ______that do 7. I have given this book to the library. has ______ been ______ given to the library. This book _____
1. 不及物动词（vi.) 如:happen, take place, appear, disappear, … happened ?A traffic accident ________(happen) just now. 2. 连系动词（Link.v.) 如：be, look, seem, feel, sound, smell, taste, get, turn, become…
?Peking Opera ________ sounds (sound) beautiful.
?The pen _________ (write) very fast. writes ?This kind of sweater _______ sells (sell) well.
1. Large numbers of plastic bags _________ are used (use) in the supermarkets every day. 2. _____ up another Did our country ____(send) send man-made satellite last year?
3. Must the old people ___________ be spoken (speak) to politely? 4. Her grandma was still alive when he was taken (take) to the hospital. _________ 5. English __________(speak) in many is spoken counties.
6. Three quarters of the world’s books are written (write) in English. ____________
7. This kind of sweater __________ (sell) sells well. 8. _________ Will Lesson 50 ___________ be taught (teach) next week?
Fill in the blanks using right forms:
1. All the students __________(ask) were asked to bring a kite with them last Sunday. tried 2. Are many ways _______(try) to stop people from cutting down so many trees? 3. —What are on show in the museum? —Some photos _________(take) taken by American children. 4. This coat _________(wash) washes well. 5. Must the old people ____________(speak) be spoken to politely? warned 警告）not to copy others’ homework. 6. I’m often _________( disappeared(消失). 7. He couldn’t explain why dinosaurs ___________ 8. I’ll have my bike __________________( mended／repaired 修理) tomorrow. stolen 偷) last week? 9. Have you found your necklace ________( founded 成立) on October 1, 1949. 10. The PRC was _________(
一字不改地引用或复述别人的 话，被引用或复述的部分就叫直接引语； 直接引语必须都放在引号中，其位置 常在句尾或句首。
用自己的话转述别人的话；被转述的部分 就叫间接引语；间接引语不必用括号，一 般用宾语从句或复合宾语表达法。
原封不动引用别人的原话,原话在引号中。 “Take off your boots,” he said. “I don’t know where your bike is,” said the Arab.
“I’m sorry,” the professor said to the class, “but none of you watched carefully enough.”
用自己的话转述别人所说的内容。通常 以宾语从句的形式出现。当直接引语变 为间接引语时，有关的人称、语序、时 态、代词、时间状语、地点状语、和少 数动词都要作相应的改变。
时 态 的 变 化
直接引语 一般现在时 现在进行时 现在完成时 一般过去时 一般将来时
过去完成时 过去完成时或不变 过去将来时
现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时 过去进行时 过去完成时
代词 时间 状语 地点 状语 少数 动词
this these here now come bring can may
that those there then go take could might had to
时 间 状 语
three years ago
last year last week this year next week next year today yesterday tomorrow
three years before the year before the week before that year the next week the following year that day the day before The next day
引语前用that引导,有时也可以不用。 He said, “I opened the window this morning.” He said that he opened the window that morning. My sister said, “We have cleaned the floor.” My sister said that they had cleaned the floor.
The manager said to me, “You must go there next week.”
The manager told me that I had to go there the next week. The girl said, “I can do my homework myself.” The girl said that she could do her homework herself.
The teacher said in class, “The moon moves around the earth.”
The teacher said in class that the moon moves around the earth.
A said that
The girl said that she could do her homework herself. A told B that The manager told me that I had to go there the next week.
一般疑问句： 变为间接引语后，要用陈述语序（主语 先写）用if 或whether引导。时态等作 相应变化。 He asked , “Can you hear me?” He asked if/whether I could hear him. The teacher asked, “Have you read this book, Bob?” The teacher asked Bob if/whether he had read that book.
Joan asked Kate if/whether she was leaving that day or the next day.
She said to me, “Will you go there with me?” She asked me if/whether I would go there with her. She asked, “Did you see the film yesterday, Peter?” She asked Peter if/whether he had seen the film the day before. “Are you leaving today or tomorrow?” Joan asked Kate.
A asked if/whether He asked if/whether I could hear him. A asked B if whether The teacher asked Bob if/whether he had read that book.
特殊疑问句： 变为间接引语后，仍用原来的疑问词引 导，用陈述语序。时态等作相应变化。 ‘’When did they build this bridge?” she asked. She asked when they built that bridge. The teacher asked her, “Why did you come late?” The teacher asked her why she came late.
Robert asked Alice, “Where is my dictionary?” Robert asked Alice where his dictionary was.
Mrs. Bill asked him, “Which book do you like best?” Mrs. Bill asked him which book he liked best.
A asked +原句疑问词 She asked when they built that bridge. A asked B +原句疑问词 Mrs. Bill asked him which book he liked best.
改为间接引语后，就成了以不定式短语 形式出现的宾语补足语（动词常是ask/ tell/order/advise/warn /remind等）。 He said to the girl, “Do it at once.” He told the girl to do it at once. Mrs. Hill said, “ please sing at our party, Mary.” Mrs. Hill asked Mary to sing at their party.
She said to me, “Don’t smoke in the classroom.” She told me not to smoke in the classroom. He said, “Let’s go fishing tomorrow.” He suggested going fishing the next day.
祈使句直接引语变间接引语的结构 (~sb to do sth)： A told B (not) to do… He told the girl to do it at once. A asked B (not) to do… Mrs. Hill asked Mary to sing at their party.
二）祈使句改间接引语后是~ sb (not) to do sth 结构 注意以下几点 1.said/said to要变成 asked/told/ order等可跟不定式作宾补的动词。 2.呼语变宾语，please要去掉.
He said , “How happy I am!”
He said that he was very happy. He said how happy he was. "What a clever boy you are!" she exclaimed. → She told him what a clever boy he was. → She told him that he was a clever boy.
由直接引语转变为间接引语,有时会引时态 的变化,注意以下几个方面 1.主句动词为一般现在时、现在完成时或一 般将来时，在转述直接引语过程中可以不作 任何时态改变：
直接引语 She often says , “All men and women are equal under the law.”
间接引语 She often says that all men and women are equal under the law.
The teacher said to the students, “Water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.” → The teacher told the students that water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃. 2. 经常的习惯( 强调动作或状态现在仍然如此时，) He said to the doctor, “I smoke two packs every day.” → He told the doctor that he smokes two packs every day.
The teacher said, “World War Ⅱ ended in 1945.” → The teacher said that World War Ⅱ ended in 1945.
ought to, used to, had
better等： She said to me: “You must hurry up.”
She said that I must hurry up.
1.He often says “ I shall tell you about them.” B will He often tells me that _____ tell _____ about ______. B. he…me…them D. I…me…you
A. I…you…them C. he…you…us
2. You must say to her, “ I depend on you and him .” You must tell her that _____ depend on ____ and _____. A. I…you…him B. she…you…me C. you…her…him D. you…me…him
3. I shall tell him, “ I have written to you and her twice.” I shall tell him that ____ have written to ____and _____twice. A.I…him…her B. you…him…her C. I …you…me D. you…me…her
4. Jack said to me,” You look worried today.” Jack told me that _____ worried _____. A.he looks…today B. you look…today C. we looked…that day D. I looked…that day
5.They said to us, “ Are you afraid to leave this house ?” They asked us ____ afraid to leave _____ house. A.that were we…this B. that we were…that C. if were we …this D. if we were…that
6.“Do you know English ?” he asked. He asked if _______English.
A.I knew B. you know C. he knew D. I know
7. Jane said, “ What did he hear about a week ago ?” Jane asked ____ about _____. A.that he heard…a week ago B. if he heard…the week ago C. what he had heard… a week ago D. what he had heard…the week before
8. She asked,” Whose house will he break into next time ?” She asked whose house ____ break into _____. A.will he…next time B. would he…the next time C. he will…next time D. he would…the next time
9. Jack said to her ,”Where do you spend your holidays ?” Jack asked her where ____holidays.
A.she spend her B. you spend your C. she spent her D. you spent your
10.The teacher asked her, “Does the sun rise in the east ?” The teacher asked her ___ the sun ____ in the east. A.if…rise B. if…rises C. whether…rose D. whether did …rise
1. 现在进行时态表将来 go, come, leave, get, arrive, meet, see off, take off, return, start, fly, stay, etc.
e.g. I’m leaving at seven tonight
2 .When the plane, the train, the bus, meeting plan, film and programme are used as the subject, these verbs should be used in simple Present Tense.
The plane to London leaves at 9:30 tomorrow morning. The film begins at 6:00.
3.The present tense is used for the future in a clause introduced by “when”, “if”, “before”, “till/until”, “every time”, “by the time”, “as soon as”, “the moment”.
e.g. We shall not go out for a hike if it rains tomorrow.
一般将来时的被动语态用法例析 一般将来时的被动语态是被动语态学习中的难点,也是重点。本文通 过对若干典型例题的分析 , 对其进行了归纳和总结 ,希望对同学们有 所帮助。 1. 基本结构一: shall/will + be + done 【经典例题1】 I promise that this matter _____ next week. A. will be taken care B. will take care of C. will take good care D. will be taken care of 【思路点拨】 选D。从题干不难看出,一是从句中的 this matter 和 take care of 是被动关系;二是take care of 是固定搭配,不能拆开;三是 相对于promise来说,take care of 是将要发生的动作。故从句谓语应 用一般将来时的被动语态。
【经典例题2】 These dictionaries _____ the library again (by you ). A. will be taken out of B. won’t be taken out of C. will take out of D. won’t take out of 【思路点拨】选 B 。由题干结构及句意可知 , 此 题考查的是一般将来时的被动语态的否定式。 另外,我们还应注意:其疑问式为Shall/Will + 主语 + be + done...? 或 特殊疑问词 + shall/will + 主语 + be + done...?
2. 基本结构二: be(am / is /are)going to + be + done 【经典例题1】 The class ____ on everything they have learnt this year. A. is going to be examining B. are going to examine C. is going to be examined D. are going to be examined
【思路点拨】选D。题中the class指全班同学,谓语动 词应用复数形式, 并且主语和谓语动词之间是被动 关系, 所以谓语应用一般将来时的被动语态。
【经典例题2】 An exhibition of painting _____ at the art museum when he comes back from abroad. A. is going to hold B. is going to be held C. are going to hold D. are going to be held
【思路点拨】 选B。根据题意, 此处应用一般将来时的 被动语态, 而且主谓应保持一致。
现在进行时的被动语态 “四注意” 一. 注意不可遗漏being 现在进行时的被动语态表示说话时正在进行的一个 被动的动作 , 强调主语是动作的承受者 , 其构成为“ am / is / are + being+动词的过去分词”。如果我们把being 漏掉,就成为一般现在时的被动语态或系表结构。如: * Look! The children are being taken care of by their aunt. 瞧!那些孩子正由他们的姑妈照看着。 * Children are taken good care of at school. 孩子们在学校被照看得很好。(指通常情况) * The report is being written by one of the best students. 报告正在由一名最好的学生写着呢。 * The report is well written. 这个报告写得很好。(系表结构)
二 . 注意现在进行时的被动语态也可以表示将来 现在进行时的被动语态有时可表示按计划或 安排将要进行的一个被动的动作 ( 此种用法仅限于 少数及物动词)。如: A party is being held tonight. 今晚将要举行一场晚会。
三 .注意没有现在进行时的被动语态的动词 一些表示“状态、心理活动、拥有、存在” 等的动词 ,一般不用现在进行时的被动语态 ,而常用 一般现在时的被动语态。如: Xiao Wang, come here. You are wanted on the phone. 小王,过来,有你的电话。 Football is becoming more and more popular. In other words, it is loved by more and more people.足球现在越来越流行了, 换句话说,它被越来 越多的人喜爱。
四.注意“be +under/ in等介词+名词”结构可表示 现在进行时的被动语态的含义。如: The problem is under discussion (is being discussed) at the meeting. 这个问题正在会上讨论。 The telephone is in use (=is being used) now. 这部电话正在使用中。
现在完成时的被动语态一二三 一、现在完成时的被动语态的用法 1.表示一个被动的动作发生在说话之前,强调对现在 造成的影响和结果。如: The door has been locked. 门被锁上了。 2.表示一个被动的动作或状态开始于过去,持续到现 在,并可能持续下去,常与for 或since引导的时间状语连用, 或用于How long...?句型中。如: The important problem has been discussed for nearly two weeks. 那个重要的问题已经被讨论近两个星期了。 How long has the machine been used? 这机器使用有多久了?
二、现在完成时的被动语态应注意的几个问题 1. 请注意现在完成时的被动语态的两个助动词 , 即 have/has和been,两者缺一不可。 2. 请注意与一般过去时的被动语态的区别。一般过 去时的被动语态所表示的动作或状态与现在的情况没有联 系 , 而现在完成时的被动语态则强调与现在情况的联系。 如: The bridge was built last year. 这桥是去年建成的。 The bridge has been built. 这桥已经建好了。
3. 请注意一些特殊动词 , 如 borrow, finish, begin, buy, start, return, marry, open, join等构成的现在完成时的被 动语态不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。若要表达相 应的意思,则需改换动词或时态。如: [误] How long has this book been bought? [正] How long ago was this book bought? 但这类动词的否定式可表示动作的持续过程 , 具 有连续性,因而可与since或for引导的时间状语连用。如 : No books have been bought since last week. 自上周以来,没有人来买过书。