英语构词法(转化) 在高考试题中的 考查
1. (2012天津卷)13. Parents and children should communicate more to ________the gap between them so that they can understand each other be
tter. A. open B. narrow C. widen D. leave 2. （2009湖北）Some parents are just too protective. They want to _______their kids from every kind of danger, real or imagined. A. spot B. dismiss C, shelter D. distinguish
shelter 本意：居所，住处，遮蔽物，庇护处 narrow adj. 狭窄的; vt. 限制，限定; 变窄 ;缩小; n. 海峡;转化为：保护，庇护 狭路
3. 2011四川： Always remember to put such offer v.提供；给予 n. 提供（物）；给予（物）； dangerous things as knives out of children’s . 提议 ; （买方的）报价 ;录取 (用）通知 A. touch B. sight C. reach D. distance out of touch不联系，不接触；out of sight 看不见, 在视野 之外； out of reach 手够不着 达不到； 4. 2012 江苏 - Can I help, you with out it? of distance远 离 away your -I =far appreciate , but I can manage it myself. reach v. 到达; 够…n. 手脚能够到的范围; 范围，区域 A. advice B. question C. offer D. idea 5. 2013江苏 With inspiration from other food cultures, American food culture can take a for the better. A. share B. chance C. turn D. lead
(有了其他食品文化的启发，美国饮食文 使)转动;使变换;翻转;（路线或方向的）改 变 化可以变得更好。 ;机会; (时局或趋势的)转变，变化
6. 2012全国卷2 The Harry Potter books are quite popular; they are in great ___ in this city. A. quality B. progress C. production D. demand 7. 2015浙江 Studies have shown that the right and left ear ______sound differently. A. produce B. pronounce C. process D. ; 要求;盘问;需求 download 需要 过程; 工序; 做事方法;处理; 加工 8. 2015湖北In order not to be heard, she pointed her finger upwards to ____ that someone was moving about upstairs. A. whisper B. signal C. declare D. complain 信号;用动作（手势）示意; 以信号告知
1. 2013北京完形 To perfect her skills, Lola 36 for four hours a day, five days a week. A. runs B. teaches C. trains D. dances 又如：Once you have an audience laughing it ’s hard to get them to switch to an entirely different train of thought. 火车; 行列; 一系列相关的事情;训练; 培养 a train of一连串的，一系列的
A Welcome Gift
Finally, the day of the party arrived 46 . Some guests brought presents. Others brought flowers. Some even brought desserts to share 47 . One woman, Mrs. Gilbert, 48 Dario’s mother with a book of piano music by Chopin. 48. A. treated B. presented C. helped D. served
present adj.目前的; 现在的; 出席的 n.现在; 礼物 v.介绍； 出现；呈现; 提出； 赠送
3. 2012北京 Though I was absolutely thrilled with the change, it did not come without its fair share of 46 . 46. A. challenges B. profits C. advantages D. adventures Do you feel they're paying their fair share? I have done my share of the work. Women must receive their fair share of training for good-paying jobs. share n. (应得或应承担或应做的)一份
4. 2014北京春季会考 A bit taken aback, I replied. "Yes." She asked me to wait 44 , and came back carrying a four-inch plate filled with different cookies and chocolates! My first expression was a big smile. "That's a lot," I said, a bit surprised. She smiled and told me that she made eighty to ninety of these plates every year, to 45 to friends and others. 45. A. return B. gift C. sell D. show 赠品，礼物;天赋;天资;赠送
I had no words or thoughts in my brain. Finally, I asked if I could hug her. We hugged, wishing each other a happy and healthy holiday season. Then, as 深（度）； (感情的)深厚，强烈情绪 结束；(联系、旅行等的 )一端，一方，一头 we 46 , I felt as if I had met a new friend with whom I 47 the gift of a smile and some happiness. There is a(n) 48 to the joy of giving and receiving. From either 49 , both the giver and receiver are always happy 50 . 46. A. concluded B. communicated C. realized D. parted 部分;零件;作用;角色；分开;分离 47. A. exchanged B. shared C. compared D. presented 交换;交易;互换 48. A. attitude B. limit C. depth D. belief 49. A. level B. end C. step D. point
5. 2014天津 During my fourth-grade Christmas
break, we flew to Rio to visit her. Looking at her large empty 23 apartment, I became aware 24 of how lonely my mother must have been in Brazil herself. It was then that 25 I started to appreciate the tough choices she had to make on 26 family and work. Faced 27withdifficult decisions, she used to tell me, you wouldn’t know whether you made the right choice, but you could always make the best out of the situation, with passion and a positive 28 attitude. 26. A. abandoning B. balancing C. comparing D. mixing 天平;平衡;权衡
6. 09山东 David was a small boy in ragged clothes. I had oftenwondered -- 38－ what kind of home life David had and what kind of mother could send her son to school inappropriately dressed so --39－ for the cold winter months, without a coat, boots, or gloves. But something made special David --40 －. I can still remember he was always 41 a smile and willing to help. He alwaysstayed -42－after school to straighten chairs and mop the floor . We never talked much, he would -43－ just simply smile and ask what else he could do, then thank me for letting him stay and slowly 44 home. 穿着，戴着 ; ; head: 上端 ; 头脑 41. A. expressing B. delivering 流露，面带 ; 首脑 ; C. wearing D. sharing 留着（胡须 ); 居 …之首;掌管 ; 44. A. aim at B. turn to 磨损 C. put off D. head for 朝 …行进;
7. fitting-in 2014北京 ：适应；能和同事、同学或朋友打成一片 The fitting-in of Suzy Khan The first time I saw Suzy Khan, I knew I had to help her. She was really small for her age of 12. The boys in my class often 36 about her and laughed their heads off. She would open a book, pretending to read, with tears dropping on the open page. 36. A. joked B. cared C. forgot D. worried joke n. 笑话，玩笑; 笑柄，笑料; v.开玩笑; 戏弄; 闹着玩; 说着玩
8. 2015石景山一模 “It’s Shirley Temple and her Mom.‖ inches and I opened the door in a few __53__ looked. It was the woman and her daughter without her mask. Before I spoke, the mother said, ―My girl said she wanted to meet you.‖ I watched tears start to __54__ in the mother’s eyes.‖ This is her first time outside without her mask.‖ well井;涌出;冒出;流出;溢出 I pulled the door open and that was also the first time in five years for me to invite someone life into my __55__. 54. A．well B．dry C．freeze D．fix
9 2012福建 I often read of incidents of misunderstanding or conflict. I ’m left puzzled. Why do these people create mistrust and problems, especially with those from other races ？ ―扔一块石头的距离” I was growing up in Kuala Lumpur in the early 1960s, when children from different races and religions played and studied together in harmony. At that time my family lived a stone’s ___from Ismail’s. And no one was bothered that Ismail was a Malay Muslim and I was an Indian Hindu——we just accepted our differences. 40. A. drop B. throw C. move D. roll
1. 2015北京 C The objects around you are visible because they interact with light. Light typically travels in a straight line. But some materials slow and scatter(散射) light, bouncing it away from its dead adj.死去的;用尽的 adv.完全彻底地 。 original path. Others absorb light, stopping it dead in its tracks. Both scattering and absorption make an object look different from other objects around it, so you can see it easily. 64. The underlined word ―dead‖ in Paragraph 3 means__________. 既然吸收了，光就完全止于原先轨道上 A. silently B. gradually C. regularly D. completely
2. 2012北京 B Peanuts to This Proudly reading my words, I glanced around the room, only to find my classmates bearing big smiles on their faces and tears in their eyes. Confused, I glanced toward my stone-faced teacher. Having no choice, I slowly raised the report I had slaved over, hoping to hide myself. ―What could be causing everyone to act this way?‖ my classmates bearing big smiles 60. What did the author’s classmates think about his report? slave辛苦地工作;卖命地干 A. Controversial. B. Ridiculous. C. Boring. D. Puzzling.
3.【2011北京】D As the railroads and the highways shaped the American West in the past centuries, a new electrical generating（发电）and transmission （输送）system for the 21th century will leave a lasting mark on the West, for better or worse. Much of the real significance of railroads and highways is not in their direct physical effect on the scenery, but in the ways that they affect the surrounding community. The same is true of big solar plants and the power lines that will be laid down to move electricity around.
The 19th century saw land grants（政府拨地） offered to railroad companies to build the transcontinental railroads ,leaving public land in between privately owned land . In much of the west ,some of the railroad sections were developed while others remained undeveloped ,and in both cases the landownership has presented unique challenges to land management ,with the completion or the interstate highway system ,many of the small towns which sprang up as railway stops and developed well ,have lost their lifeblood and died .
Big solar plants and their power lines will also have effects far beyond their direct footprint in the west .this is not an argument against building then ,we need alternative energy badly .and to really take advantage of it we need to be able to move electricity around far more readily than we can now . So trade-offs will have to be made .some scenic sport will be sacrificed .some species (物 种)will be forced to move ,or will be carefully moved to special accommodations ,deals will be struck to reduce the immediate effects .
The lasting effects of these trade-offs are another matter .the 21st century development of the American west as an ideal place for alternative energy is going to throw off a lot of power and money to do a lot of good .but it is just as likely that they will be spent wastefully and will leave new problems behind ,just like the railroad and the highway . The money set aside in negotiated trade – offs and the institution that control will shape the west far beyond the immediate footprint of power plants and transmission lines .so let’s remember the effects of the railroad and the highways as we construct these new power plants in the west .
70.Which is the best title for the passage ? A. How the Railways Have Affected the West B. How Solar Energy Could Reshape the West C. How the Effects of Power Plants Can Be Reduced D. How the Problems of the Highways Have Been Settled shape n.形状; 状态; 身材;v.塑造; 体现;影响 reshape 再次影响
4.2012北京七选五Jennifer Freed, a co-director of a teen program, has another explanation. Turn on the TV, and you’re showered with news and reality shows full of people fighting, competing, and generally treating one another with no respect. __72__ D. Humans learn by example—and most of the examples on it are anything but empathetic. shower似阵雨般降落 E. Empathy is a matter of learning how to understand someone else—both what they think and how they feel.