Grammar(1) 名词性从句 在复合句中起到名词作用的从句叫名词性从句，包括主语从句，表语从句，宾语从句和同 位语从句。引导名词性从句的词有： 连词 that，whether，if；连接代词和连接副词 what, which, who, whom, whose, when, where, why，how 等。 名词性从句可以表示两方面：一个事实，一个问题。问题又分两方面即一般
一、主语从句就是做主语的从句。它由 that 和其他疑问词引导。 1．That they are rich is true, isn't it? (that 不能省略) 2．Where he got it is unknown to us. 3．They lost their way in the woods, and what made matters worse was that night began to fall. 4．Whoever said that was wrong. 5．______ ______ _______ ______ _______ ______ ______ (地球围绕太阳转) is a truth. 6．_______ _______ _______ (任何努力学习的人) will pass the exam. 7．______ ____ _____ ______(我所告诉你的) just now was what had been written in the letter. 8．_______ ______ _________ _____ _______ _____ _____ ____( 我是接受礼物还是拒绝 它)is none of your business. 有时用 it 作形式主语，而把真正的主语从句移到后面。其句型有： a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句 It is necessary/important that… 有必要/重要的是…… It is obvious that… 很明显…… b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句 It is believed that…人们相信…… It is known to all that…从所周知…… It has been decided that…已决定…… c. It + be +名词+ that-从句 It is common knowledge that………是常识 It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是…… It is a fact that… 事实是…… d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句 It appears that…似乎…… It happens that…碰巧…… It occurred to me that… 我突然想起…… 9. 他没有想到 Jack 能够把这道题目做出来。It didn’t occur to him ____________________..
10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
真奇怪你这样说。It is strange _________________________________________. 我们打电话时她刚巧不在。It happens ___________________________________. 他好象很害怕。It seemed _________________________________________. 英语正被接受为国际的语言，这是事实。It is a fact ______________________________. 他不能按时完成工作有关系吗？Does it matter _________________________________ .
二、表语从句是放在系动词后的名词性从句。 15. That is how he did it. He looks as if he were tired. 16. The problem remains that we can't get so many recorders. 17. China is no longer what it used to be. 18. Shenzhen is not ________it was 10 years ago. The point is ____ we will have our sports meet next week. (A. that B. what C. whether) 19. He got his highest marks in the exam. It was all _____ he had worked hard. (A. why B. because) 20. Go and get your coat. It is ___ you left it. (A. there B. there where C. where) 21. The reason _________________(他为何失败) is ________ he was too careless. 22.______________ (问题是) that we haven't collected enough money for the concert. 23. Cigarettes contain nicotine. That is __________________________(抽烟者所需要的). 24.My question is ________________________(你是否已决定了) (可用 if 吗) 25. This is _________________________________________(Mr. Smith 曾经工作过的地方) 三、宾语从句作动词或介词的宾语。 26． Do you know _____ ____ ______ (何时何地) the first car factory ____ ______ (工厂建立)? 27．____ ____ ____ ____ (你认为谁) is the best one in your class? 28．He always _______ ________(考虑) ________he can _______ ______ ________( 他怎样 才能提高他的英语水平). 29．You can write about ____________(无论什么) topic you like. 30．He made ___quite clear _______ he wouldn't change his mind. 31．You may choose _______ _______ _______ _______(从剩下的东西中). 32．I don't doubt ________ my friend John will come to China soon. 33．I doubt __________ he will come or not. 34．I don't think _____ true that he came to the concert yesterday. 35．I think he is a dishonest man, _________(反义疑问句)? 注：(1) 主句的谓语是 make, find , see, hear 等，而且带有复合宾语时，可把宾语从句放 在宾补之后，用 it 作形式宾语。 (2) 某些 adj. 如 sure, happy, glad, certain 等，以及一些非谓语动词之后可带宾从。 (3) 主句的谓语动词如果是现在时或将来时,宾语从句的谓语动词可以不受限制.主句 的谓语动词如果是过去时 ,则宾语从句的谓语动词通常必须 用过去的各种时态 ,这叫 时态的一致性. 但有两种情况不受事态一致性的约束,即宾语从句中有具体的时间或讲述的内容是真理、 客
观事实。 36. She told her pupils that the earth is round. (不用 was) 四、同位语从句跟在名词的后面，进一步说明该名词的具体内容。可带同位语从句的名词 是一些可加进具体内容的表示信息， 思想等概念的名词， 如 fact, news, idea, promise, truth, story 等。 注：同位语从句与前面的名词是等同关系。连接词有 that 和其它疑问词，that 在句 中不做成分，不能省略。 Translate the underlined section into Chinese: 37. The news that our team has won encourages us. 38. I made a promise that if anyone set me free, I would make him very rich. 39. They are trying to reduce the patient's fear that he would die of the disease. 40. Word came that our volleyball team beat the Japanese team. 41. Do you have any hope that they will come? 42. I have no idea how disabled people earn their living.
一、名词性从句中的几个重要问题： 1．连接词可分为三类： 连接词： that, whether, if （不充当从句的任何成分） 连接代词：what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which 连接副词：when, where, how, why 2. 不可省略连词的情况： 1) 介词后的连词 2) 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。 3 比较：whether 与 if 均为"是否"的意思。 在下列情况下，whether 不能被 if 取代： 1) whether 引导主语从句并在句首。在主语从句中，只有用 it 作形式主语时，whether 和 if 都能引导主语从句，否则，也只能用 whether；2) 引导表语从句 ；3) 引导同位语从 句；4) 引导介词宾语从句 ；5）引导让步状语从句；6) 后面紧接 ―or not‖ 或动词不定式. 4. 比较名词性 that-从句与名词性 what-从句 1）名词性 that-从句。That 只起连接主句和从句的作用，在从句中不担任任何成分， 本身也没有词义。 主语：That he is still alive is sheer luck. 宾语：John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 表语：The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 同位语：The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office. 形容词宾语：I am glad that you are satisfied with your job. 2）名词性 wh-从句。wh-词包括 who, whom, whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever 等连接代词和 where, when, how, why 等连接副词。wh-从句的语法功能除了和 that-从句一样外，还可充当介词宾语、宾语补语和间接宾语等。wh-词 在从句中担当成分 主语：How the book will sell depends on its author. （ how 在从句中作 ______ 语） 直接宾语：In one’s own home one can do what one likes. （what 在从句中作 ______ 语） 间接宾语：The club will give whoever wins a prize. （whoever 在从句中作 ______ 语） 表语：My question is who will take over president of the Foundation. 宾语补足语：She will name him whatever she wants to.（whatever 在从句中作 _____ 语） 同位语：I have no idea when he will return. 形容词宾语：I’m not sure why she refused their invitation. （why 在从句中作 ______ 语） 介词宾语：That depends on where we shall go. 6．名词性从句中的否定的转移：
1）将 think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine 等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移 到主句中，即主句的谓语动词用否定式，而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。 I don't think I know you. I don' t believe he will come. 注意：若谓语动词为 hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。 I hope you weren't ill. 2）将 seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。 It doesn't seem that they know where to go. It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow.
名词性从句的引导词 一、that 从句
1．做主语 1）如果主语从句较长，常采用形式主语的 it. 2）在 it 结构中 that 可省可不省，但主语从句位于句首时不能省 that。 3）下面两种句型也被视为主语从句： ① It + 过去分词 + that 从句， 常用的过去分词是，said，reported，thought， hoped，believed 等； ② It + seem（=appear）/ happen + that, seem 作―好像‖解，而 happen 在这儿作―碰巧‖解。 2．做宾语 关于否定的转移 下列这些动词做谓语时，其后的 that 从句如带有否定意义，通常用否定词 not 来否定 这些谓语动词本身，think，believe，expect，guess，imagine，suppose。如： I don’t think he knows it. 这时在反意疑问句中，其后的动词仍采用肯定形式： I don't think he knows it, does he? 3．做表语：如果句子不太复杂 that 可以不用。 4．做同位语：做同位语时，that 从句很像定语从句，二者区别详见―定语从句‖。 5．用在某些形容词之后：that 一词可用可不用。
1．疑问性 wh-从句 引导疑问性从句的连词由疑问代词和疑问副词充当。 疑问性 wh—从句的特点及与 that 从句的区别： 1）任何一个 wh-连词都有自己的含义（包括 whether） ，而 that 却没有，它仅起一个语 法符号的作用； 2）wh-从句可做介词宾语，而 that 从句一般不能，这是两者的重要区别。 2．关系性 wh-从句 常用的引导关系性 wh-从句的连词有：what，whatever，whoever，whichever，where， wherever 等。其中的 what 和 where 既可以是疑问性的也可以是关系性的。关系性 wh-从句 的特点及其与疑问性 wh-从句的区别如下： 1）语法特点 疑问性 wh-从句是由特殊疑问句而来（whether 引导的从句由一般疑问句而来） ，由于 有疑问的含义所以有人称之为“间接疑问句” 。He asked me who had broken the window 可 理解为：He asked me, ―Who has broken the window?‖ 而关系性 wh-从句的 whoever 则没有 疑问的意思， whoever 的意思为： ① the person who， ② anyone who。 如： We’ll punish whoever has broken the window. 意为：①“我们将惩罚那个打碎玻璃的人” 。②“我们将惩罚每一 个打碎玻璃的人” 。what 和 where 则没有这种“双重含义” 。 2）句法特点 疑问性 wh-从句的连词只在从句中充当成分，而关系性 wh-从句的连词不仅在从句中 充当成分， 而且也充当主句中的某一成分。 见上述例句： who 只在从句中做主语， 而 whoever 不仅做 punish 的宾语，也充当从句的主语，即“双重功能” 。这是两种从句的根本区别。 wh-ever 这一类连词，还可以引导状语从句，―不管……‖、―不论……‖，这将在副词性从句 中讨论
Multiple choices for Noun clauses: 1.They lost their way in the forest and _____ made matters worse was that night began to fall. A. that B. this C. what D. which 2.—I saw your neighbor break your window with a basketball. -- _______ it made me nearly mad. A. That he broke B. What he broke C. He broke D. His break 3.______ you go or stay at home won't make any difference. A. If B. When C. That D. Whether 4. Is _____ you told me really true? A. what B. which C. that D. when 5. It’s well known ______ the earth moves round the sun. A. when B. why C. what D. that 6.________ knowledge comes from practice is known to all. A. What B. Where C. If D. That 7.____ is known to all that WTO stands for World Trade Organization. A. Which B. What C. As D. It 8. ____he doesn't like them is very clear. A. What B. That C. Which D. Where 9. It is no longer a question now ________ man can travel in space. A. which B. that C. whether D. what 以上均为_____从句。特点：1.在句中充当___语。 2._____不充当任何成分，无任何意义，但____省。 3. 常用___充当形式主语。固定句型有哪些？ 10．The question is ______ the film is worth seeing. A. if B. whether C. what D. how 11．This is ______. A. how did they get to the city B. what did they get to the city C. how they got to the city D. what they got to the city 12. It looks ______ it's going to rain. A. that B. as C. as if D. that 13. The problem is not ___ we leave, but ____ we can get there. A. when; how B. when; where C. how; which D. where; when 14. What I asked him is ____ the story happened. A. when and what B. what and where C. which and where D. when and where 15. The reason for his success is _______ he worked hard. A. why B. that C. because D. for
16. The truth is ___ he doesn't work hard enough. A. why B. what C. that D. which 17. The reason why he was late was ____ he had taken a wrong bus. A. because B. whether C. because if D. that 18. Einstein’s most famous theory is ____ we call the Theory of relativity. A. what B. that C. which D. / 19. To tell you the truth, this is _____ in the world. A. which I have B. that I have C. what I have D. whether I have 20. Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel , David Copperfield, was _______ it was rather closely ________ it was rather closely modeled on his own life. A. what B. that C. why D. whether 21. This museum is not ______ it was ten years ago. A. that B. when C. which D. what 22.—Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game? —Oh，that’s ____. A. what makes me feel excited B. whatever I feel excited about C. how I feel about it D. when I feel excited 23.The mountain is no longer ________it used to be. A. which B. that C. as D. what 以上均为_____从句。特点：1)在____动词之后 2) ______通常不能省略 24. Do you doubt ________ I believe you? A. that B. which C. whether D. if 25. I know nothing about the accident but ________ a car ran over a small boy. A. how B. that C. when D. why 26. Nobody but Jim and his uncle _____. A. know who is he B. know who he is C. knows who is he D. knows who he is 27. I didn't know what _____. A. was the matter B. is the matter C. matter was D. the matter is 28. We have plenty of books here. You may take _____ you like . A. in which B. from which C. whichever D. that 29. It depends on ______ we have enough time. A. if B. weather C. if or not D. whether 30. – How do you like the address Hu Jintao delivered at the Asian APEC in 2009? -- Great. I take ______ that he spoke of the physical security measures. A. all B. it C. one D. this 31. I want to buy some stamps. Can you tell me _____ near here? A. if there's a post office B. is there a post office C. where is the post office D. whether is there a post office 32. What we have seen is different from _______.
A. we heard B. we have heard C. what we heard D. what we have heard 33. I couldn't agree with _____ at the meeting. A. that you said B. which you said C. all what you said D. what you said 34. He was lucky enough to sell his car for exactly ______. A. where he had paid for it B. what he had paid for it C. what he was paid for it D. which he had paid for it 35. We are asked ___ we think the likely result of an action will be. A. that B. what C. which D. whether 36. We know little about the young lady except ________you told me. A. what B. that C. how D.不填 37. I know nothing about her except ________she is from Canada. A. how B. when C. that D. why 以上均为_____ 从句。注意：1) 主句是过去时，从句_________.2) 形式宾语___ 3) 不仅可以有动词，还可以有______和______宾语从句。4)否定转移的情况 38. We were all very worried over the fact _____ you were ill. A. that B. what C. which D. about which 39. The news ____ Lincoln was murdered filled the American people’s hearts with deep sorrow. A. which B. when C. that D. how 40. You have no idea_______ for her safety. A. how anxious I have been B. so anxious I have been C. how I have been anxious D. I have been so anxious 41. Word came ________ Fei Junlong had succeeded in walking in space. A. that B. why C. where D.who 42.The fact________ she works hard is well known to us all. A. that B. what C. why D. which 以上均为______从句。 思考：与定语从句的区别？
答案 grammar (1)
5. That the earth travels around the sun; 6. Whoever works hard; 7. What I told you;8.Whether I should accept the gift or not; 9. that Jack could work out the problem 10. that you (should) say so; 11. that she was out when we called.; 12 that he was frightened; 13. that English is being accepted as an international language; 14. if he can't finish the job on time? 18.what A 19. B 20.C 21. why he failed; that; 22. The problem is ; 23. what the smokers need; 24. whether you’ve made up your mind; 25. where Mr. Smith once worked; 26. when and where; was established; 27. Who do you think; 28. thinks of how; improve his English; 29. whatever; 30. it; that; 31. from what’s left behind;32. that; 33. if/whether; 34. it; 35. isn’t he? ; 37.我们队已赢得比赛这条消息；38. 如果谁能释放我，我将让他十分富有；39. 他将死于 疾病的恐惧；40 我们排球对打败了日本队；41. 他们（将）会来；42. 残疾人是如何谋生 （或维持生计）的。
Grammar (3)1-5 CADAD 6-10DDBCB 11-15CCADB 16-20CDACB 21-25DADAB