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unit3 The Million Pound Bank Note grammar


高一人教新课标版必修三

Unit 3 The Million Pound Note
Learning about language

Discovering useful words and expressions 1 Find the correct word for each of the following meanin

gs.

fault mistake 1. _______
permit to allow something to happen 2. _______

author someone who writes books 3. _______

4. _______ to try to find or get seek something envelope a thin paper cover for 5. ________ a letter 6. birthplace _________ the place where someone was born

7. ____________ businessman a man who works in a business 8. __________ adventure unusual, exciting or dangerous experience 9. patience _______ ability to wait for a long time or to accept trouble without getting angry

10. _______ scene part of a play during which there is no change in time or place 11. _________ pavement path at the side of a road for people to walk on 12. _____ novel a long written story in which the characters and events are not usually real

指出下列 名词 在句中所做的成分。
subject(主语) subject object(宾语) predicative(表语)

1.The world loves nature.

2.Knowledge is power .
subject apposition (同位语)

3.We Chinese are peace-loving.
predicative

主语

{

His job is important.

What he does is important.

主语从句

宾语

{ I don’t like what he does every day
宾语从句

I don’t like his job.

.

表语

{This is what he does every day.
表语从句

This is his job.

同位语

{I don’t know about the fact that he is a
teacher.

I don’t know about the man, Mr. White.

同位语从句

主语从句 subject clause 宾语从句

名词性从句 noun clause

object clause

表语从句
predicative clause

同位语从句
appositive clause

什么叫名词性从句?
?

它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、 同位语等。
?

名词从句的功能相当于名词词组

名词性从句中的连接词有:
连词: that / whether /if 连接代词: what /who/which / whose / whatever / whoever / whomever / whichever 连接副词: where / when / why / how / wherever / whenever

一、Object Clauses 宾语从句
I
主语

know him . (简单句)
谓语 宾语

I
主语 主

know who
谓语 句

he

is . (复合句)

连词 从句主语 从句谓语 宾语从句

介词 It depends on whether 连词 you can do the work well. ________________________

宾语从句

?I’m sorry (that) I don’t know.

?We’re sure (that) our team will win.
?I’m afraid (that) he won’t pass the exam. 动词 介词 形容词 + 从句 ——— 宾语从句

I.句子结构: 主句+连词(引导词)+宾语从句

that with a million pound 1.Oliver believes ____ bank note a man could survive a month in London. 2. It is Henry , an American businessman, who is lost in London and does not know _____ he should do. what 3. May we ask what you’re doing in this what your plans are? country and ______ whether I could survive 4. I don’t know ________ until morning. (that) it’s very funny. 5. I’m afraid _______ 6. Please pay more attention to _____ what he said

II. 连词的作用
连词由that在从句不作任何成分, 也没有任何具体意思, 常省略。 1.Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. 2.The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do. 3.I think it necessary that you should read English aloud.

宾语从句中的连接词that在以下三种情况 下不能省略: ①当that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作 宾语时, 第二个that不能省; ②当that作介词宾语时, that不可省掉。 ③用it做形式宾语的宾语从句。

if/whether翻译成: ―是否”, 具有一定的意义, 所以不能省略。

介词+whether Whether… or\ or not

I don’t know whether or not I will stay. I worry about whether I hurt her feelings.

3) 当宾语从句是特殊疑问句时, 由连接代词 (what, who, whom, which, whose) 或连接 副词(when, where, how, why)引导, 因为连接 代词或连接副词在从句中担任一定的句子成分, 具有一定的意义, 所以不可以省略。

III. 时态
?I know he lives here. ?I know he lived here ten years ago. ?I have heard that he will come tomorrow. ?I knew who lived here. ?I saw she was talking with her mother. ?He asked whether his father would come back tomorrow. ?He said that he had seen it .

1) 主句 :现在的时态(包括一般现在时, 现在进行时, 现在完成时) 从句: 根据实际情况而定 (包括一般现在时,一般过时,一般将来时, 现在完成时等)。 2) 主句: 过去的时态(包括一般过去时, 过去进行时) 从句: 一定用相对应的过去的某种时态 (一般过去时,过去进行时, 过去将来时, 过去完成时)。

3) 当从句是客观真理, 定义, 公理, 定理 时用一般现在时。 ?The teacher said that the sun travels around the earth.

Exercise
1. I didn’t know what time hewrote _______ the letter. (write) has taken away 2. Could you tell me who _________ the book already? (take) had been to the 3. Ling Feng told me he _________ Great Wall several times. (be)

4. The radio says it _______ will be cloudy tomorrow.

(be)
goes well. 5. The headmaster hopes everything ______

(go)
were playing (play). 6. Tom says that they ____________ basketball at six o’clock yesterday evening. 7. I hear they ______________ have returned (return) it already. had been members of the 8. He said that they _________ Party since 1948. (be)

? When will he go to the library?
? His brother asks when he will go to the

library .
His brother asks when will he go to the

library .
? What does he want to buy ? ? I don’t know what he wants to buy . I don’t know what does he want to buy .

IV.语序
宾语从句的语序用陈述语序:

连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

D 1. Could you show me ________ ?

A. how can I get to the station
B. where is the station

C. how I could get to the station
D. how I can reach the station

2. Please tell me _______. C A. what does he like B. what he does like C. what he likes D. what he like B 3. My sister told him ________ . A. what day was it B. when the train arrived C. who she was waiting D. where did you live 4. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see D _______. A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is

Practice:
1. I think ______________________.

2. I don’t think_________________.
3. We all agreed _______________. 4. They asked __________________. 5. His mother said _______________. 6. I don’t doubt________________.

练一练: if / whether if / whether she had a bike. 1. I asked her __________

2. We’re worried about ________ whether he is
safe. 3. I don’t know ___________ whether /if he is well or not.

whether or not he is well. 4. I don’t know ________
5. I don’t know _______ whether to go.

带how的词组也都可以引导宾语从句
Could you tell us how much it costs to fly to Hainan? Could you tell us how often you go abroad for a holiday? Could you tell us how long the meeting will last? I don’t know how far it is to the cinema. Please tell us how many students there are in your school? Please tell us how soon you will be ready. Can you tell us how old his brother is?

4. 注意事项
1) could / would是委婉语气, 而不是过去式, 因此宾语从句的时态根据实际情况用不同时态。
?Could you please tell me where we show our tickets ? ?Could you tell us which gate we have to go to? ?Would you like to know when he will come back?

2) 如果主句的谓语动词是ask时, 连词不可能 是that; 如果主句的谓语动词是say时, 连词用that。 ?She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk. ?He said (that) he was going to take care of the child. ?He asks if I like playing the piano. ?You may ask the man over there how you can get to the bus station.

3) 否定的转移: 若主语谓语动词为think,
consider, suppose, believe, expect, guess,

imagine等, 其后的宾语从句若含有否定
意义, 一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上, 从句谓语用肯定式。 I don’t think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。

4) It 常可以放在动词think, find, consider,

believe, feel, make等后作形式宾语:it 不
仅可以作形式主语, 还可以作形式宾语而 真正的宾语-that从句则放在句尾,特别是 在带复合宾语的句子中。 We heard it that she would get married

next month.

whether与if的辨用
表“是否”时, 在下列情况下用whether。 a. 主语从句 b. 表语从句 c. 同位语从句 e. 介词后的宾语从句 f. 后接动词不定式 (whether to do sth.) g. whether or not 连在一起引导宾语 从句时不用if

5) 连词 if 和 when 在不同从句中的区别: Do you know if ______back next week? If C he ______ back, please let me know. A. he comes, will come B. will he come, comes

C. he will come, comes
D. he will come, will come

主句

从句

一般将来时态
祈使句

一般现在时态

含有情态动词

will come (come). I don’t know when he _________ I can’t wait here any more. When he _____ comes

(come), would you please ask him to call
me?

单项选择
1. The young man asked _____ D it’s summer or

winter.
B. that C. weather D. whether A they did it. 2. We don’t know ______ A. how on time. A. that B. if C. when D. what time B. who C. what D. which B Jim can come back 3. The teacher asks us ____ A. either

4. Does anybody know ______ C we will have a

sports meeting this weekend or not .
A. if B. where C. whether D. that

5. Could you show me ________ ? D
A. how can I get to the station

B. where is the station
C. how I could get to the station

D. how I can reach the station

6. Please tell me _______. C A. what does he like B. what he does like C. what he likes D. what he like B 7. My sister told him ________ . A. what day was it B. when the train arrived C.who she was waiting D. where did you live 8. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see D _______. A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is

9. Could you tell me how long ________? B
A. you have bought the watch

B. you have kept this science book
C. have you been away from China

D. have you been a member of Greener China
10. He says that if it ______ C tomorrow, he

_____ fishing.
A. will rain, won’t go B. rained, wasn't go

C. rains, won’t go

D. rain, will go

二、Predicative Clauses 表语从句
表语从句是在复合句中作表语的名词性 从句, 放在系动词之后,一般结构是 “主语+系动词+表语从句”。可以接 表语从句的系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。另外, 常用的还有the reason why … is that … 和 It is because …等 结构。

连接词: that / whether /as if /as though ( if 不 引导表语从句) 连接代词: who / whom / whose / which / what 连接副词: when / where / why / how / because The question is whether we can rely on him. That’s because we were in need of money at that time. He looked as if he was going to cry. That’s why I was late.



意:

1. 在表语从句中, 表“是否” 时, 只能用 “whethe 不能用“if”。 2. 一般情况下,“that”不能省。 3. It is /was because … It is /was why… 4. The reason (why…/for…)is /was that… that …./why… 5. The reason is because

名词主语+be+that引起的表语从句
在这种句型中, 常用表示事实, 真理的名词, 如: fact, truth 或表示看法, 观点的名词, 如: idea, opinion, belief, view, feeling, suggestion, plan等作主语。 The fact is that our team has won the game. The truth is that she was the very person who

informed against her husband.

注意
表语从句的引导词与主语从句和

宾语从句相同。
但: 1. that引导表语从句时不能省。 2. if 不能引导表语从句。

Exercise
B the Party called on us to do. 1. That’s ____ A. why B. what C. how D. that 2. The reason is ____ C he is unable to operate the machine. A. because B. why C. that D. Whether 3. That is ____ D they separated. A. that B. what C. which D. where 4. Jane is no longer ____ A she was four years ago. A. what B. which C. that D. when

三、Subject Clause 主语从句
1) That he will succeed is certain. 2) Whether he will go there is not known. 3) What he said is not true. 4) Where he hid the money is to be found out. 5) Whoever comes is welcome. 6) It’s certain that he will succeed. 7) How we can help the twins will be discussed at the meeting. 8)When they’ll start the project has not been decided yet.

考点一: 主语从句后置!
为了避免主语冗长, 句子头重脚轻, 经常用it作 形式主语, 主语从句放在后面作真正的主语.

That we shall be late is certain. -- It’s certain that we shall be late. 1. That the earth is round is known to all. -- It’s known to all that the earth is round. 2. That you missed the chance is a pity. -- It is a pity that you missed the chance.
由连词 whether 和 if, 连接代词 what,who,which 和连接副词 when,where,why,how 等引导, 也 常常后置。

It 的用法: (形式主语)
It’s possible/important/necessary/clear… that... ??很可能/重要的是??/必要的是??/很清 楚?? It’s said/ reported… that...据说/据报道??

It’s been announced/declared that...已经通知/
宣布??

It seems/appears/happens... that… 显然、明显、 碰巧?? It’s no wonder that… 并不奇怪/无疑?? It’s a pity/a fact /a common knowledge (众所周知)/ a common saying... (俗话说)

考点二
注意: 主语从句中, 谓语动词一般用单数;

what引导的主语从句, 可根据表语决定。
What he needs is that book.

What he needs are some books.

what 与 that 引导主语从句 what引导名词性从句时在从句中充当

句子成分,如:主语、宾语、表语。而
that则不然,它在句子中只起连接作用。 例如: (1) What you said yesterday is right. (2) That she is still alive is a puzzle.

由 that 引导: 1. That we shall be late is certain. That the earth is round is known to all. 2. ______________________ (地球是圆的) That you missed the chance is a pity. 3. _________________________ (你错过了这次机会)

that 无意义, 后接一个完整的句子。

that 不可省。



意:

1. ―if” 不能引导主语从句, 应由“whether”引导。 2. 主语从句的 “that” 一般不能省。 3. ―what”引导主语从句时, 谓语动词: 1)常与其后的名词作表语一致 2)根据句子的语境而定。 What you left are only several old books. What you said is of great importance. What he says and does doesn’t concern me. What he says and does don’t agree.

单项选择
1.____ A he made an important speech at the meeting was true. A. That B. Why C. What D. How 2. ____we ’ll go camping tomorrow depends B on the weather. A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where C is known to us all is that America is a 3. ____ developed country_____the First World. A. Which; belong to B. As, belonged to C. What; belonging to D. It; belonging to

4. It’s known to us all ____ a form of energy. B A. water is B. that water is C. is water D. that water to B her hair was 5. It worried her a bit ____ turning gray. A. whether B. that C. what D. when A none of your 6. What I say and think ____ business. A. is B. are C. has D have

7. ____made B the school proud was ____more than 90%of the students had been admitted to key universities. A. What / because B. What / that C. That / what D. That / because 8. ____she couldn’t understand was ___ fewer A and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. A. What / why B. That / what C. What / because D. Why / that

9. He is absent from school. It is ____ B he is
seriously ill. A. why B. because C. that D. the reason 10. We made the suggestion that he _____ B his work . A. continues C. continued B. continue D. had continued

11. _____ D has helped to save the drowning girl is
worth praising.

A. Who B. The one C. Anyone D. Whoever
A more 12. Information has been put forward ____

middle school graduates will be admitted
into universities .

A. that

B. how

C. where

D. what

13. – I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week . -- Is that ____ A you had a few days off ? A why B when C what D where 14. --Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game ? --Oh, that’sA ____. A what makes me feel excited B whatever I feel excited about C how I feel about it D when I feel excited

15. ____ B fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one

aspect.
A. What B. That C. This D. Which 16. When you answer questions in a job interview, please remember the golden rule: Always give the monkey exactly ____ A he wants. A. what B. which C. when D. that

17. There will be a special price for ____ C buys things in large number here. A. who B. whom C. whoever D. Whomever A the team had 18. Mary wrote an article on ____ failed to win the game. A. why B. what C. who D. that 19. The poor young man is ready to accept ____ C help he can get. (05) A. whichever B. however C. whatever D.whenever

20. Many newspaper printed the governor’s statement D _____ would support a tax cut. A. and he B. was that he C. which he D. that he C man must fear when traveling 21. _____ in space is radiation from the sun. A. Which B. How C. What D. That

22. It is generally considered unwise B he or she to give a child _____ wants. A. However B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever For more exercises, click here.

高考链接: 1. (10福建35) We should respect

food and think about the people C who don’t have _______ we have here and treat food nicely.
A.that B. which

C. what

D. whether

2. (10湖南35) Cindy shut the door heavily

and burst into tears. No one in the office D she was so angry. knew _____ A. where B. whether C. that D. why

For more exercises, click here.

Homework Recite the key sentences on the grammar-noun clauses as the object and predicative.


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