分词做状语特点： ? 现在分词作状语，表主动的动作，戒表动作正在 进行
? 过去分词作状语，表被动的动作，戒表动 作已经完成。
1 When they hear the news, they all jumped with joy
/>Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.
2 When it is seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful. Seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful. 3 The children ran out of the room. They laughed and talked merrily. The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily. 特点：主语一致
Weather permitting, we’ll go sightseeing in Gaopo.
All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours.
?名词或代词+分词（doing\done) ?名词或代词+不定式 ?名词或代词+形容词\副词 ?名词或代词+介词短语 ?名词或代词+名词 ?There being +名词（代词） 分词独立结构由“名词 +being…”构成时，being 常省略。
?It being +名词（代词）
1）天气允许的话，我们去高坡观光吧。 Weather permitting（If weather permits）, we’ll go sightseeing in Gaopo. 2)综合来看，他的论文比你的更有价值。 All things considered（If all things are considered）, her paper is of greater value than yours. 3)他仰面躺着，牙关紧闭，双手紧握在胸前，两眼朝 上直直地怒视着。 He lay on his back, his teeth set, his right hand clenched on his breast and his glaring eyes looking straight upward.
1）明天要考试，我今晚就丌去看电影了吧。 The exam to be held tomorrow, I couldn’t go to the cinema tonight. 2)她俩道了别，一个要回家，另一个要去书店。 They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore. 3)种下大量的花草树木后，学校看起来会更漂亮。 Many trees, flowers, and grass to be planted, our school will look even more beautiful. 丌定式在独立主格结构中多表示将来的行为，表 示“企图” “约定”等，指的是按计划安排要做 的事。
So many people （being）absent, the meeting had to be called off.
An air accident happened to the plane, nobody（being） alive.
The meeting （being）over, they all went home.
1）孩子们手里拿着花向我们跑过来 The children came running towards us, flowers in hands. 2）玛丽靠近火炉坐着，背对着门。 Mary was sitting near the fire, her back towards the door.
表示存在时用“There being +名词（代词）”的结构
1). There being no buses, they walked to the theatre 2).There being no cause for fear, he returned to his hometown.
It being +名词（代词）
由于圣诞节的缘故，政府机关都休息。 It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于今天是假日，所有商店都关门了。 It being holiday, all the shops were shut.
Such being the case, she has nothing to say. Such being the fact, she had to admit his mistake.
区别于介词with / without复合结构
doing(表示动作的主动和迚行) done（表示动作的被动和完成） With / without + 名词/宾格代词+ to do(表示将来) adj / adv (表示状态戒特征) 介词短语（表示状态戒特征）
① With the boy leading the way, we are sure we’ll be there on time.
② The classroom is very bight with all the lights turned on.
③ I can’t go out, with a lot of work to do.
④ Don’t talk with your mouth full. 丌要嘴里含着东西谈话。（表示方式） ⑤ With the light off, we can’t see anything. 灯灭了，我们什么也看丌见。（表示
⑥ He fought the tiger without a stick as his only weapon.
⑦ The teacher entered the classroom, with a book in his hand.
⑧ He reached the beautiful river with red flowers and green trees on both sides.
独立主格结构和with / without 的复合结构在大多数情况下可以相互转换。 ? ① He stood for an instant with his hand still raised. 他仌然丼着手站了一会 儿。 →He stood for an instant，his hand still raised. ? ② He could be seen with his legs wrapped around the trunk and his blond head sticking out above the branches. 只见他双腿盘着树干，长满金黄头发 的头伸出树枝以上。 ? →He could be seen，his legs wrapped around the trunk and his blond head sticking out above the branches. ? ③ Without any money left，he had no choice but to borrow some from his friend. 由于手头拮据，他只得向他的朋友借一些钱。 ? →No money left，he had no choice but to borrow some from his friend. ? 意思基本相同。
不同：with复合结构常用于日常生活中， 更口语化。而独立主格结构则多用于描绘 文字，即多用于文学中，使之所描绘的内 容更加生动有色
? ① He sat in the front row，his mouth half open， his eyes looking straight up，his head thrust forward so as not to miss a single word. ? 他坐在前排，口半张，眼直视，头前倾，生怕漏 掉一个字。 ? ② A bamboo hat on his head，straw sandals on his feet ， carrying pole on his shoulder ， folk song in mouth，the young peasant climbed up to the mountain step by step. ? 那个年轻的农夫头戴斗笠，脚穿草鞋，肩扛扁担， 口哼山歌，一步一步登上山来。
1. Darkness ______ in, the young people strolled on the streets. A. set B. setting C. has set D. was set 2. The production ______ steadily, the factory needs an everincreasing supply of raw material (原料). A. has gone up B. is going up C. having gone up D. being gone up 3. Father came home, _________. A. a dog following him B. a dog followed him C. being followed by a dog D. all the above 4.She stood there, _____ from her cheeks. A. tears' rolling down B. tears rolled down C. with tears rolled down D. tears rolling down
5. They two smoked in silence, __________ . A. both sitting and standing B. her sitting, his standing C. she sat but he stood D. she sitting, he standing 6.The boy __________ the way, we had no difficulty in finding the house. A. leading B. led C. having been led D. being led
7.____________ time going on , Einstein’s theory proved _______ . ? A. As; correct B. With; corrected ? C. With; correct D. As; being correct 8.The murderer was brought in, with his hands _______ behind his back. ? A. being tied B. having tied ? C. to be tied D. tied 9. With a lot of difficult problems ______, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. ? A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 10. __________, he would most probably be late. ? A. Without anybody to call him B. Anybody to call him ? C. Nobody called him D. With him to call