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Passage 1 (2016· 全国Ⅰ) Grandparents Answer a Call As a third-generation native of Brownsville, Texas, Mildred Garza never planned to move away.Even when her daughter and son asked her to move

to San Antonio to help their children, she politely refused.Only after a year of friendly discussion did Ms Garza finally say yes.That was four years ago.Today all three generations regard the move as a success,giving them a closer relationship than they would have had in separate cities. No statistics show the number of grandparents like Garza who are moving closer to the children and grandchildren.Yet there is evidence suggesting that the trend is growing.Even President Obama’s mother-in-law, Marian Robinson, has agreed to leave Chicago and move into the White House to help care for her granddaughters.According to a study of grandparents.com,83 percent of the people said Mrs.Robinson’s decision will influence grandparents in the American family.Two -thirds believe more families will follow the example of Obama’s family. “In the 1960s we were all a little wild and couldn’t get away from home far enough and fast enough to prove we could do it on our own,”says Christine Crosby, publisher of Grand magazine for grandparents.“We now realize how important family is and how important to be near them, especially when you’re raising children.” Moving is not for everyone.Almost every grandparent wants to be with his or her grandchildren and is willing to make sacrifices, but sometimes it is wiser to say no and visit frequently instead.Having your grandchildren far away is hard, especially knowing your adult child is struggling, but giving up the life you know may be harder. 1.Why was Garza’s move a success? A.It strengthened her family ties.

B.It improved her living conditions. C.It enabled her make more friends. D.It helped her know more new places. 2.What was the reaction of the public to Mrs.Robinson’s decision? A.17% expressed their support for it. B.Few people responded sympathetically. C.83% believed it had a bad influence. D.The majority thought it was a trend. 3.What did Crosby say about people in the 1960s? A.They were unsure of themselves. B.They were eager to raise more children. C.They wanted to live away from their parents. D.They had little respect for their grandparent. 4.What does the author suggest the grandparents do in the last paragraph? A.Make decisions in the best interests of their own B.Ask their children to pay more visits to them C.Sacrifice for their struggling children D.Get to know themselves better Passage 2 (2016· 全国Ⅱ)A new collection of photos brings an unsuccessful Antarctic voyage back to life. Frank Hurley’s pictures would be outstanding—undoubtedly first - rate photo - journalism—if they had been made last week.In fact, they were shot from 1914 through 1916, most of them after a disastrous shipwreck(海难), by a cameraman who had no reasonable expectation of survival.Many of the images were stored in an ice chest, under freezing water, in the damaged wooden ship. The ship was the Endurance, a small, tight, Norwegian-built three-master that was intended to take Sir Ernest Shackleton and a small crew of seamen and scientists, 27 men in all, to the southernmost shore of Antarctica’s Weddell Sea.From that point

Shackleton wanted to force a passage by dog sled(雪橇) across the continent.The journey was intended to achieve more than what Captain Robert Falcon Scott had done.Captain Scott had reached the South Pole early in 1912 but had died with his four companions on the march back. As writer Caroline Alexander makes clear in her forceful and well-researched story The Endurance, adventuring was even then a thoroughly commercial effort.Scott’s last journey, completed as he lay in a tent dying of cold and hunger, caught the world’s imagination, and a film made in his honor drew crowds.Shackleton, a onetime British merchant-navy officer who had got to within 100 miles of the South Pole in 1908, started a business before his 1914 voyage to make money from movie and still photography.Frank Hurley, a confident and gifted Australian photographer who knew the Antarctic, was hired to make the images, most of which have never before been published. 1.What do we know about the photos taken by Hurley? A.They were made last week. B.They showed undersea sceneries. C.They were found by a cameraman. D.They recorded a disastrous adventure. 2.Who reached the South Pole first according to the text? A.Frank Hurley. C.Robert Falcon Scott. B.Ernest Shackleton. D.Caroline Alexander.

3.What does Alexander think was the purpose of the 1914 voyage? A.Artistic creation. C.Money making. B.Scientific research. D.Treasure hunting.

Passage 1 (2015· 全国Ⅰ)Conflict is on the menu tonight at the cafe La Chope.This evening,as on every Thursday night,psychologist Maud Lehanne is leading two of France’s favorite pastimes,coffee drinking and the “talking cure”.Here they are learning to

get in touch with their true feelings.It isn’t always easy.The customers—some thirty Parisians who pay just under $2 (plus drinks) per session—are quick to intellectualize ( 高谈阔论 ) , slow to open up and connect.“You are forbidden to say ‘one feels,’ or ‘people think’,”Lehanne told them.“Say ‘I think,’ ‘Think me’.” A cafe society where no intellectualizing is allowed?It couldn’t seem more un- French.But Lehanne’s psychology cafe is about more than knowing oneself:It’s trying to help the city’s troubled neighborhood cafes.Over the years,Parisian cafes have fallen victim to changes in the French lifestyle—longer working hours,a fast- food boom and a younger generation’s desire to spend more time at home.Dozens of new theme cafes appear to change the situation.Cafes focused around psychology, history,and engineering are catching on,filling tables well into the evening. The city’s “psychology cafes”,which offer great comfort,are among the most popular places.Middle-aged homemakers,retirees,and the unemployed come to such cafes to talk about love,anger and dreams with a psychologist.And they come to Lehanne’s group just to learn to say what they feel.“There’s a strong need in Paris for communication,”says Maurice Frisch a cafe La Chope regular who works as a religious instructor in a nearby church.“People have few real friends.And they need to open up.”Lehanne says she’d like to see psychology cafes all over France. “If people had normal lives , these cafes wouldn’t exist ,”she says ,“If life weren’t a battle,people wouldn’t need a special place just to speak.”But then,It wouldn’t be France. 1.What are people encouraged to do at the cafe La Chope? A.Learn a new subject. B.Keep in touch with friends. C.Show off their knowledge. D.Express their true feelings. 2.How are cafes affected by French lifestyle changes? A.They are less frequently visited.

B.They stay open for longer hours. C.They have bigger night crowds. D.They start to serve fast food. 3.What are theme cafes expected to do? A.Create more jobs. C.Save the cafe business. B.Supply better drinks. D.Serve the neighborhood.

4.Why are psychology cafes becoming popular in Paris? A.They bring people true friendship. B.They give people spiritual support. C.They help people realize their dreams. D.They offer a platform for business links. Passage 2 (2015· 重庆高考)There are many places to go on safari(观赏野生动物)in Africa, but riding a horse through the flooded waters of Botswana’s Okavango Delta must rank as one of the world’s most exciting wildlife journeys. Several safari camps operate as the base for this adventure,providing unique rides twice a day to explore deep into the delta.The camps have excellent horses , professional guides and lots of support workers.They have a reputation for providing a great riding experience. The morning ride,when the guides take you to beautiful,shallow lakes full of water lilies,tends to be more active.It is unlike any other riding experience.With rainbows forming in the splashing water around you and the sound of huge drops of water bouncing off your body and face.It is truly exciting.You are very likely to come across large wild animals,too.On horseback it is possible to get quite close to elephants, giraffes and many other animals.The sense of excitement and tension levels rise suddenly though,as does your heart rate,as you move closer to them. In the evening,rides are usually at a more relaxed and unhurried pace.With golden light streaming across the grassy delta and the animals coming out to eat and drink.Sedate though they are,rides at this time of day are still very impressive.As the

sun’s rays pass through the dust kicked up by the horses,the romance of Africa comes to life. Back at the camp you can kick off your boots and enjoy excellent food and wine.Looking back on your day,you will find it hard to deny that a horseback safari is as close as you will ever come to answering the call of the wild. 1.What does the underlined word “They” refer to? A.Flooded waters. C.Safari camps. B.Wildlife journeys. D.Unique rides.

2.What does the author find most exciting about a horse safari? A.Seeing and feeling the real African life. B.Enjoying good food and wine at the camp. C.Hunting large animals just as our ancestors did. D.Being part of the scene and getting close to animals. 3.What does the underlined word “sedate” probably mean? A.Wild and romantic. C.Hungry and thirsty. B.Slow and peaceful. D.Active and excited.

4 . The author introduces the riding experience in the OKavango Delta mainly by________. A.following space order B.following time order C.making classifications D.giving examples Passage 3 (2015· 福建高考)Life can be so wonderful, full of adventure and joy.It can also be full of challenges, setbacks(挫折) and heartbreaks.Whatever our circumstances, we generally still have dreams, hopes and desires—that little something more we want for ourselves and our loved ones.Yet knowing we can have more can also create a problem, because when we go to change the way we do things, up come the old patterns and pitfalls(陷阱) that stopped us from seeking what we wanted in the first place.

This tension between what we feel we can have and what we’re seemingly able to have is the niggling(烦人的) suffering, the anxiety we feel.This is where we usually think it’s easier to just give up.But we’re never meant to let go of the part of us that knows we can have more.The intelligence behind that knowing is us—the real us.It’s the part that believes in life and its possibilities.If you drop that, you begin to feel a little “dead” inside because you’re dropping “you”. So, if we have this capability but somehow life seems to keep us stuck, how do we break these patterns? Decide on a new course and make one decision at a time.This is good advice for a new adventure or just getting through today’s challenges. While, deep down, we know we can do it, our mind—or the minds of those close to us—usually says we can’t.That isn’t a reason to stop, it’s just the mind, that little man or woman on your shoulder, trying to talk you out of something again.It has done it many times before.It’s all about starting simple and doing it now. Decide and act before overthinking.When you do this you may feel a little, or large, release__from__the__jail__of__your__mind and you’ll be on your way. 1.It can be inferred from the first two paragraphs that we should ________. A.slow down and live a simple life B.be careful when we choose to change C.stick to our dreams under any circumstances D.be content with what we already have 2.What is the key to breaking the old patterns? A.To focus on every detail. B.To decide and take immediate action. C.To listen to those close to us. D.To think twice before we act. 3.Which of the following best explains the underlined part in the last paragraph? A.Escape from your punishment. B.Realization of your dreams.

C.Freedom from your tension. D.Reduction of your expectations. 4.What does the author intend to tell us? A.It’s easier than we think to get what we want. B.It’s important to learn to accept sufferings in life. C.It’s impractical to change our way of thinking. D.It’s harder than we expect to follow a new course. Passage 4 (2015· 安徽高考)Food serves as a form of communication in two fundamental ways. Sharing bread or other foods is a common human tradition that can promote unity and trust. Food can also have a specific meaning, and play a significant role in a family or culture’s celebrations or traditions. The foods we eat—and when and how we eat them—are often unique to a particular culture or may even differ between rural (农村 的) and urban areas within one country. Sharing bread, whether during a special occasion (时刻) or at the family dinner table, is a common symbol of togetherness. Many cultures also celebrate birthdays and marriages with cakes that are cut and shared among the guests. Early forms of cake were simply a kind of bread, so this tradition hits its roots in the custom of sharing bread. Food also plays an important role in many New Year celebrations. In the southern United States, pieces of corn bread represent blocks of gold for prosperity (兴旺) in the New Year. In Greece, people share a special cake called vasilopita. A coin is put into the cake, which signifies (预示) success in the New Year for the person who receives it. Many cultures have ceremonies to celebrate the birth of a child, and food can play a significant role. In China, when a baby is one month old, families name and welcome their child in a celebration that includes giving red-colored eggs to guests. In many cultures, round foods such as grapes, bread, and moon cakes are eaten at welcome celebrations to represent family unity. Nutrition is necessary for life, so it is not surprising that food is such an important part

of different cultures around the world. 1.According to the passage, sharing bread________. A.indicates a lack of food B.can help to develop unity C.is a custom unique to rural areas D.has its roots in birthday celebrations 2.What does the coin in vasilopita signify for its receiver in the New Year? A.Trust. C.Health. B.Success. D.Togetherness.

3.The author explains the role of food in celebrations by________. A.using examples C.analyzing causes 4.What is the passage mainly about? A.The custom of sharing food. B.The specific meaning of food. C.The role of food in ceremonies. D.The importance of food in culture. Passage 5 (2014· 安徽高考 )Should we allow modern buildings to be built next to older buildings in a historic area of a city?In order to answer this question,we must first examine whether people really want to preserve the historic feel of an area.Not all historical buildings are attractive.However , there may be other reasons—for example,economic (经济的) reasons—why they should be preserved.So,let us assume that historical buildings are both attractive and important to the majority of people.What should we do then if a new building is needed? In my view,new architectural styles can exist perfectly well alongside an older style.Indeed,there are many examples in my own hometown of Tours where modern designs have been placed very successfully next to old buildings.As long as the building in question is pleasing and does not dominate (影响) its surroundings too B.making comparisons D.describing processes

much,it often improves the attractiveness of the area. It is true that there are examples of new buildings which have spoilt (破坏) the area they are in,but the same can be said of some old buildings too.Yet people still speak against new buildings in historic areas.I think this is simply because people are naturally conservative(保守的)and do not like change. Although we have to respect people’s feelings as fellow users of the buildings,I believe that it is the duty of the architect and planner to move__things__forward.If we always reproduced what was there before , we would all still be living in caves.Thus,I would argue against copying previous architectural styles and choose something fresh and different,even though that might be the more risky choice. 1.What does the author say about historical buildings in the first paragraph? A.Some of them are not attractive. B.Most of them are too expensive to preserve. C.They are more pleasing than modern buildings. D.They have nothing to do with the historic feel of an area. 2.Which of the following is TRUE according to the author? A.We should reproduce the same old buildings. B.Buildings should not dominate their surroundings. C.Some old buildings have spoilt the area they are in. D.No one understands why people speak against new buildings. 3 . By“move things forward”in the last paragraph , the author probably means“________”. A.destroy old buildings B.put things in a different place C.choose new architectural styles D.respect people’s feelings for historical buildings 4.What is the main purpose of the passage? A.To explain why people dislike change. B.To warn that we could end up living in caves.

C.To admit how new buildings have ruined their surroundings. D.To argue that modern buildings can be built in historic areas. Passage 6 (2014· 重庆高考)There have always been a lot of commonly believed but false ideas about being fat and doing exercise.Some people believe that they can’t help putting on weight as they get older , while others hold that if they stop exercising , their muscles will turn into fat.Here are some more myths: I’ll never lose weight—I come from a fat family Wrong!While we can’t change the body type we are born with,we can’t blame that fatness runs in

our genes for making us fat.There’s plenty of evidence families,and the main reason is and exercising too little. I am fat because I burn calories slowly

that they share the same habits of eating too much

Wrong!Fatness is not caused by a slow metabolism(新陈代谢).In fact,although fat people consume more energy than slim people,they also fail to realize how much they eat!Keeping a diary can help you work out your daily food intake more accurately. Exercise is boring Wrong!Anything will become boring if you do it repetitively.The key is to develop a balanced and varied program that’s fun as well as progressive.If you enjoy a Sunday walk , take a different route.If you do yoga , try a tai chi class.If you like swimming,set yourself a distance or time challenge. No pain,no gain Wrong ! Exercise is not meant to hurt.Indeed , pain is your body telling you something’s wrong,and continuing to exercise could lead to serious injury.You may experience mild discomfort as you begin to exercise regularly,but this is your body adapting to the positive changes in your lifestyle and the aches should disappear relatively quickly.If they don’t,rest and seek medical advice. 1.What does the author think about being fat?

A.It is the family genes that make people fat. B.People are fat because they consume too little energy. C.A diary of exercise can prevent people from becoming fat. D.It is the consequence of people’s unbalanced lifestyle. 2.According to the author,how can we make exercise more interesting? A.By taking varied exercise. B.By choosing simple exercise. C.By doing regular exercise. D.By sticking to outdoor exercise. 3.What is the author’s opinion about“No pain,no gain”in exercising? A.Keeping fit is essentially a painful experience. B.Exercise should be stopped if continuous pain is felt. C.Pain in exercise is a precondition for reaching your goal. D.Getting used to pain leads to positive changes in your body. 4.What is the purpose of the passage? A.To declare the importance of keeping fit. B.To clarify some misconceptions about fatness and exercise. C.To confirm what has long been believed about keeping fit. D.To explain some medical facts about being fat and doing exercise. Passage 7 (2014· 福建高考)Perhaps you think you could easily add to your happiness with more money.Strange as it may seem,if you’re unsatisfied,the issue is not a lack of means to meet your desires but a lack of desires—not that you cannot satisfy your tastes but that you don’t have enough tastes. Real riches consist of well - developed and hearty capacities ( 能力 ) to enjoy

life.Most people are already swamped(淹没) with things.They eat,wear,go and talk too much. They live in too big a house with too many rooms,yet their house of life is a hut. Your house of life ought to be a mansion (豪宅),a royal palace.Every new taste,

every additional interest,every fresh enthusiasm adds a room.Here are several rooms your house of life should have. Art should be a desire for you to develop simply because the world is full of beautiful things.If you only understood how to enjoy them and feed your spirit on them,they would make you as happy as to find plenty of ham and eggs when you’re hungry. Literature,classic literature,is a beautiful,richly furnished room where you might find many an hour of rest and refreshment.To gain that love would go toward making you a rich person,for a rich person is not someone who has a library but who likes a library. Music like Mozart’s and Bach’s shouldn’t be absent.Real riches are of the spirit.And when you’ve brought that spirit up to where classical music feeds it and makes you a little drunk,you have increased your thrills and bettered them.And life is a matter of thrills. Sports,without which you remain poor,mean a lot in life.No matter who you are, you would be more human,and your house of life would be better supported against the bad days,if you could,and did,play a bit. Whatever rooms you might add to your house of life,the secret of enjoying life is to keep adding. 1.The author intends to tell us that ________. A.true happiness lies in achieving wealth by fair means B.big houses are people’s most valued possessions C.big houses can in a sense bring richness of life D.true happiness comes from spiritual riches 2 . The underlined sentence in the second paragraph probably implies that ________. A.however materially rich,they never seem to be satisfied B.however materially rich,they remain spiritually poor C.though their house is big,they prefer a simple life D.though their house is big,it seems to be a cage

3.It can be learned from the passage that ________. A.more money brings more happiness B.art is needed to make your house beautiful C.literature can enrich your spiritual life D.sports contribute mainly to your physical fitness 4.What would be the best title for the passage? A.House of Life B.Secret of Wealth C.Rest and Refreshment D.Interest and Enthusiasm Passage 8 (2014· 陕西高考)Why do Americans struggle with watching their weight,while the French,who consume rich food,continue to stay thin?Now a research by Cornell University suggests how lifestyle and decisions about eating may affect weight.Researchers conclude that the French tend to stop eating when they feel full.However,Americans tend to stop when their plate is empty or their favorite TV show is over. According to Dr.Joseph Mercola , a health expert , the French see eating as an important part of their lifestyle.They enjoy food and therefore spend a fairly long time at the table,while Americans see eating as something to be squeezed between the other daily activities.Mercola believes Americans lose the ability to sense when they are actually full.So they keep eating long after the French would have stopped.In addition,he points out that Americans drive to huge supermarkets to buy canned and frozen foods for the week.The French,instead,tend to shop daily,walking to small shops and farmers’ markets where they have a choice of fresh fruits , vegetables,and eggs as well as high-quality meats for each meal. After a visit to the United States,Mireille Guiliano,author of French Women Don’t Get Fat,decided to write about the importance of knowing when to stop rather than suggesting how to avoid food.Today she continues to stay slim and rarely goes to the gym.

In spite of all these differences,evidence shows that recent lifestyle changes may be affecting French eating habits.Today the rate of obesity—or extreme

overweight—among adults is only 6%.However , as American fast food gains acceptance and the young reject older traditions,the obesity rate among French children has reached 17%-and is growing. 1.In what way are the French different from Americans according to Dr.Joseph Mercola? A.They go shopping at supermarkets more frequently. B.They squeeze eating between the other daily activities. C.They regard eating as a key part of their lifestyles. D.They usually eat too much canned and frozen food. 2.This text is mainly about the relationship between ________. A.Americans and the French B.lifestyle and obesity C.children and adults D.fast food and overweight 3.The text is mainly developed ________. A.by contrast C.by process B.by space D.by classification

4.Where does this text probably come from? A.A TV interview. C.A health report. B.A food advertisement. D.A book review.

Passage 1 (2016· 广西桂林、崇左市高三下学期 4 月联合考试)A recent survey in the United States showed that the average family spent more money on its pets than on its children.Although rather shocking,it should not surprise anyone who has seen the doggy parlours(客厅) where loved pets rest.Are Americans unique in treating their

little friends in this way?

No,the English,too,pay more attention to their pets.

This can clearly be seen when we look at pet foods,which often contain more vitamins than human food.They certainly cost much.Last year the British public spent two hundred million pounds on pet food alone,to say nothing of veterinary bills or animal furniture.It is difficult not to feel angry about this when considering what the same amount could do for victims of starvation and poverty,so it’s not unusual for me to get hot under collar when I read an old man left all his money to his dog instead of his children. There are a variety of reasons why I find pets-raising alarming.They cause physical problems.An example of this is New York where they have great difficulty getting rid of the mess that dogs leave on the streets.Many people find this funny,but in a number of large cities it is a major problem.Animals can cause disease,too.It is the threat of babies—a disease with no known cure. Another problem is the carelessness of pet owners.Most little children want a dog or a cat,and they continually push their mothers and fathers until they get one.It is only when the “sweet little thing” has been brought home that the parents realize how much time and money must be spent on “Rover” or “Bonzo” . Then they just abandon it.As a result,they are allowed to run free.English farmers lose hundreds of sheep a year,killed by someone’s pet and you must have read of children being hurt by some pets of their own. Lastly , I would only suggest that we have got our priorities wrong and that something should be done about it.In my view , it’s time we stopped being sentimental about pets.I can see no reason why we should get upset when animals are cut up for medical experiments.This will lead us to discovering cures for serious human diseases,then I say,“keep cutting!” 1.The doggy parlours are mentioned in the 1st paragraph to show ________. A.what costly lives the pets are living B.where Americans keep their pets C.why children love their pets so much

D.how much pets depend on their masters 2.In the second paragraph “to get hot under the collar” probably means ________. A.getting quite hot B.becoming excited C.feeling extremely angry D.receiving a fashionable shirt 3.According to the author,in which field can animals be most useful? A.Food. C.Entertainment. B.Sports. D.Medicine.

4.What is the author’s attitude towards pets-raising? A.Sympathetic. C.Pitiful. B.Opposed. D.Supportive. Passage 2 (2016· 重庆南开中学高三下学期二诊模拟)After watching my mother deal with our family of five,I can’t understand why her answer to the question,“What do you do?” is always,“Oh,I’m just a housewife.” JUST a housewife? Anyone who spends most of her time in meal preparation and clean-up,keeping the house clean,attending PTA meetings,leading a scout troop,playing a taxi driver to us kids when it’s time for school,musical lessons or the dentist,doing volunteer

work for her community is not just a housewife.She’s the real Wonder Woman. Why is it that so many mothers like mine regard themselves as second-class citizens or something similar? Where has this stereotype come from? Has our society made “going to work” outside the house more important than what a housewife must face each day? I would be curious to see what would happen if a housewife went on strike.Dishes would pile up and food in the house would run out.There would be no clean towels when needed.Walking and bus riding would increase. I doubt if the man of the house would be able to take over.Oh,he would probably start out with the attitude that he can do just as good a job,but how long would that last? Not long , once he had to come home each night after work to more housework.There would be no coming home to a prepared meal; The kids would all

be screaming for something to eat,clean clothes and more bus fare money.Once he quieted the kids,he’d have to clean the house,go shopping,make sure that kids got a bath,after cleaning out all the dog hairs from the bathtub.Once the kids were down for the night,he might be able to crawl into an unmade bed and try to read the morning newspaper. 1.What does the writer’s mother NOT do according to the first paragraph ? A.Cooking. C.Driving a taxi. B.Tidying the house. D.Some unpaid work.

2.The underlined word “stereotype” in the second paragraph can be replaced by ________. A.mother B.citizen C.similarity D.thought

3.In the second paragraph,the writer suggests that ________. A.mothers are actually great women B.our society looks down upon housewives C.housewives should go on a strike D.doing housework is not important at all 4.The possible main idea of the third paragraph is ________. A.men should share housework with their wives B.attitude is not the only thing needed to do a job well C.kids are the most challenging part of the housework D.men are unlikely to handle the work of a housewife Passage 3 (2016· 江西重点中学盟校高三第一次联考)What does it mean to cry over a book? “I’m a reader who did not weep ,” Ruth Graham , a well - known critic , wrote.“Does this make me heartless? Or does it make me a grown-up?” Tears have played a surprisingly important part in the history of the novel.Readers have always asked about the role that emotion plays in reading: What does it mean to be deeply moved by a book? Which books are worthy objects of our feelings? In different times , people answered those questions in different ways.In the

eighteenth century,when the novel was still a new form,crying was a sign of readers’ virtue.“Sentimental” novels , full of touching scenes , gave readers an occasion to exercise their “finer feelings.” Your tear proved your susceptibility(易感 性)to the suffering of others. At that time , sentimental novels were hugely popular , but also easy to attack.Tears,after all,had no necessary connection to actual virtue,and they could be fake.There could also be too many of them.As the critic John Mullan points out , by the end of the eighteenth century,the word “sentimental” had acquired a new meaning—“addicted to indulgence( 沉 溺 )in superficial( 肤 浅

的)emotion”—bringing it closer to the meaning that it has for us today. In the nineteenth century , the meaning of tears evolved in two different directions.Some writers sought to waken “higher” feelings in their readers: Victorian sentimentalists wrote touching scenes in an effort to inspire social and political reform.However,the “sensation” novel,a different type of Victorian best-seller, showed that tears could be enjoyable in themselves.Sensation novels were the forerunners( 先 导 )of the modern thriller and mystery.Heavy on secrets , and madness , they were known for creating physical “sensations” in their readers—trembling,a fast beating heart,and tears.But these were tears without moral purpose or effect. Today’s debate about crying while reading looks back on all of this history.The debate,in fact,is about why books matter to us,and what reading is “for.” Talking about what makes us cry is a way of talking about ourselves. 1.What was people’s attitude towards crying over novels in the early 18th century? A.Doubtful. C.Uncaring. B.Positive. D.Worried.

2.According to the text,“sensation” novels ________. A.were similar to the modern thriller and mystery B.were the same as sentimental novels C.aimed for social and political reform

D.tended to amuse the readers 3.The author presents this text mainly ________. A.by providing examples B.by making comparisons C.by following the order of time D.by following the order of importance 4.What’s the best title for the text? A.Crying while reading through centuries B.The history of the novel C.Sentimental novels & sensation novels D.Why books matter to us Passage 4 (2016· 四川成都高中毕业班一诊)We have most friends at the age of 26 after

having spent the first quarter of our lives building up our friendship circle,a new research has claimed. The research into friendship shows that our social circle peaks at 26 years and

7months,at which we typically have five close friends.Women are most popular at 25 years and 10 months,with men hitting the highest friendship point a little later at 27 years and 3 months. The research,by Forever Friends,shows that about a third of adults meet their closest friends while at school,with about a fifth saying they meet them at work. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter now also play a major role in building new friendship.The research points out that 25 to 34 - year - olds make 22

friends via Facebook,compared to 18 to 24-year-olds who make 12,and 35 to 44-year-olds who make just four. Forever Friends’ relationship coach Sam Owen says:“It is no coincidence that over a third of us meet our best friends at school.It is a key time in our lives when friendship is growing through sharing notes , giving gifts , seeing each other regularly and laughing a lot.As adults we can often forget how powerful these small

things are and how the little things can make a difference.” Later in life we find ourselves losing friends.Over half of us lose friendship through moving,while 36% say that over time they grow apart from close pals.Having children also causes 19% to drift__away__from childhood friends. With growing pressures being put on friendship these days,it’s important to make time for our friendship. 1.How many friends can a 20-year-old college student make via Facebook? A.4. B.12. C.18. D.22.

2.In Paragraph 5,the author is trying to tell the readers ________. A.how important making friends is B.that friendship is not easy to keep C.how much has been done to keep friendship D.that friendship at school is important 3.The underlined phrase “drift away from”in Paragraph 6 means “________”. A.make sense of C.feel sorry for B.lose contact with D.make up with

4.This passage is most probably taken from ________. A.Facebook or Twitter C.a textbook B.an advertisement D.a newspaper Passage 5 (2016· 湖南东部六校高三联考)I was born and raised in England in a culture where privacy and “keeping yourself to yourself” were valued traditions.Speaking to

strangers was not encouraged.People were most hospitable(好客的) and friendly—but only once they had been introduced to new people. However,I have been lucky enough to spend some time in both Italy and the US , where I found traditions of hospitality and politeness to be very different. I experienced Italian hospitality first - hand on a crowded railway carriage travelling,one afternoon,from Genoa to Florence.Sinking gratefully into an empty seat,I was berated (训斥) in rapid Italian by a gentleman who was returning to this

seat—it had not been “spare” after all.I apologized in English,and got up to allow him back into the seat.The gentleman obviously had no understanding of the English language,but he,too,realized my genuine mistake.He smiled and gestured for me to remain in the seat,and he himself remained standing in the corridor for the remainder of the journey.The other occupants of the carriage smiled and nodded at me and made me feel quite welcome amongst them.I feel that if this had been in England,a foreigner who made a mistake would not always be so kindly treated. Transport also featured in the differences I noticed between English and

American culture.I flew to New York on a plane with mainly English passengers.We sat together in near silence.Nobody spoke to me nor,as I expected,to anyone else they did not know.They felt it was not polite to intrude on someone else’s privacy.However,when I travelled across the United States,whether by plane or Greyhound bus,I was never short of conversation.Conversation was going on all around me and whoever sat next to me was happy to introduce themselves and ask me about myself.They obviously felt it would have been rude not to speak to another person,whether they were strangers or not. 1.What do we know about the occupants of the carriage when the author was travelling in Italy? A.They all laughed at the author for his mistake. B.They were all on the side of the gentleman. C.They would not bear a mistake like the author’s in public. D.They all showed their understanding of the author’s mistake. 2.The author finally believes the Italian people are________. A.cold B.rude C.hospitable D.helpful

3.According to the last paragraph,English passengers sat in near silence because ________. A.they were all strangers to each other B.they were too tired to speak C.privacy was a valued tradition in England

D.everybody had their own share of privacy 4.The purpose of the author is to tell us A.his travelling experience B.cultural differences to show hospitality and politeness C.the culture shock he experienced in Italy and the US D.how to adapt ourselves to a new culture Passage 6 (2016· 山西四校高三第二次联考)For most caffeine(咖啡因) consumers,its chief benefit is that it helps you get more done.This is what makes it unusual ,says Stephen Braun,author of Buzz:The Science and Lore of Alcohol and Caffeine. “Its appeal is that it helps us earn more money,”he adds.“What makes it different from other drugs is that it’s used as a productivity tool—not for pleasure.” Many of history’s creative minds have also been associated with a large amount of caffeine consumption. According to one biographer,the French novelist and playwright Balzac drank as many as 50 cups of coffee a day.“Were it not for coffee,one could not write, which is to say one could not live,”he once insisted. For seven years,the film-maker David Lynch ate at the same Los Angeles diner every day,drinking up to seven sweetened cups of coffee “with lots of sugar”in one sitting,which he said would guarantee that “lots of ideas”arrived. Ludwig van Beethoven was said to have painstakingly counted out exactly 60 coffee beans per cup when he brewed (煮) coffee. Perhaps recent tales of caffeine excess featured the singer Robbie Williams,who reportedly consumed 36 cups of black coffee and 20 cans of Red Bull a day. It is the routine task itself,as much as the stimulating(刺激的)effects of caffeine, that makes the process so important,says Mason Currey,author of Daily Rituals: How Artists Work.“A lot of artists use the process of making coffee as a gateway to the creative process,”he adds.“You need to get into the right mindset to do that sort of work,and the preparation process provides a focus.” ________.

One problem with attempting to control caffeine ,says Braun,is that it affects everyone differently—it is impossible to work out a “safe” limit that works

for everyone.“Eventually,you have to become your own scientist—there isn’t an alternative to careful self-experimentation,”he says. 1.Stephen Braun mainly stresses caffeine’s ________. A.creating ideas B.improving work efficiency C.helping people to relax D.stimulating people 2.The examples of some famous people are given to show that ________. A.most artists like drinking coffee B.drinking coffee helps artists make more money C.there’s a link between drinking coffee and creating ideas D.drinking coffee makes artists become more successful 3.What leads to the artists’ creative process according to Mason Currey? A.Getting a good mindset. B.Drinking the coffee. C.Being lost in thought. D.Brewing the coffee. 4.What does Braun advise us to do in the end? A.To drink less coffee. B.Never to take more coffee than you need. C.Never to limit caffeine use. D.To work out a safe level of caffeine use.

Passage 1 (2015· 河北五校联盟质监 )You’ve probably heard about sports coaches, fitness coaches, voice and music teachers, career counselors, psychiatrists (精神科医师) and other specialists who teach skills and help us cope with daily life.

But there’s a rapidly growing kind of professionals who do a little bit of everything. She or he is called a “life__coach”.People who are at the crossroads in their life, and corporations that want to give certain employees a career boost, are turning to them for help. The idea that one person’s success story can change other people’s life for the better goes back at least to the 1930s. Dale Carnegie’s famous self-improvement program “How to Win Friends and Influence People” came along soon thereafter. But this new style of life coaches includes more than enthusiastic speakers or writers. They use their own experiences in business, sports, military service, or psychotherapy ( 心 理 疗法 )to help others make critical life decisions. They often give their approaches a slogan, such as “energy coaching” “fearless living” or “working yourself happy”. Dave Lakhani in Boise, Idaho, for instance, works with salespeople to develop what he calls a “road map”. He says an ongoing relationship with a coach is like having a personal fitness trainer for one’s career and life outside work. Lakhani’s Bold Approach coaching firm also donates some of its time to help people who are anything but successful—including battered women and struggling single mothers. But others in the so-called “helpful professions” are not thrilled about the life- coaching movement.They say that anyone,trained or untrained, can call himself or herself a life coach, and these slick (华而不实的) promoters who mess with people’s life can do more harm than good. 1.Which of the following is the best title for the passage? A.Working Yourself Happy B.Life Coaches Help with Tough Decisions C.How to Cope with Daily Life with Life Coaches D.The Life-coaching Movement 2.The underlined phrase “life coach” in Paragraph 2 means “________”. A.the career counselor who teaches skills

B.the psychiatrist who helps us cope with daily life C.the fitness coach who teaches us lessons D.the specialist who helps us make important life decisions 3.The last paragraph is mainly about ________. A.the introductions of life coaches B.the disagreements about life coaches C.the effects of life coaches D.the experiences of life coaches 4.What is the author’s attitude towards life coaches? A.Cautious. C.Casual. B.Approving. D.Disapproving. Passage 2 (2015· 大庆质检二)Steve and I pulled trash for four solid hours continuously, except for about five minutes when we stopped to talk. My shoulder hurt badly each time I put another full barrel on it,and my legs occasionally trembled as I was heading for the street. But the rest of me said,“Go trashman go.”

I could not have imagined there would be joy in this.Dump. Lift. Walk. Lift. Walk. The hours flew by. Saturday meant many people were outdoors working in their greenhouses. Most gardens or

of them looked approachable enough. There wasn’t time

for lengthy talks but enough to exchange greetings that go with civilized ways. But I was shocked to find that this wasn’t the case. When I said hello to them, most often the response was either nothing at all, or a surprising stare because I had spoken. One woman in a housecoat was startled as I came around the corner of her house. At the sound of my greeting, she gathered her housecoat tightly about her and retreated quickly to the door. I heard the lock click. Steve complained angrily on the long ride to the dump:“They don’t realize we’re humans.” I had originally planned to stay at this employment for only two days but now I’m

going to continue. I have decided,too, to keep saying hello in people’s yards. It doesn’t do any harm, and it still feels right. Frankly, I’m doing an essential task. I left this country a little cleaner than I found it this morning. Not many people can say that tonight. John Gardner wrote that a society which praises its philosophers and looks down on its plumbers (管子工) is in trouble. “Neither_its_pipes_nor_its_theories_will_hold water,”he warned. He might have gone a step further and called for respect for both our economists and our trashmen; otherwise,they’ll both leave rubbish behind. 1.How did the woman feel when she heard the author’s greeting? A.Doubtful. C.Frightened. B.Embarrassed. D.Pitiful.

2.At the end of the passage, what’s the author’s attitude to his job? A.He is ashamed of it. C.He is proud of it. B.He is boastful about it. D.He isn’t serious about it.

3.What does the underlined sentence in the last paragraph mean? A.Both the facilities and the thoughts of society may go wrong. B.Both the trashmen and the economists should not be respected. C.Both practice and theories are important. D.Both the pipes and the theories make sense. 4.Which of the following can be the best title for the text? A.An Experience as a Trashman B.The Trashman C.Economists and Trashmen D.Misunderstanding Passage 3 (2015· 邢 台 模 拟 )Sunstroke is a condition that can quickly go from

dangerous to deadly, especially if proper care isn’t given immediately. Sunstroke, sometimes called heatstroke, is a result of the body temperature rising above the safe limit. This causes the body’s necessary functions to stop working. It’s usually pretty easy to avoid sunstroke, as long as proper action is taken. In that

case, you need to act as quickly as possible to return that person’s body to a safe temperature. Here are a few tips to help treat sunstroke. Call for help Call to get an ambulance as quickly as possible. This should be the first thing you do, especially if the sunstroke person has fainted (昏倒). Also, call for help from anyone nearby if you’re in a public place. If there’s no one around,call someone nearby if they can get there sooner than an ambulance. Ask everyone to bring you as much water as possible, if there isn’t much nearby. Get the person to a cooler area If there’s a building nearby, aim for that. Anywhere with plenty of air conditioners and water is perfect.If a building isn’t available, bring the person to a well-shaded area. Get the water flowing If the person is still conscious, get him or her to drink water. If there’s a bathtub available, fill it with cool water and put the person in it. If your water supply is limited, you have to save it.Dampen a towel or shirt and put it on the person’s body.Focus on the face, neck, and chest. Fan the person Getting moving air over the person cools him or her down. Use anything, a towel or sheet, a shirt, your hands, or a piece of board. This is where having many people around really helps, as they can combine to fan the entire body. 1.When does a person get sunstroke? A.When the body doesn’t function. B.When proper care is given immediately. C.When someone is exposed to the sun too long. D.When the body temperature goes up beyond what one can bear. 2.What is mainly discussed in the passage? A.The first aid for sunstroke. B.The causes of sunstroke. C.The chief symptoms of sunstroke.

D.The essential prevention of sunstroke. 3.Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text? A.Call for assistance from others. B.Leave the sunstroke person in the shade. C.Put a wet towel on the person’s face. D.Help the person take some medicine. 4.The text probably comes from ________. A.a guidebook C.a medical magazine B.a book review D.an official document Passage 4 (2015· 山西四校联考)The practice of magic includes special words, actions,and objects. Most magic involves a person called a magician , who claims to have supernatural power. Magic words To work most magic, the magician sings or speaks special words in a Some spells form

certain order. These words are called incantations or spells.

prayers into monsters, spirits, or other supernatural forces. Many societies believe the magic will not work unless the magician recites the spells perfectly. Other magic words have no meaning, though they supposedly possess power when spoken by a magician. Magic actions Magic actions accompany the words spoken in performing much For

magic. Many of these movements act out the desired effect of the magic.

example, a magician trying to make rain fall may sprinkle water on the ground. The magician’s combined words and actions form a ceremony. Magic objects Magic objects include certain plants,stones, and other things with

supposedly supernatural power.Any such object may be called a fetish. But this term often refers to an object, for example, a carving or a dried snake honored by a tribe for its magic power. Many tribes believe fetishes have spirits live in these objects. magic power because

Many people carry magic objects called amulets to protect themselves from harm. Many amulets are stones or rings with magic symbols.

The magician

In some societies, nearly everyone knows how to work some magic. Magicians may be called medicine

In other societies, only experts practice magic.

men, medicine women, shamans, sorcerers, or witch doctors.In many societies, magicians must inherit the power. studying the magical arts. Many societies believe magicians must observe certain rules and taboos (forbidden In others, any person may become a magician by

actions) for their spells to work. For example, they may be required not to eat various foods or ceremony. 1.What do magic words mean to people in many societies? A.They have the power to kill devils. B.They can be used whenever they want. C.They have no effect at all. D.They have power if a magician recites them in a perfect way. 2.People believe magic actions will have an effect if they are accompanied by ________. A.medicine B.the spells C.magic objects D.stones or rings with magic symbols 3.According to the passage, what kind of person can become a magician? A.Only men. B.Only women studying the magical arts. C.Almost all the people in some societies. D.Only those inheriting the power. 4.What’s the best title of the passage? A.How Magic Works C.The Power of Magic B.How to Practice Magic D.The Choice of Magicians Passage 5 to avoid sexual activity for a certain period before the

(2015· 日照三校联检 )“Friendly doctors are bad for their patients’ health ,” researchers have warned as a new study revealed two thirds of young doctors struggle to be truthful with patients they like. Blurring ( 使 ?? 变 得 模 糊 不 清 ) the lines between social and professional relationships can affect the level of care offered and prevent patients from being honest about important side effects. “Doctors should avoid adding patients as friends on Facebook, and they should not hug or allow patients to call them by their first names , ” regulators have warned.“Those who break the boundaries will face some punishment.” It comes as a survey of 338 oncologists(肿瘤学家) under the age of 40, finding 59 per cent said they found it difficult to tell the truth to those patients they like. Sixty percent of respondents said if doctors felt too close to their patients,it could prevent them from making objective decisions about a person’s care. Lesley Fallowfield of Brighton and Sussex Medical School said:“Oncology is a profession that can be enormously rewarding but is filled with many

challenges. Young oncologists have to master the means of dealing with anxious patients who are facing a life-threatening disease, conveying the true prognosis (预 断 ), discussing the complexity of modern treatments, and explaining the and likely treatment

unavailability of some drugs, the side effects of treatments, aims.”

But she said,“Those doctors who have entered the profession in the age of ‘the Internet world’ are more likely to fall victim boundaries with patients.” to blurring the professional

She said:“The difficulty, if you hug and kiss patients, if you allow them to call you by your first name, is that quickly the relationship can become confusing as a social one rather than a professional one. Doctors become confused, ‘I really like these people, how can I bear to tell them that they’re going to die?’ They find it more difficult to be objective.” 1.Why are friendly doctors bad for their patients’ health?

A.They don’t like to cheat patients. B.They are not good at treating patients. C.They find it not easy to be objective to the patients. D.They seldom blur the relationship with patients. 2.What should doctors do according to the regulators? A.Add patients as friends on Facebook. B.Have a close connection with patients in life. C.Always be cold to patients. D.Keep a proper distance to patients. 3.Which opinion will Lesley Fallowfield agree with? A.Oncology is a rewarding profession without challenges. B.The Internet makes it easier for young doctors to break the boundaries. C.It’s not the doctors ‘duty to deal with patients’ anxiety. D.Becoming friends with patients will help them recover soon. 4.Young oncologists will face the following challenges except ________. A.dealing with a lot of life-threatening diseases B.discussing difficulties of treatments with patients C.explaining the reasons for the lack of some medicines D.informing patients of the possible results of the treatments Passage 6 (2015· 云南师大附中模拟)For twenty years,I saved all my college course notes and textbooks:that’s a lot of paper. Worse,it’s not easy to carry them around—and trust me,they aren’t light—on at

least seven moves. Yet I never once looked at them. They sat in our basement, covered in a thick layer of dust. If books and papers could wonder, they’d wond er why they were still under our stairs after all those come? Well, the Big Day eventually did arrive; only it was different than expected. My wife, always more accepting changes than I am, finally talked me into clearing out the entire mess. years. When would the Big Day

The pain I experienced was also unexpected. What hurt me was to come across those terrible papers I’d written,which reminded me of my poor study habits,and an embarrassing lack of comprehension.It was great to get rid of them.But it was also a clearing of personal history. At first,I struggled with this.The truth was in the record that my books,my notes, and my papers were primary source materials,documenting an important time in my life.To clear them out was to clear out the truth. What I’ve learned since taking this leap is that the process is more important than the truth. I feel as if much of my real the documents but now in me. So I am glad to free myself of this physical burden. And what’s better is that I don’t need to look back to those painful moments. They belong to the past. You might want to consider doing something similar, either under the stairs of your basement or in your mind. What is the personal rubbish piling in your life? Clear it out and make your life awesome. 1.Why was the author finally determined to desert all the college materials? A.Because his wife persuaded him to. B.Because they were of no use at all. C.Because they were heavy on the moves. D.Because they occupied space too long. 2.The author struggled at the very beginning for ________. A.a sense of pain B.a sense of embarrassment C.a sense of regret for the past D.a sense of losing part of his history 3.What does the underlined word “it” in the last paragraph refer to? A.The past experience. B.The wasted college-related material. education during my college years isn’t in

C.The rubbish in the basement. D.Physical and psychological mess. 4.What would be the best title for the passage? A.Let It Go C.Give up the Past B.Sort It Out D.Forget the History

?文化教育类
细节理解题解题技巧 【试题探究】 只有准确理解全部细节,才能深刻而又全面地领悟主题思想。因为段落中的细 节都是用来阐明主旨大意的,辅助论据支撑或阐述主题思想。因此,属于细节 类的理解题既可检测阅读者对主旨大意理解的深度,又可测定他们对每个细节 准确领会的广度。 在阅读考试中,查找主要事实或特定细节题型常见的设问的形式一般是: 1.Which of the following statements is (not) true (or correct)? 2.Which of the following is not mentioned in the text? 3.All of the following are true except________. 4.The author (or the passage) states that________. 5.According to the passage,when...? 总之,细节理解题的六大类型是: 1.直接信息题 在原文中可直接找到答案。常用 who,what,when,where,why 和 how 等提 问。 2.语意转换题 有时需要将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语意上的转换,两者形式不同,但意 义不变。 3.逻辑排序题 考生可以先找出最早和最后的一个事件发生的时间,并分别把它们作为事件发 生的起点和终点,然后使用排除法将范围一一缩小。 4.数字计算题

解答此类试题的方法是先理解题意和文意,然后经过对比、分析、计算等得出 正确答案。 5.图形理解题 在解答此类试题的时候,一定要把握图形中所暗含的信息,特别是有些事实是 通过图片来描述的,考生可以按图索骥直至找出正确答案。 6.是非判断题 这类试题要求考生确定与原文信息一致或不一致的一项。考生应首先明确题干 要求;其次,在原文中进行细节定位;最后,仔细推敲,锁定答案。 当然,针对某一具体的文章,还可以有各种各样形形色色的设问方式。对于细 节题,也可以说对于任何阅读理解题,考生必须根据文章提供的信息进行答 题,而不能根据自己的主观判断或者一般常识来答题。 【方法指导】 细节理解题针对不同的文章,不同的细枝末节,可以有不同的设问,这就让人 觉得它是那么不可捉摸,犹如雾里看花,水中望月。其实,这种题型是阅读考 试中最简单的了。我们只要记住一点:万变不离其宗。这种题型无论有什么千 变万化,你只要能看懂文章和题干,答案都能在原文中找到明显的线索。下 面,我们就来看看,对付这等“千变魔头”有何绝招? 我们读文章,无外乎是对两个方面的理解。一个是浅层理解,或表层理解。另 一个是深层理解,或内涵理解。所谓表层理解,指要读懂文章的基本内容,包 括主要事实和各个细节。主要事实指文章中对于主题主旨具有典型意义的重要 事实,这是文章的基本框架。细节是构成主要事实的局部因素或充实事实的例 子、数据等细枝末节。一篇文章一般都包括这些要素。所以阅读理解考试中要 求寻找的主要事实和特定细节都可以在文章中找到。但是,要注意的是出题者 不会很明白很直接地提问,而是很注意提问的技术性或艺术性。也就是说,他 提问都是要设障碍的,要罩上一层迷雾的,使得你弄不清问题指的是哪一件 事,哪一个细节,造成你寻找的困难,这就要求你仔细琢磨了。归纳起来,提 问技巧一般有隐含提问法、真伪证实法、迂回提问法三种。 1.隐含提问法 出题者使用同义词语、参照词、代词等,使考生对阅读内容和问题产生模糊

感。例如: The basketball team never lacked vociferous( 大叫大喊的)young supporters , but they rarely responded to this show of enthusiasm. Who seldom reacted to that enthusiastic show? A.The young people. B.The players. C.Some people. D.A lot of people. 因为 the basketball team 和 players;seldom reacted 和 rarely responded 是两对同义 关系的词语,而“they”又与 basketball team 有参照关系,所以答案应该是 B。 2.真伪证实法 出题者要求考生确定文章中的事实,不让其问题直接与文章中的事实对号入 座,而是提出似是而非,或完全错误的事实让考生去判断。对于这类题目,考 生不要根据自己读文章的最初印象马上加以判断,而必须找到与问题相应的文 章部分,找出正确肯定的事实,才可以据此判定否定的或错误的答案选项。例 如: One word that sums up(概括)our age better than any other—whether “our age”is“the technological age”of western countries or the “modernizing age”of China—is the word CHANGE.But has change not always been present?True,but never before at such a breakneck speed.Today it is more than just change.It is unprecedented change.In such a world,reading provides the best tool we have for keeping up and for avoiding future shock in a world continually being remade. Which of the following is NOT true? A.Western countries and China are being remade. B.Reading will help understand our age. C.The present age and future world are continually changing. D.Reading is the best tool provided by our age. 选择题中,A、B、C 三项均与文意吻合一致。 D 项是一个似是而非的选择答 案。文中的 Reading provides the best tool for us(阅读对我们来说,是最好的工具)

和选项中 D.Reading is the best tool provided by our age.(阅读是我们时代提供的最 好工具),意思不符,所以答案是 D。 3.迂回提问法 这又是一种设障提问技巧。问题不直接提出,而是绕着弯子提出。比如,涉及 时间、距离及数据等时,你必须经过复杂的计算才能确定答案,有时,选择答 案给你的数据与文章中的数据不符,只是一个近似数值,(其它选择答案完全不 沾边,完全错误),或者,提问者只给你一部分事实,让读者推出相应的事实使 某事实更完整正确(这又叫做省略提问法)。

巧用“导读法”快速定位细节 做细节题时,一般采用导读法,即先读题,然后带着题干信息快速浏览全文, 找出与问题有关的词语或句子,再对相关部分进行比较、分析、对比,最后得 出答案。 做题时注意同一语意的不同表达方式,有时为了增加试题的难度,问题的表达 一般不用文章中的原话,而是使用同义词、近义词、句型的变换来表达,因 此,一定要先看题干,理清问题所在。

Passage 1 (2016· 全国Ⅰ)The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups.Silences may be thoughtful, or they may be empty when a person has nothing to say.A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness, or worry.Silence may be viewed by some cultural groups as extremely uncomfortable; therefore attempts may be made to fill every gap (间隙) with conversation.Persons in other cultural groups value silence and view it as necessary for understanding a person’s needs. Many Native Americans value silence and feel it is a basic part of communicating among people, just as some traditional Chinese and Thai persons do.Therefore, when a person from one of these cultures is speaking and suddenly stops, what maybe

implied(暗示) is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing.In these cultures, silence is a call for reflection. Other cultures may use silence in other ways, particularly when dealing with conflicts among people or in relationships of people with different amounts of power.For example, Russian, French, and Spanish persons may use silence to show agreement between parties about the topic under discussion.However, Mexicans may use silence when instructions are given by a person in authority rather than be rude to that person by arguing with him or her.In still another use, persons in Asian cultures may view silence as a sign of respect, particularly to an elder or a person in authority. Nurses and other care-givers need to be aware of the possible meanings of silence when they come across the personal anxiety their patients may be

experiencing.Nurses should recognize their own personal and cultural construction of silence so that a patient’s silence is not interrupted too early or allowed to go on unnecessarily.A nurse who understands the healing(治愈) value of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients from their own and from other cultures. 1.What does the author say about silence in conversations? A.It implies anger. C.It is culture-specific. B.It promotes friendship. D.It is content-based.

2.Which of the following people might regard silence as a call for careful thought? A.The Chinese. C.The Mexicans. B.The French. D.The Russians.

3.What does the author advise nurses to do about silence? A.Let it continue as the patient pleases. B.Break it while treating patients. C.Evaluate its harm to patients. D.Make use of its healing effects. 4.What may be the best title for the text? A.Sound and Silence B.What It Means to Be Silent

C.Silence to Native Americans D.Speech Is Silver; Silence Is Gold Passage 2 (2016· 全国Ⅱ)Reading can be a social activity.Think of the people who belong to book groups.They choose books to read and then meet to discuss them.Now, the website BookCrossing.com turns the page on the traditional idea of a book group. Members go on the site and register the books they own and would like to share.BookCrossing provides an identification number to stick inside the book.Then the person leaves it in a public place, hoping that the book will have an adventure, traveling far and wide with each new reader who finds it. Bruce Peterson, the managing director of BookCrossing, says, “The two things that change your life are the people you meet and books you read.BookCrossing combines both.” Members leave books on park benches and buses, in train stations and coffee shops.Whoever finds their book will go to the site and record where they found it. People who find a book can also leave a journal entry describing what they thought of it.E-mails are then sent to the BookCrossing to keep them updated about where their books have been found.Bruce Peterson says the idea is for people not to be selfish by keeping a book to gather dust on a shelf at home. BookCrossing is part of a trend among people who want to get back to the “real” and not the virtual(虚拟).The site now has more than one million members in more than one hundred thirty-five countries. 1.Why does the author mention book groups in the first paragraph? A.To explain what they are. B.To introduce BookCrossing. C.To stress the importance of reading. D.To encourage readers to share their ideas. 2.What does the underlined word “it” in Paragraph 2 refer to? A.The book.

B.An adventure. C.A public place. D.The identification number. 3.What will a BookCrosser do with a book after reading it? A.Meet other readers to discuss it. B.Keep it safe in his bookcase. C.Pass it on to another reader. D.Mail it back to its owner. 4.What is the best title for the text? A.Online Reading: A Virtual Tour B.Electronic Books: A new Trend C.A Book Group Brings Tradition Back D.A Website Links People through Books Passage 3 (2016· 全国 Ⅲ )If you are a fruit grower—or would like to become one—take advantage of Apple Day to see what’s around.It’s called Apple Day but in practice it’s more like Apple Month.The day itself is on October 21, but since it has caught on, events now spread out over most of October around Britain. Visiting an apple event is a good chance to see, and often taste, a wide variety of apples.To people who are used to the limited choice of apples such as Golden Delicious and Royal Gala in supermarkets, it can be quite an eye opener to see the range of classical apples still in existence, such as Decio which was grown by the Romans.Although it doesn’t taste of anything special, it’s still worth a try, as is the knobbly(多疙瘩的) Cat’s Head which is more of a curiosity than anything else. There are also varieties developed to suit specific local conditions.One of the very best varieties for eating quality is Orleans Reinette, but you’ll need a warm, sheltered place with perfect soil to grow it, so it’s a__pipe__dream for most apple lovers who fall for it. At the events, you can meet expert growers and discuss which ones will best suit your conditions, and because these are family affairs, children are well catered for with

apple-themed fun and games. Apple Days are being held at all sorts of places with an interest in fruit ,including stately gardens and commercial orchards(果园).If you want to have a real orchard experience, try visiting the National Fruit Collection at Brogdale,near Faversham in Kent. 1.What can people do at the apple events? A.Attend experts’ lectures. B.Visit fruit-loving families. C.Plant fruit trees in an orchard. D.Taste many kinds of apples. 2.What can we learn about Decio? A.It is a new variety. C.It is rarely seen now. B.It has a strange look. D.It has a special taste.

3.What does the underlined phrase “a pipe dream” in Paragraph 3 mean? A.A practical idea. C.A brilliant plan. B.A vain hope. D.A selfish desire.

4.What is the author’s purpose in writing the text? A.To show how to grow apples. B.To introduce an apple festival. C.To help people select apples. D.To promote apple research. Passage 4 (2016· 北京高考) Why College Is Not Home The college years are supposed to be a time for important growth in autonomy(自主 性) and the development of adult identity.However,now they are becoming an extended period of adolescence,during which many of today’s students are not shouldered with adult responsibilities. For previous generations,college was decisive break from parental control; guidance and support needed help from people of the same age and from within.In the past two

decades,however,continued connection with and dependence on family,thanks to cellphones,email and social media,have increased significantly.Some parents go so far as to help with coursework.Instead of promoting the idea of college as a passage from the shelter of the family to autonomy and adult responsibility , universities have given in to the idea that they should provide the same environment as that of the home. To prepare for increased autonomy and responsibility,college needs to be a time of exploration and experimentation.This process involves “trying on ” new ways of thinking about oneself both intellectually( 在思维方面 ) and personally.While we should provide “safe spaces” within colleges,we must also make it safe to express opinions and challenge majority views.Intellectual growth and flexibility are fostered on debate and questioning. Learning to deal with the social world is equally important.Because a college community(群体) differs from the family,many students will struggle to find a sense of belonging.If students rely on administrators to regulate their social behavior and thinking pattern,they are not facing the challenge of finding an identity within a larger and complex community. Moreover,the tendency for universities to monitor and shape student behavior runs up against another characteristic of young adults: the response to being controlled by their elders.If acceptable social behavior is too strictly defined(规定) and controlled, the insensitive or aggressive behavior that administrators are seeking to minimize may actually be encouraged. It is not surprising that young people are likely to burst out,particularly when there are reasons to do so.Our generation once joined hands and stood firm at times of national emergency.What is lacking today is the conflict between adolescent’s desire for autonomy and their understanding of an unsafe world.Therefore,there is the desire for their dorms to be replacement homes and not places to experience intellectual growth. Every college discussion about community values , social climate and behavior should include recognition of the developmental importance of student autonomy and

self-regulation,of the necessary tension between safety and self-discovery. 1 . What’s the author’s attitude toward continued parental guidance to college students? A.Sympathetic. C.Supportive. B.Disapproving. D.Neutral.

2.The underlined word “passage” in Paragraph 2 means ________. A.change C.text B.choice D.extension

3.According to the author,what role should college play? A.To develop a shared identity among students. B.To define and regulate students’ social behavior. C.To provide a safe world without tension for students. D.To foster students’ intellectual and personal development. 4.Which of the following shows the development of ideas in the passage?

I:Introduction C:Conclusion

P:Point

Sp:Sub-point(次要点)

Passage 5 (2016· 四川高考)If you could have one superpower, what would it be? Dreaming about whether you would want to read minds, see through walls, or have superhuman strength may sound silly, but it actually gets to the heart of what_really_matters_in_your_life. Every day in our work, we are inspired by the people we meet doing extraordinary

things to improve the world. They have a different kind of superpower that all of us possess: the power to make a difference in the lives of others. We’re not saying that everyone needs to contribute their lives to the poor.Your lives are busy enough doing homework, playing sports, making friends, seeking after your dreams.But we do think that you can live a more powerful life when you devote some of your time and energy to something much larger than yourself.Find an issue you are interested in and learn more.Volunteer or, if you can, contribute a little money to a cause.Whatever you do, don’t be a bystander.Get involved.You may have the opportunity to make your biggest difference when you’re older.But why not start now? Our own experience working together on health, development, and energy the last twenty years has been one of the most rewarding parts of our lives.It has changed who we are and continues to fuel our optimism about how much the lives of the poorest people will improve in the years ahead. 1.What does the underlined part in Paragraph 2 refer to? A.Your life style. C.Your trouble in life. B.Your life value. D.Your life experience.

2.Why does the author say they are inspired every day? A.They possess different kinds of superpowers. B.They have got the power to change the world. C.Some people around them are making the world better. D.There are many powerful people in their life and work. 3.What does the author stress in Paragraph 5? A.Learning more and contributing more to a cause. B.Rising above self and acting to help others. C.Working hard to get a bigger opportunity. D.Trying your best to help the poor. 4.What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

A.The author believes the lives of the poorest will get better. B.Much more progress will be made in the near future. C.The work on health is the most valuable experience. D.People’s efforts have been materially rewarded.

Passage 1 (2015· 全国Ⅱ)More students than ever before are taking a gap-year (间隔年)before going to university.It used to be called the “year off” between school and university.The gap-year phenomenon originated(起源) with the months left over to Oxbridge applicants between entrance exams in November and the start of the next academic year. This year , 25 , 310 students who have accepted places in higher education institutions have put off their entry until next year , according to statistics on university entrance provided by the University and College Service(UCAS). That is a record 14.7% increase in the number of students taking a gap year.Tony Higgins from UCAS said that the statistics are good news for everyone in higher education.“Students who take a well - planned year out are more likely to be satisfied with,and complete,their chosen course.Students who take a gap year are often more mature and responsible,” he said. But not everyone is happy.Owain James,the president of the National Union of Students(NUS),argued that the increase is evidence of student hardship-young people are being forced into earning money before finishing their education.“New students are now aware that they are likely to leave university up to £15,000 in debt.It is not surprising that more and more students are taking a gap year to earn money to support their study for the degree.NUS statistics show that over 40% of students are forced to work during term time and the figure Admissions

increases to 90% during vacation periods,”he said. 1. What do we learn about the gap year from the text?

A.It is flexible in length. B.It is a time for relaxation. C.It is increasingly popular. D.It is required by universities. 2. According to Tony Higgins,students taking a gap year________. A.are better prepared for college studies B.know a lot more about their future jobs C.are more likely to leave university in debt D.have a better chance to enter top universities 3. How does Owain James feel about the gap-year phenomenon? A.He’s puzzled. C.He’s surprised. B.He’s worried. D.He’s annoyed.

4. What would most students do on their vacation according to NUS statistics? A.Attend additional courses. B.Make plans for the new term. C.Earn money for their education. D.Prepare for their graduate studies. Passage 2 (2015· 北京高考)Technological change is everywhere and affects every aspect of life, mostly for the better. However, social changes are brought about by new technology are often mistaken for a change in attitudes. An example at hand is the involvement of parents in the lives of their children who are attending college. Surveys(调查) on this topic suggests that parents today continue to be “very” or “somewhat” overly-protective even after their children move into college dormitories. The same surveys also indicate that the rate of parental involvement is greater today than it was a generation ago. This is usually interpreted as a sign that today’s parents are trying to manage their children’s lives past the point where this behavior is appropriate. However, greater parental involvement does not necessarily indicate that parents are failing to let go of their “adult” children.

In the context(背景) of this discussion, it seems valuable to first find out the cause of change in the case of parents’ involvement with their grown children. If parents of earlier generations had wanted to be in touch with their college - age children frequently, would this have been possible? Probably not. On the other hand, does the possibility of frequent communication today mean that the urge to do so wasn’t present a generation ago? Many studies show that older parents—today’s grandparents—would have called their children more often if the means and cost of doing so had not been a barrier. Furthermore, studies show that finances are the most frequent subject of communication between parents and their college children. The fact that college students are financially dependent on their parents is nothing new; nor are requests for more money to be sent from home. This phenomenon is neither good nor bad; it is a fact of college life, today and in the past. Thanks to the advanced technology, we live in an age of bettered communication. This has many implications well beyond the role that parents seem to play in the lives of their children who have left for college. But it is useful to bear in mind that all such changes come from the technology and not some imagined desire by parents to keep their children under their wings. 1.The surveys inform us of ________. A.the development of technology B.the changes of adult children’s behavior C.the parents’ over-protection of their college children D.the means and expenses of students’ communication 2.The writer believes that ________. A.parents today are more protective than those in the past B.the disadvantages of new technology outweigh its advantages C.technology explains greater parental involvement with their children D.parents’ changed attitudes lead to college children’s delayed independence 3.What is the best title for the passage?

A.Technology or Attitude B.Dependence or Independence C.Family Influences or Social Changes D.College Management or Communication Advancement 4.Which of the following shows the development of ideas in this passage?

Passage 3 (2015· 重庆高考 )At thirteen , I was diagnosed( 诊所 ) with a kind of attention disorder.It made school difficult for me.When everyone else in the class was focusing on tasks,I could not. In my first literature class,Mrs.Smith asked us to read a story and then write on it, all within 45 minutes.I raised my hand right away and said,“Mrs.Smith,you see,the doctor said I have attention problems.I might not be able to do it.” She glanced down at me through her glasses,“You are no different from your classmates,young man.” I tried,but I didn’t finish the reading when the bell rang.I had to take it home. In the quietness of my bedroom,the story suddenly all became clear to me.It was about a blind person,Louis Braille.He lived in a time when the blind couldn’t get much education.But Louis didn’t give up.Instead,he invented a reading system of raised dots(点),which opened up a whole new world of knowledge to the blind. Wasn’t I the “blind” in my class,being made to learn like the “sighted” students? My thoughts spilled out and my pen started to dance.I completed the task within 40

minutes.Indeed,I was no different from others; I just needed a quieter place.If Louis could find his way out of his problems,why should I ever give up? I didn’t expect anything when I handled in my paper to Mrs.Smith,so it was quite a surprise when it came back to me the next day—with an“A” on it.At the bottom of the paper were these words:“See what you can do when you keep trying?” 1.The author didn’t finish the reading in class because ________. A.he was new to the class B.he was tired of literature C.he had an attention disorder D.he wanted to take the task home 2.What do we know about Louis Braille from the passage? A.He had good sight. B.He made a great invention. C.He gave up reading. D.He learned a lot from school. 3.What was Mrs.Smith’s attitude to the author at the end of the story? A.Angry. C.Sympathetic. B.Impatient. D.Encouraging.

4.What is the main idea of the passage? A.The disabled should be treated with respect. B.A teacher can open up a new world to students. C.One can find his way out of difficulties with efforts. D.Everyone needs a hand when faced with challenges. Passage 4 (2015· 湖北高考 )Science has a lot of uses.It can uncover laws of nature , cure diseases,make bombs,and help bridges to stand up.Indeed science is so good at what it does that there’s always a temptation(诱惑) to drag it into problems where it may not be helpful.David Brooks , author of The Social Animal , The Hidden Sources of Love,Character,and Achievement,appears to be the latest in a long line of writers who have failed to resist the temptation.

Brooks gained fame for several books.His latest book The Social Animal,however, is more ambitious and serious than his earlier books.It is an attempt to deal with a set of weighty topics.The book focuses on big questions:What has science revealed about human nature? What are the sources of character? And why are some people happy and successful while others aren’t? To answer these questions , Brooks surveys a wide range of disciplines ( 学 科).Considering this,you might expect the book to be a dry recitation of facts.But Brooks has structured his book in an unorthodox ( 非 常 规 的 ) , and perhaps unfortunate,way.Instead of introducing scientific theories,he tells a story,within which he tries to make his points,perhaps in order to keep the reader’s attention.So as Harold and Erica,the hero and heroine in his story,live through childhood,we hear about the science of child development,and as they begin to date we hear about the theory of sexual attraction.Brooks carries this through to the death of one of his characters. On the whole,Brooks’ story is acceptable if uninspired.As one would expect,his writing is mostly clear and,to be fair,some chapters stand out above the rest.I enjoyed ,for instance,the chapter in which Harold discovers how to think on his own.While Harold and Erica are certainly not strong or memorable characters,the more serious problems with The Social Animal lie elsewhere.These problems partly involve Brooks’s attempt to translate his tale into science. 1.The author mentions the functions of science at the beginning of the passage to ________. A.illustrate where science can be applied B.demonstrate the value of Brooks’s new book C.remind the readers of the importance of science D.explain why many writers use science in their works 2.According to the author,which of the following could be a strength of the book? A.Its strong basis. B.Its convincing points.

C.Its clear writing. D.Its memorable characters. 3.What is the author’s general attitude towards the book? A.Contradictory. C.Cautious. B.Supportive. D.Critical.

4.What is the author likely to write about after the last paragraph? A.Problems with the book. B.Brooks’s life experience. C.Death of the characters. D.Brooks’s translation skills. Passage 5 (2015· 福建高考) Food festivals around the world Stilton Cheese Rolling May Day is a traditional day for celebrations, but the 2,000 English villagers of Stilton must be the only people in the world who include cheese rolling in their annual plans.Teams of four , dressed in a variety of strange and funny clothes, roll a complete cheese along a 50-metre course.On the way, they must not kick or throw their cheese, or go into their competitors’ lane(赛道).Competition is fierce and the chief prize is a complete Stilton cheese weighing about four kilos (disappointingly, but understandably the cheeses used in the race are wooden ones) . All the competitors are served with beer or port wine, the traditional accompaniment for Stilton cheese. Fiery Foods Festival—The Hottest Festival on Earth Every year more than 10 , 000 people head for the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico.They come from as far away as Australia, the Caribbean and China, but they all share a common addiction—food that is not just spicy(辛辣),but hot enough to make your mouth burn, your head spin and your eyes water.Their destination is the Fiery Food and BBQ Festival which is held over a period of three days every

March.You might like to try a chocolate-covered habanero pepper—officially the hottest pepper in the world—or any one of the thousands of products that are on show.But one thing’s for sure—if you don’t like the feeling of a burning tongue, this festival isn’t for you! La Tomatina—The World’s Biggest Food Fight On the last Wednesday of every August, the Spanish town of Bunol hosts La Tomatina—the world’s largest food fight.A week-long celebration leads up to an exciting tomato battle as the highlight of the week’s events.The early morning sees the arrival of large trucks with tomatoes—official fight-starters get things going by casting tomatoes at the crowd. The battle lasts little more than half an hour, in which time around 50,000 kilograms of tomatoes have been thrown at anyone or anything that moves, runs, or fights back.Then everyone heads down to the river to make friends again—and for a much -needed wash! 1 . In the Stilton cheese rolling competition, competitors on each team must ________. A.wear various formal clothes B.roll a wooden cheese in their own lane C.kick or throw their cheese D.use a real cheese weighing about four kilos 2.Where is the Fiery Food and BBQ Festival held? A.In New Mexico. C.In Australia. B.In the Caribbean. D.In China.

3.The celebration of La Tomatina lasts ________. A.three days C.less than three days B.seven days D.more than seven days

4.Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A.The chief prize for the Stilton cheese rolling competition is beer or port wine. B.More than 10,000 Chinese take part in the Fiery Food and BBQ Festival.

C.Thousands of spicy foods are on show in the Fiery Food and BBQ Festival. D.An exciting tomato battle takes place at the beginning of La Tomatina. Passage 6 (2014· 新课标全国 Ⅰ )As more and more people speak the global languages of English , Chinese , Spanish , and Arabic , other languages are rapidly disappearing.In fact , half of the 6 ,000 ~ 7 , 000 languages spoken around the world today will likely die out by the next century,according to the United Nations Educational,Scientific,and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In an effort to prevent language loss , scholars from a number of

organizations—UNESCO and National Geographic among them—have for many years been documenting dying languages and the cultures they reflect. Mark Turin,a scientist at the Macmillan Center,Yale University,who specializes in the languages and oral traditions of the Himalayas , is following in that__tradition . His recently published book , A Grammar of Thangmi with an Ethnolinguistic Introduction to the Speakers and Their Culture,grows out of his experience living,working and raising a family in a village in Nepal. Documenting the Thangmi language and culture is just a starting point for Turin, who seeks to include other languages and oral traditions across the Himalayan reaches of India,Nepal,Bhutan,and China.But he is not content to simply record these voices before they disappear without record. At the University of Cambridge Turin discovered a wealth of important materials—including photographs,films,tape recordings,and field notes—which had remained unstudied and were badly in need of care and protection. Now,through the two organizations that he has founded—the Digital Himalaya Project and the World Oral Literature Project—Turin has started a campaign to make such documents,found in libraries and stores around the world,available not just to scholars but to the younger generations of communities from whom the materials were originally collected.Thanks to digital technology and the widely available Internet,Turin notes,the endangered languages can be saved and reconnected with speech communities.

1.Many scholars are making efforts to ________. A.promote global languages B.rescue disappearing languages C.search for language communities D.set up language research organizations 2.What does“that tradition”in Paragraph 3 refer to? A.Having full records of the languages. B.Writing books on language teaching. C.Telling stories about language users. D.Living with the native speakers. 3.What is Turin’s book based on? A.The cultural studies in India. B.The documents available at Yale. C.His language research in Bhutan. D.His personal experience in Nepal. 4.Which of the following best describes Turin’s A.Write,sell and donate. B.Record,repair and reward. C.Collect,protect and reconnect. D.Design,experiment and report. Passage 7 (2014· 辽宁高考)Travis is the manager of G&G where he is responsible for forty employees (雇员)and profits (利润) of over $2 million per year.He’s never late to work.He does not get upset on the job.When one of his employees started crying after a customer screamed at her,Travis took her away.“Your working uniform is your shelter,”he told her.“Nothing anyone says will ever hurt you.You will always be as strong as you want to be.” Travis picked up that lecture in one of his G&G training courses,an education program that began on his first day and continues throughout an employee’s work?

occupation.The training has,Travis says,changed his life.G&G has taught him how to live,how to focus,how to get to work on time,and how to master his emotions (情绪).Most importantly,it taught him willpower. At the center of that education is an extreme focus on an all-important habit: willpower. Dozens of cases show that willpower is the single most important habit for a person’s success. And the best way to strengthen willpower is to make it into a habit.“Sometimes it looks like people with great self-control aren’t working hard-but that’s because they’ve made it automatic , ”Angela Duckworth , one of the University of Pennsylvania researchers said.“Their willpower occurs without them having to think about it.” The company spent millions of dollars developing programs of study to train employees on self-control.Managers wrote workbooks that serve as guides to how to make willpower a habit in workers’ lives.Those courses are,in part,why G&G has grown from a sleepy company into a large one with more than seventeen thousand stores and profits of more than $10 billion a year. 1.We learn from Paragraph 2 that employees in G&G must A.learn to give lectures B.attend education programs C.design a working uniform D.develop a common hobby 2.Willpower will become a habit when employees can A.focus on the profits B.benefit from the job C.protect themselves well D.control their feelings well 3.What can we infer from the passage? A.G&G has grown into a large company. B.G&G will spend half its profits training employees. ________. ________.

C.G&G may become more successful in the future. D.G&G has to produce more workbooks for managers. Passage 8 (2014· 安徽高考)You are the collector in the gallery of your life.You collect.You might not mean to but you do.One out of three people collects tangible(有形的)things such as cats,photos and noisy toys.These are among some 40 collections that are being shown at“The Museum Of”—the first of several new museums which,over the next two years,will exhibit the objects accumulated by unknown collectors.In doing so,they will promote a popular culture of museums,not what museums normally represent. Some of the collections are fairly common—records , model houses.Others are strangely beautiful—branches that have fallen from trees,for example.But they all reveal (显露)a lot of things:ask someone what they collect and their answers will tell you who they are. Others on the way include“The Museum of Collectors”and“The Museum of Me.”These new ones , it is hoped , will build on the success of“The Museum Of.”The thinkers behind the project want to explore why people collect,and what it means to do so.They hope that visitors who may not have considered themselves collectors will begin to see they,too,collect. Some collectors say they started or stopped making collections at important points: the beginning or end of adolescence—“it’s a growing-up thing;you stop when you grow up,”says one.Other painful times are mentioned,such as the end of a relationship.For time and life can seem so uncontrollable that a steady serial(顺序排 列的)arrangement is comforting. 1.How will the new museums promote a popular culture of museums? A.By collecting more tangible things. B.By showing what ordinary people have collected. C.By correcting what museums normally represent. D.By accumulating 40 collections two years from now.

2.What can be learned about collectors from their collections? A.Who they are. B.How old they are. C.Where they were born. D.Why they might not mean to collect. 3.Which of the following is an aim of the new museums? A.To help people sell their collections. B.To encourage more people to collect. C.To study the significance of collecting. D.To find out why people visit museums. 4 . According to the last paragraph , people may stop collecting when they ________. A.become adults B.feel happy with life C.are ready for a relationship D.feel time to be uncontrollable

Passage 1 (2016· 安徽安庆市高三下学期第二次模拟 )Between about 1910 and 1930 , new artistic movements in European art were making themselves felt in the United States.American artists become acquainted with the new art on their trips to Paris and at the exhibitions in the famous New York gallery “291” of the photographer Alfred Stieglitz.But most important in the spread of the modern movements in the United States was the sensational Armory Show of 1913 held in New York,in which the works of a number of progressive American painters were shown. Several of the American modernists who were influenced by the Armory Show found the urban landscapes,especially New York,an appealing subject.Compared with the works of the realist painters,the works of American modernists were much

removed from the actual appearance of the city; they were more interested in the “feel” of the “Ash Can School” and the later realists were still tied to nineteenth- century or earlier styles , while the early modernists shared in the international breakthroughs of the art of the twentieth century. The greatest of these breakthroughs was Cubism,developed most fully in France between 1907 and 1914 , which brought about a major revolution in Western painting.It overturned the rational tradition that had been built upon since the Renaissance.In Cubism,natural forms were broken down analytically into geometric shapes.No longer was a clear differentiation made between the figure and the background of a painting: objects represented and the surface on which they were painted became one.The Cubism abandoned the conventional single vantage point of the viewer,and objects depicted from multiple viewpoints were shown at the same time. 1.What does the passage mainly talk about? A.The development of Cubism. B.Modern art movements in US. C.Contemporary artists in US. D.The influence of photography. 2.American artists learned about new artistic movements through the following means EXCEPT ________. A.lessons from successful artists B.the Memory Show of 1913 C.trips to Europe D.the exhibitions at the gallery “291” 3.Why does the author mention Alfred Stieglitz? A.To show photography was the major influence in modern art. B.To compare him to the other artists of his time. C.To point out many artists learned from him. D.To give an example of someone who influenced modern art.

4.According to the author,which of the following was a favorite subject for American modernists? A.Portraits of famous people. B.Country scenes. C.Pictures of buildings’ interiors. D.City landscapes. Passage 2 (2016· 安徽合肥市高三第一次质量检测)When slaves were first brought over from West Africa to the southern parts of America,they brought along with them aspects of their own culture—religion,dance,language,music,and cuisine.A mix of the two cultures eventually appeared. The religious dance of the ring shout turned into modern dances like the Charleston , and tribal chants slowly transformed into sorrowful hymns (圣歌) sung by slaves that described their hardships. These soulful accounts by slaves of the severe climate and conditions began to be called “the blues”,which continued in popularity among African Americans after the Civil War.This music increased in popularity into the early 1900s when many black musicians became an important part of the music industry. The slaves that had been brought over were from all different regions of West Africa,but they worked together until they gradually formed a common culture.This strengthened the identity of their music that,in the 1950s,eventually led to the beginning of rock and roll.The Beatles,the most influential band of the 1960s,are often determined as the accelerator that resulted in the ideology ( 意 识 形 态 ) surrounding music that is still around today.The freedom and individuality associated with that time period brought forth a whole culture surrounding music.It was not just music any more,but a lifestyle. Over the decades,music has developed into such a vital part of society and pop culture.Musicians are glorified,with tons of adoring and screaming fans.The modern technology of present day has allowed for a greater gap between the creator of the music and the fans , as well as the widespread commercialization of

music.However , criticisms of modern pop music often arise due to its mass production,and now there is lack of the same soul and quality of naturalness and simplicity in music that was rising in the early 20th century. 1.What contributed to the birth of the Charleston? A.Various African religions. B.People’s love of tribal dances. C.A mix of two different cultures. D.The popularity of sorrowful hymns. 2.According to the passage,what can we learn about the blues? A.It became popular in the late 20th century. B.It may include the description of slaves’ sad lives. C.It mainly told the stories of the American Civil War. D.It reflected the hard lives of many black musicians. 3.What does the underlined word “This” in the third paragraph refer to? A.Slaves’ collective work. B.One region of West Africa. C.The new common culture. D.The music by the Beatles. 4.It can be learned that the music in the early 20th century ________. A.possessed soul and sincerity B.became more commercialized C.was blamed for its mass production D.widened the gap between musicians and fans Passage 3 (2016· 重庆南开中学高三二诊模拟) Part one: First Major Novels If Dickens had remained the author of Pickwick , Oliver Twist , and The old Curiosity Shop,he might have gained lasting fame only as an author of cheerful comedy.But Dombey and Son,published in 1846 and continued till 1848,is a realistic novel of human life in a society which had taken more or less its modern

form.The novel is a study of the influence of the values of a business society on the members of the Dombey family. Part two: Dark novels In 1851 Dickens was struck by the death of his father and one of his daughters within 2 weeks.Partly in response to these losses,he created a series of works which have come to be called his “dark” novels and which rank among the greatest success of the art of fiction. Part three: Later Works In 1859 Dickens published A Tale of Two Cities,a historical novel of the French Revolution,which is read today most often as a school text.It is a fine picture of the historical period and a moving tale of a surprisingly modern hero.Besides publishing this novel in the lately founded All the Year Round,Dickens also published 17 articles,which appeared together with the novel as a book later. Dickens’s next novel,Great Expectations (1860~1861),tells the story of a young man’s moral development in the course of his life—from childhood in the provinces to gentleman’s role in London.Not based on his own life like David Copperfield, Great Expectations belongs to type of fiction called,in German,Bildungsroman (the novel of a man’s education or formation by experience.) 1.Which of the following Dickens’ novels shows a clear change of style? A.David Copperfield. C.Dombey and Son. B.Pickwick. D.Oliver Twist.

2.According to the passage,A Tale of Two Cities ________. A.is about the Industry Revolution B.can be found in most of the textbooks C.is better than his “dark” novels D.is probably published in a new magazine 3.In Great Expectation,Dickens writes about ________. A.the growth of a man B.how to become a gentleman

C.his own life experience D.a man’s school education Passage 4 (2016· 宁夏银川九中高三第二次模拟)Some years ago,writing in my diary used to be a usual activity.I would return from school and spend the expected half hour recording the day’s events,feelings,and impressions in my little blue diary.I did not really need to express my emotions by way of words , but I gained a certain satisfaction from seeing my experiences forever recorded on paper.After all ,isn’t accumulating memories a way of preserving the past? When I was thirteen years old,I went on a long journey on foot in a great valley, well equipped with pens , a diary , and a camera.During the trip , I was busy recording every incident,name and place I came across.I felt proud to be spending my time productively , dutifully preserving for future generations a detailed description of my travels.On my last night there,I wandered out of my tent,diary in hand.The sky was clear and lit by the glare of the moon,and the walls of the valley looked threatening behind their screen of shadows.I automatically took out my pen... At that point,I understood that nothing I wrote could ever match or replace the few seconds I allowed myself to experience the dramatic beauty of the valley.All I remembered of the previous few days were the dull characterizations I had set down in my diary. Now,I only write in my diary when I need to write down a special thought or feeling.I still love to record ideas and quotations that strike me in books , or observations that are particularly meaningful.I take pictures,but not very often only of objects I find really beautiful.I’m no longer blindly satisfied with having something to remember when I grow old.I realize that life will simply pass me by if I stay behind the camera,busy preserving the present so as to live it in the future. I don’t want to wake up one day and have nothing but a pile of pictures and notes.Maybe I won’t have as many exact representations of people and places; maybe I’ll forget certain facts,but at least the experiences will always remain inside me.I

don’t live to make memories—I just live,and the memories form themselves. 1.Before the age of thirteen,the author regarded keeping a diary as a way of ________. A.observing her school routine B.expressing her satisfaction C.impressing her classmates D.preserving her history 2.What caused a change in the author’s understanding of keeping a diary? A.A dull night on the journey. B.The beauty of the great valley. C.A striking quotation from a book. D.Her concerns for future generations. 3.What does the author put in her diary now? A.Notes and beautiful pictures. B.Special thoughts and feelings. C.Detailed accounts of daily activities. D.Descriptions of unforgettable events. 4.The author comes to realize that to live a meaningful life is ________. A.to experience it B.to live the present in the future C.to make memories D.to give accurate representations of it Passage 5 (2016· 湖北八校高三第一次联考)We do not usually think about how our language works.Talking is such a natural,everyday activity that we do not often stop to consider how it actually works.When we do study our language,though,we are often surprised that we are able to understand our conversations.Words can mean so many different things.However,it turns out that the speaking situation helps a lot in making language work.

First,the speaking situation helps make words more particular.For example,the word “dog”can describe a dog that a speaker saw in a dream.It can also be used to discuss a neighbor’s dog.No language has a separate word for the idea “dog that I saw yesterday”and another word for the idea “dog that I saw in a dream”.This is because the speaking situation makes it clear what speakers mean when they use words.So, when you have a conversation with your neighbor , the knowledge that

you have a dog tells your neighbor what the word “dog”probably means in that situation. The speaking situation also helps make language clearer.For example,the word “bank”has two possible meanings.It can mean “a place where people keep money”, but it can also mean“the side of a river”.So the sentence “I went to the bank”is not clear.It could mean I went to the side of the river or it could mean I went to the place where my money is kept.However,if the speaker is talking about fishing or going to the mountains,others probably know that “bank”means “the side of a river”. The things that speakers say may not always be clear.Sometimes the words are not very particular,but the speaking situation can provide the meaning.Other times words may have many meanings.Then the speaking situation limits the right meaning.This extra knowledge from the situation is very important to understand language. 1.The passage is mainly about ________. A.the best time and place to talk to others B.how the speaking situation helps language work C.what to say in difficult situations D.how our language works 2.According to the passage,we can safely say that ________. A.the speaking situation does not affect the meaning of words B.speaking is not very natural for most people C.the speaking situation is not important D.people often do not consider how talking works

3 . By using the example of the word “dog” , the writer wants to show that________. A.a word may need to be explained in a conversation B.a word may have different meanings C.the speaking situation helps people understand the particular meaning of a word D.the meaning of words is not particular 4.According to the passage,we can know the meaning of the word “bank”by referring to ________. A.the time and the place where the conversation happens B.the occupation of the person who uses the word C.earlier or later parts of the conversation D.a reliable dictionary Passage 6 (2016· 湖南东部六校高三联考)Kids love to watch TV.For example,what they see on the television is one of their best forms of entertainment.However , not all programs are suited for kids.“Disney” always has been a choice for parents and teachers when looking at providing entertainment to young children.The reason for this is Disney,such as Alice in Wonderland,has produced its mark in making films that are meant to instill positive values among children. All Disney movies are produced to make its viewers envision(想象) items that are beyond the typical.One great movie that would foster kid’s imagination is “Aladdin” that is about an adolescent lad who fell in love with a princess named Jasmine.But

they are able to by no means be married as the princess should only marry a prince.But every thing became nice whenever a genie arrived into the image and granted Aladdin’s wishes.It’s an excellent film that tends to make children envision as it functions entertaining characters such as flying carpet. For kids,dreaming is inborn.But because they develop older,they tend to forget how you can hold on to their dreams.To keep them having a dream and running after it,you are able to allow them to view Disney films concerning the energy of

dreaming like “Up”.Released in 2009,the movie tells a tale of Carl Fredricksen who has sufficient courage to track his dream despite adulthood and lack of sources. Although kindness is one thing inborn,children sometimes don’t develop it

as a consequence of so many factors such as correct guidance from the moms and dads and influence of other children.To assist children in creating this perspective, you can let them view Disney movies that tell about genuine kindness like “Mary Poppins”that is a tale of a nanny who uses magic to transform normal lives into something extraordinary via kindness. 1.Why does the author advise kids to see Disney movies? A.Because TV programs are not suited for kids’ entertainment. B.Because Disney movies can instill positive values among children. C.Because Disney movies entertain children more than TV programs. D.Because Disney movies are popular among their teachers and parents. 2.How does the film Up mainly benefit the kids? A.It fosters kids’ imagination. B.It helps kids to practice kindness. C.It inspires kids to follow their dreams. D.It gives kids enough courage and sources. 3.Which of the following is true of the movie Mary Poppins? A.The nanny is a kind person to others. B.Kids would like to see it very much. C.It is popular with most of the parents. D.The parents offer a lot of good factors. 4.Which of the Disney movies probably helps kids to develop their imagination? A.Alice in Wonderland. C.Up. B.Aladdin. D.Mary Poppins.

Passage 1 (2015· 云南师大附中适应性考试四 )College is not just about studying, writing

essays and burning the midnight oil in the library. Making friends and enjoying yourself is also necessary for the courses. Parties are social events for students to gather and chat with each other. Now let’s follow a foreign friend to see what parties in the US are like. Get some inspiration to have fun with your friends in your new life. Drinking and music College parties in the US are always lacking in creativity and

full of wine and music. The basic form rarely changes—drink until you cannot any more and play loud music at an earth-shaking volume. There is plenty of beer involved, and some mixed cocktails. Creativity in dress The creativity comes in how parties are dressed up. Parties

often have a specific theme,like a 90s party or a sports party. At a 90s party, guests might show up dressed like once-famous celebrities. At a sports party, guests might wear their favorite team’s uniforms. Held in apartments The party is usually held in the apartment of a particular

outgoing friend. Everyone will be invited,which means strangers will wander in and out of the apartment where you can get to know and make some new friends. Ugly sweater party On holidays, parties frequently take on a proper theme. A

popular theme around Christmas is the ugly sweater party. The goal is to wear the ugliest sweater you can find, creating an atmosphere of fun. Whatever the occasion is, there will be no shortage of booze. If you are smart enough, you won’t have so much as to lose your consciousness. Parties are always better when you can remember them the next day. 1.This passage introduces ________. A.what to wear at the US college parties B.how much to drink at the US college parties C.how to make friends at the US colleges D.parties of the US colleges 2.The passage is probably written for ________ in colleges. A.the freshmen

B.the party lovers C.the graduates D.the excellent students 3.The author attaches importance to ________ at the parties in colleges. A.creativity arising from inspiration B.drinking to your heart’s content C.communication combined with fun D.dressing in a fancy style 4.What does the underlined word “booze” in the last paragraph mean? A.Juice. B.Alcohol. C.Food. Passage 2 (2015· 内蒙古四校联考 )While most teenagers were studying to get into a top university, one 19 - year - old boy was starring in his first movie , Blue Gate Crossing. It was a film about love on campus and it was well received in Taiwan. Many say it was this film that put Bolin Chen in position for his later glittering career in show business. In fact, it was not until he played a troubled young man in the movie Buddha Mountain three years ago that he regained his passion for acting. While being called a “youth idol” may seem like a compliment,it is a title that Chen has tried to shake off.He believes that a youth idol means you simply rely on your appearance,not your acting talent. The most important thing for Chen now is to take more initiative (主动性) as an actor.“To me,an actor is like a chess piece,waiting for producers and directors to put him somewhere they want him to be,” Chen,29,told NetEase.“But I want to be the game player.” He even took his ambition a step further—setting up his own production company. But just when Chen started to focus on off-screen work,his life on screen took another turn. He won the title of Best Leading Actor at the 2012 Golden Bell Awards on Oct. 26 for his role in hit TV drama In Time with You. When asked why he accepted the part, which is another “youth idol” role, he told Yangcheng Evening D.Music.

News:“I played it for my grandfather.He told everyone around that I am an actor, but I used to play in movies, not TV series. Now he is in the hospital. I hope that he can watch my performances by simply turning on the TV.” Chen is a veteran(老手) in the entertainment world, but unlike many stars, he hasn’t led a luxurious life. He doesn’t even have a car but walks, rides a bike or takes a taxi whenever he goes out. He doesn’t have a house, either.“Everyone will eventually find some place to live anyway, why bother to buy property (地产)?” he asked Taiwan magazine Business Today. 1.What does Bolin Chen think of his title “youth idol”? A.He likes it very much. B.He thinks it a compliment. C.He wants to get rid of it. D.He is not worthy of it. 2.Bolin Chen’s words in Para. 4 suggest that he ________. A.likes to play games such as chess B.wants to take an active part in producing his films C.cannot get along well with some directors D.thinks producers are more important in making a film 3 . Bolin Chen played a part in the TV drama In Time with You because he ________. A.failed in off-screen work B.had become a “youth idol” C.wanted to delight his grandfather D.wanted to succeed in the new field 4.The main idea of the last paragraph is that Bolin Chen ________. A.is a veteran in the entertainment world B.hasn’t made much money from his work C.doesn’t like the entertainment world D.prefers a different lifestyle from most stars Passage 3

(2015· 日照校际联合检测)Whether it is Mozart or Miley, your choice of music could determine whether you will perform well at your work. A new study suggests that listening to music in the office improves the speed and accuracy of tasks such as data entry,proof-reading and problem-solving. In an office-based experiment, 88 per cent of participants were found to produce their most accurate work when listening to music. The study also found that 81 per cent completed their fastest work when music was played. And it matters what type of music you listen to. For instance, if you’re doing your tax returns, then classical music is the most effective as it improves maths skills. Listening to Jessie J or Justin Bieber could also improve your speed, with 58 per cent of participants completing data entry tasks faster while listening to pop songs. During proofreading, dance music, such as David Guetta’s, had the biggest

positive impact on participants increasing their speed by 20 per cent compared to tests undertaken with no music at all. Dance music also had a positive effect on spell-checking with a 75 per cent pass rate compared to 68 per cent when no music was played at all. The research, undertaken by Brighton-based Mindlab International, suggests that silent offices may be the least productive. “The music experiment showed that when listening to music,nine out of ten people performed better,” said Dr. David Lewis,chairman of Mindlab International. “Proper music enables people to quickly process and keep information, regulate their behavior, make good choices, solve problems,plan and adjust to changing mental demands,” a senior investigator of Mindlab International explained. “While many schools are cutting music programs and spending more and more time on test preparations, our findings suggest that musical training courses may actually help to set up children for a better academic future,” added Dr. David Lewis. 1.What does the passage mainly talk about? A.The positive relationship between music and work efficiency.

B.The speed and accuracy of problem-solving tasks. C.The comparison of different kinds of music. D.The experiment on productivity of office staff. 2.According to the passage, we can conclude that ________. A.different kinds of music lead to the same effect B.silent offices can make people perform better C.listening to proper music can improve efficiency in offices D.more tests prepare children for a better academic future 3.What is the author’s attitude towards school music programs? A.Respectful. C.Tolerant. B.Doubtful. D.Supportive. Passage 4 (2015· 海南中学模拟) 2015 TFK Poetry Contest Call all poets! Time for Kids has a challenge for you: write a funny, rhyming poem.It must be an original poem that does not copy another poet’s work. Enter the Time for Kids Poetry Contest! As fewer and fewer children are interested in writing poetry of their own, Time for Kids decides to organize and sponsor such a contest to change the situation. Contest Rules 1.How to enter This contest begins at 12:01 am on March 6,2015 and ends at

11:59 pm on July 24,2015. To enter,mail the following information to 1271 Avenue of the Americas, 32nd Floor, New York, New York 10020: (a) an original and previously unpublished poem that is humorous and has a rhyme scheme; (b) entrants’ first name only and a parent’s mail address. Limit one entry per person. When entering, entrants promise that the entry is original, and has not been published in any medium and has not won an award. 2.Judging All entries will be judged by poet Kenn Nesbitt, based on the following

criteria: creativity and originality (50%), use of language and rhyme (25%) and appropriateness to the theme of the contest (25%). The length of the entry will not be

taken into consideration. 3.Prizes Our judges will select four semi-finalists (参加半决赛的选手) from

which one grand prize winner and three finalists will be chosen. The one grand prize winner will receive an online class visit from Children’s Poet Laureate Kenn Nesbitt and a signed copy of his newest book of poetry, The Armpit of Doom: Funny Poems for Kids, approximately value at $ 275.The three finalists will each get a signed copy of Nesbitt’s newest book of poetry, The Armpit of Doom:Funny Poems for Kids, and both their poems and that of the grand prize winner will be published at timeforkids. com. 4.Eligibility(参赛资格) Open to legal citizens of the 50 United States and the District of Columbia who are primary school students and are 8 to 13 years old at time of entry. 5.Winner’s list For names of the winner and finalists, visit timeforkids.com (after

August 1,2015, available for a period of 10 days). 1.The purpose of the contest is to ________. A.encourage children to learn from other poets B.help children realize the dream of poetry writing C.encourage children’s interest in poetry writing D.encourage children to read more original poems 2.Which of the following characteristics of a poem is valued most in judging? A.Being creative and original. B.Using a proper number of words. C.Using proper language and rhyme. D.Being appropriate to the contest theme. 3.What can be known about the finalists of the contest? A.They will get a great deal of money. B.Their poems can be read at timeforkids.com. C.They will receive an online class visit from Nesbitt. D.Their poems will appear in Nesbitt’s newest book of poetry.

4.According to the contest rules,________. A.poems can be sent to the organizers by e-mail B.all the children have the right to take part in the contest C.the number of one entrant’s poems to enter the contest is not limited D.the result of the contest will be unknown before August 1, 2015 Passage 5 (2015· 河北名校联盟质监)Many thousands of Chinese are studying at schools in the United States. And writer Liel Leibovitz says the students are following an example that began in the eighteen seventies. Mr. Leibovitz and writer Matthew Miller joined forces to tell the story of the students in their book, “Fortunate Sons”.The book says China sent one hundred and twenty boys from 1872 to 1875 to America to learn about developments that could help modernize their country. Mr. Leibovitz got the idea for the book about the boys a few years ago when he was traveling with his wife in China. Mr. Leibovitz learned that Qing government sent a whole delegation(代表团) of boys to learn the ways of the West. The goal was for them to return to China and help their country. The book says the boys received their American training in Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. It must have been a very good education. Mr. Leibovitz said the first prime minister of the Chinese Republic completed this program. And so did the first engineer to build a large-scale railroad without foreign help. The same was true of the fathers of Chinese education, diplomacy and the Navy. The book-writers had only to open some boxes containing the writings of these men to learn about them. Their notebooks,journals, letters and postcards were in English. Mr. Leibovitz said he was lucky to have so much information from events that took place long ago. The students returned to China after about nine years. They no longer spoke Mandarin (普通话) well enough to answer questions. Police welcomed them home by putting them in jail. The young men were released after about a week. But they were given

low-level jobs. Mr. Leibovitz said it took about ten years for them to rise to higher positions. He said their story continues today with large numbers of Chinese studying in the United States. 1.How many exchange children did Qing government send to America mentioned in the book? A.1872. B.1875. C.120. D.210.

2.The Qing government sent the boys to America because it ________. A.wanted them to help their country B.lost the war C.expected them to affect the culture of the West D.wanted the western countries to help the boys 3.Which of the following is not true according to the passage? A.Many thousands of Chinese are studying at schools in America now. B.Some of the boys received their American training in California. C.Police welcomed the boys home by putting them in jail. D.One of the boys became the father of Chinese education. Passage 6 (2015· 河北冀州中学月考) Submitting Assignment Online In order to upload an assignment (work given to students) to the system properly, you must save the assignment using one of the following applications :Microsoft Word,Corel WordPerfect,or Microsoft Excel. After you complete an assignment,it is important to save your work.This ensures that assignment being uploaded to the system is the most updated version.Your word processing program may attempt to save the assignment to a folder on your computer.We recommend creating a new folder ,named after your course,in a location that is easy to remember,such as “My Documents.” File Name Requirements Select a file name for the assignment that is easy to remember.The file name must

NOT contain spaces.Any spaces used in the file name will prevent the file from uploading to the system.File names using the extensions.rtf,.html,.zip,.jpg, or .exe are NOT allowed. Assignment Upload Procedure Make sure you save the assignment using one of the applications previously identified and ensure that it meets the file name requirements described above.When the file is ready to upload,follow these steps: 1.Sign in the system. 2.Enter your address information and click the CONTINUE button.You will be routed to the “Directions” screen. 3.Review the directions and click the CONTINUE button.You will be routed to the “Special Assignment Upload” screen. 4.Click the SEARCH button.The “Choose File” pop-up window appears. 5.Find the location on your computer where you saved your assignment,and select the file. After you have selected the file , click the UPLOAD button to upload your assignment to the system. Assignment Submission Dates Assignments must be submitted by midnight on the specified due date.Submit your assignment on time so that it reaches the system on or before the due date.No late assignments will be accepted or marked.Assignments delivered after the due date will not be assessed and will be failed.Please manage your time carefully as family and work demands will not be accepted as excuses for late or non-submissions.Tutors and administrators do not have the authority to grant extensions. 1.Which of the following file names is acceptable for submitting assignment? A.research paper.doc C.research paper.doc B.research paper.pdf D.research paper.rtf

2 . Students are advised to save an assignment to a specific folder in order to ________.

A.sign in the system B.remember where the document is C.choose the appropriate application D.remember the document name quickly 3.If you summit your assignment late,you ________. A.can have a second chance B.should ask a tutor for help C.may apply for an extension D.will get a fail for the work

?环境保护类
词义猜测题解题技巧(Ⅰ) 【考题探究】 高考对考生推测词义的能力是非常重视的。这就要求我们在阅读时要通过上下 文交代的内容做出合乎逻辑的推理。在必要时,做些语法分析,通过词与词的 关系,确定其词性;有时根据常识和生活经验或构词法知识,完全可以对那些 从未见过的生词的词义做出正确的推测。 一般说来,这种题型的题干部分总含有 mean,refer to 的字样。做这种题时,特 别要注意的是,对于那些我们熟悉的词千万不要妄自、草率下结论,一定要结 合上下文判断它在文中的意思。例如: The underlined word“family”in the second paragraph means________. A.home C.wife and husband B.children D.wife and children

“family”是我们很熟悉的词了,意为“家庭”,但以这个意思理解 family 的话, 我们就无法选择答案了。但是,如果我们结合上下文“The baker,with his wife and family,was able to get out through a window in the roof.”就很容易看出 family 其实指的是“children 子女”,所以答案应该是 B。 因此,考生不仅要知道常用词的意思,更要知道其灵活变化的意思。在阅读理 解测试中,常见的考查这种技能的题型的设问方式有: 1.The phrase “...”in the sentence could be replaced by________.

2.The word “...” in the paragraph refers to ________. 3.What is the meaning of the underlined word in the paragraph?/What does the underlined word mean? 4.Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the phrase“...”? 5.The word “...”most nearly means________. 词义猜测题是近几年来高考阅读理解题中经常出现的题型,在数量上通常至少 有 1 道题。 【方法指导】 近年来高考英语阅读理解中词义猜测题主要考查生词词义判断、代词指代判 断、熟词新义判断和普通词汇特殊意义判断。 1.分析人称演变过程推断代词的正确指代 代词指代判断题考查考生依据语境逻辑推断人称代词和指示代词意义的能力。 人称代词指代判断题要求考生对 it,they,them,he,she 等人称代词的正确指 代进行判断。指示代词指代判断题主要考查考生对 this,these,that,those 等指 示代词指代意义的判断能力。认真分析历年高考试题不难发现代词指代判断题 常出现在人物变换多、动作转换频的语境中。解题时应认真阅读仔细推敲特定 代词所在句和前后邻近句,分析人称转换和动作变换的详细过程,弄清其来龙 去脉和前因后果,从而准确推断其所替代的对象。 【典例】 You are given many opportunities in life to choose to be a victim or creator.When you choose to be a victim,the world is a cold and difficult place.“They” did things to you which caused all of your pain and suffering.“They”are wrong and bad,and life is terrible as long as “they”are around.Or you may blame yourself for all your problems,thus internalizing(内化)your victimization.The truth is,your life is likely to stay that way as long as you feel a need to blame yourself or others. What does the word“they”in Paragraph 1 probably refer to? A.People and things around you. B.Opportunities and problems. C.Creators and their choices.

D.Victims and their sufferings. 解析 由本段的第二、三、四句可知 they 指 victim 周围的人和事。 答案 A

代词指代类猜测题难度不大,答案一般离画线词不远,所以考生只需读懂画线 词附近的内容并理清各句的来龙去脉即可找到答案。 2.根据语境逻辑推断生词词义 生词词义判断题主要考查考生利用语境逻辑推断特定生词意义的能力。解题时 应充分利用上下文,找出特定生词在邻近句的背景信息,然后借助转折、条 件、因果、递进、对比、并列、让步等逻辑关系或定义和解释正确推断其含 义。 【典例】 On Transportation Days,we might stop for lunch on Chestnut Street or buy a new book or toy,but the transportation was the point.First,it was exciting enough to watch the world speed by from the train window.As I got older,my mom helped me unlock the mysteries that would otherwise have paralyzed my first attempts to do it myself:How do I know where to get off?How do I know how much it costs?How do I know when I need tickets,and where to get them?What track,what line, which direction,where’s the stop,and will I get wet when we go under the river? The underlined word“paralyzed”(in Para.5)is closest in meaning to “________”. A.displayed C.ignored B.justified D.ruined

解析 上下文中的两个关键信息为:unlock the mysteries 和 otherwise。句意:当 我长大时,我母亲帮我解开了这些秘密,否则他们可能使我无法作自我首次尝 试。D 项意为“毁灭”,符合语境。A 项意为“陈列”,B 项意为“证明??是 正当的”;C 项意为“不理睬”。 答案 D

高考英语文章中允许出现一部分生僻词,但是它们不影响考生对文章整体意思

的理解。生僻词的猜测是高考常涉及的一个考点,考生可以通过上下文来猜测 生词的词义。这些词往往不是孤立存在的,在上下文中都有相关的叙述。

(2016· 北京高考) California Condor’s Shocking Recovery California condors are North America’s largest birds, with wind-length of up to 3 meters.In the 1980s, electrical lines and lead poisoning(铅中毒) nearly drove them to dying out.Now,electric shock training and medical treatment are helping to rescue these big birds. In the late 1980s,the last few condors were taken from the wild to be bred(繁 殖).Since 1992,there have been multiple reintroductions to the wild,and there are now more than 150 flying over California and nearby Arizona,Utah and Baja in Mexico. Electrical lines have been killing them off.“As they go in to rest for the night,they just don’t see the power lines,” says Bruce Rideout of San Diego Zoo.Their wings can bridge the gap between lines,resulting in electrocution(电死) if they touch two lines at once. So scientists have come up with a shocking idea.Tall poles,placed in large training areas,teach the birds to stay clear of electrical lines by giving them a painful but undeadly electric shock.Before the training was introduced,66% of set-free birds died of electrocution.This has now dropped to 18%. Lead poisoning has proved more difficult to deal with.When condors eat dead bodies of other animals containing lead,they absorb large quantities of lead.This affects their nervous systems and ability to produce baby birds,and can lead to kidney(肾) failure and death.So condors with high levels of lead are sent to Los Angeles Zoo , where they are treated with calcium EDTA,a chemical that removes lead from the blood over several days.This work is starting to pay off.The annual death rate for

adult condors has dropped from 38% in 2000 to 5.4% in 2011. Rideout’s team thinks that the California condors’ average survival time in the wild is now just under eight years.“Although these measures are not effective forever,they are vital for now,” he says.“They are truly good birds that are worth every effort we put into recovering them.” 1.California condors attract researchers’ interest because they ________. A.are active at night B.had to be bred in the wild C.are found only in California D.almost died out in the 1980s 2.Researchers have found electrical lines are ________. A.blocking condors’ journey home B.big killers of California condors C.rest places for condors at night D.used to keep condors away 3.According to Paragraph 5,lead poisoning ________. A.makes condors too nervous to fly B.has little effect on condors’ kidneys C.can hardly be gotten rid of from condors’ blood D.makes it difficult for condors to produce baby birds 4.This passage shows that ________. A.the average survival time of condors is satisfactory B.Rideout’s research interest lies in electric engineering C.the efforts to protect condors have brought good results D.researchers have found the final answers to the problem

Passage 1 (2015· 陕西高考)The production of coffee beans is a huge,profitable business, but,unfortunately,full-sun production is taking over the industry and bringing

about a lot of damage.The change in how coffee is grown from

shade-grown

production to full-sun production endangers the very existence of certain animals and birds,and even disturbs the world’s ecological balance. On a local level,the damage of the forest required by full-sun fields affects the area’s birds and animals.The shade of the forest trees provides a home for birds and other species (物种)that depend on the trees’ flowers and fruits.Full-sun coffee growers destroy this forest home.As a result,many species are quickly dying out. On a more global level,the destruction of the rainforest for full-sun coffee fields also threatens (威胁) human life.Medical research often makes use of the forests’ plant and animal life,and the destruction of such species could prevent researchers from finding cures for certain diseases.In addition,new coffee-growing techniques are poisoning the water locally,and eventually the world’s groundwater. Both locally and globally,the continued spread of full-sun coffee plantations (种植 园) could mean the destruction of the rainforest ecology.The loss of shade trees is already causing a slight change in the world’s climate,and studies show that the loss of oxygengiving trees also leads to air pollution and global warming.Moreover,the new growing techniques are contributing to acidic (酸性的) soil conditions. It is obvious that the way much coffee is grown affects many aspects of life,from the local environment to the global ecology.But consumers do have a choice.They can purchase shade-grown coffee whenever possible,although at a higher cost.The future health of the planet and mankind is surely worth more than an inexpensive cup of coffee. 1.What can we learn about full-sun coffee production from Paragraph 4? A.It limits the spread of new growing techniques. B.It leads to air pollution and global warming. C.It slows down the loss of shade trees. D.It improves local soil conditions. 2.The purpose of the text is to________. A.entertain B.advertise C.instruct D.persuade

3.Where does this text probably come from? A.An agricultural magazine. B.A medical journal. C.An engineering textbook. D.A tourist guide. 4.Which of the following shows the structure of the whole text?

Passage 2 (2015· 湖北高考)“I see you’ve got a bit of water on your coat,” said the man at the petrol station.“Is it raining out there?”“No,it’s pretty nice,” I replied, checking my sleeve.“Oh,right.A pony(马驹) bit me earlier.” As it happened,the bite was virtually painless: more the kind of small bite you might get from a naughty child.The pony responsible was queuing up for some ice cream in the car park near Haytor,and perhaps thought I’d jumped in ahead of him. The reason why the ponies here are naughty is that Haytor is a tourist -heavy area and tourists are constantly feeding the ponies foods,despite signs asking them not to.By feeding the ponies,tourists increase the risk of them getting hit by a car,and make them harder to gather during the area’s annual pony drift(迁移). The purpose of a pony drift is to gather them up so their health can be checked,the baby ones can be stooped from feeding on their mother’s milk,and those who’ve gone beyond their limited area can be returned to their correct area.Some of them are also later sold,in order to limit the number of ponies according to the rules set by Natural England. Three weeks ago,I witnessed a small near-disaster a few miles west of here.While walking , I noticed a pony roll over on his back.“Hello !” I said to him , assuming he was just rolling for fun,but he was very still and,as I got closer,I saw him kicking his legs in the air and breathing heavily.I began to properly worry

about him.Fortunately, I managed to get in touch with a Dartmoor’s Livestock Protection officer and send her a photo.The officer immediately sent a local farmer out to check on the pony.The pony had actually been trapped between two rocks.The farmer freed him,and he began to run happily around again. Dartmoor has 1,000 or so ponies,who play a critical role in creating the diversity of species in this area.Many people are working hard to preserve these ponies,and trying to come up with plans to find a sustainable(可持续的) future for one of Dartmoor’s most financially-troubled elements. 1.Why are tourists asked not to feed the ponies? A.To protect the tourists from being bitten. B.To keep the ponies off the petrol station. C.To avoid putting the ponies in danger. D.To prevent the ponies from fighting. 2.One of the purposes of the annual pony drift is ____________. A.to feed baby ponies on milk B.to control the number of ponies C.to expand the habitat for ponies D.to sell the ponies at a good price 3.What was the author’s first reaction when he saw a pony roll on its back? A.He freed it from the trap. B.He called a protection officer. C.He worried about it very much. D.He thought of it as being naughty. 4.What does the author imply about the preservation of Dartmoor’s ponies? A.It lacks people’s involvement. B.It costs a large amount of money. C.It will affect tourism in Dartmoor. D.It has caused an imbalance of species. Passage 3

(2015· 江苏高考 )In the United States alone, over 100 million cell - phones are thrown away each year. Cellphones are part of a growing mountain of electronic waste like computers and personal digital assistants. The electronic waste stream is increasing three times faster than traditional garbage as a whole. Electronic devices contain valuable metals such as gold and silver. A Swiss study reported that while the weight of electronic goods represented by precious metals was relatively small in comparison to total waste, the concentration (含量) of gold and other precious metals was higher in so-called e-waste than in naturally occurring minerals. Electronic wastes also contain many poisonous metals. Even when the machines are recycled and the harmful metals removed, the recycling process often is carried out in poor countries, in practically uncontrolled ways which allow many poisonous substances to escape into the environment. Creating products out of raw materials creates much more waste material, up to 100 times more, than the material contained in the finished products. Consider again the cell-phone, and imagine the mines that produced those metals, the factories needed to make the box and packaging (包装) it came in. Many wastes produced in the producing process are harmful as well. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency notes that most waste is dangerous in that “the production, distribution, and use of products—as well as management of the resulting waste—all result in greenhouse gas release.” Individuals can reduce their contribution by creating less waste at the start—for instance, buying reusable products and recycling. In many countries the concept of extended producer responsibility is being considered or has been put in place as an incentive(动机) for reducing waste. If producers are required to take back packaging they use to sell their products, would they reduce the packaging in the first place? Governments’ incentive to require producers to take responsibility for the packaging they produce is usually based on money. Why, they ask, should cities or towns be

responsible for paying to deal with the bubble wrap( 气泡垫) that encased your television? From the governments’ point of view, a primary goal of laws requiring extended producer responsibility is to transfer both the costs and the physical responsibility of waste management from the government and tax-payers back to the producers. 1.By mentioning the Swiss study, the author intends to tell us that ________. A.the weight of e-goods is rather small B.e-waste deserves to be made good use of C.natural minerals contain more precious metals D.the percentage of precious metals is heavy in e-waste 2.The responsibility of e-waste treatment should be extended ________. A.from producers to governments B.from governments to producers C.from individuals to distributors D.from distributors to governments 3.What does the passage mainly talk about? A.The increase in e-waste. B.The creation of e-waste. C.The seriousness of e-waste. D.The management of e-waste. Passage 4 (2014· 新课标全国Ⅰ)Passenger pigeons(旅鸽)once flew over much of the United States in unbelievable numbers.Written accounts from the 18th and 19th centuries described flocks(群)so large that they darkened the sky for hours. It was calculated that when its population reached its highest point,there were more than 3 billion passenger pigeons—a number equal to 24 to 40 percent of the total bird population in the United States,making it perhaps the most abundant bird in the world.Even as late as 1870 when their numbers had already become smaller,a flock believed to be 1 mile wide and 320 miles (about 515 kilometers) long was seen near Cincinnati.

Sadly,the abundance of passenger pigeons may have been their undoing.Where the birds were most abundant,people believed there was an ever-lasting supply and killed them by the thousands.Commercial hunters attracted them to small clearings with grain,waited until pigeons had settled to feed,then threw large nets over them,taking hundreds at a time.The birds were shipped to large cities and sold in restaurants. By the closing decades of the 19th century,the hardwood forests where passenger pigeons nested had been damaged by Americans’ need for wood,which scattered(驱 散)the flocks and forced the birds to go farther north,where cold temperatures and spring storms contributed to their decline.Soon the great flocks were gone,never to be seen again. In 1897,the state of Michigan passed a law prohibiting the killing of passenger pigeons,but by then,no sizable flocks had been seen in the state for 10 years.The last confirmed wild pigeon in the United States was shot by a boy in Pike County, Ohio, in 1900.For a time ,a few birds survived under human care.The last of them,known affectionately as Martha,died at the Cincinnati Zoological Garden on September 1,1914. 1.In the 18th and early 19th centuries,passenger pigeons ________. A.were the biggest bird in the world B.lived mainly in the south of America C.did great harm to the natural environment D.were the largest bird population in the US 2.The underlined word“undoing”probably refers to the pigeons’ ________. A.escape C.liberation B.ruin D.evolution

3.What was the main reason for people to kill passenger pigeons? A.To seek pleasure. C.To make money. B.To save other birds. D.To protect crops.

4.What can we infer about the law passed in Michigan?

A.It was ignored by the public. B.It was declared too late. C.It was unfair. D.It was strict. Passage 5 (2014· 重庆高考)One moment it was quiet and calm in the forest,the next,the air was charged with tension.The elephant had heard the distant alarm calls of animals and her mood suddenly changed.I urged the elephant deeper into the forest.We sounded like a forest fire—crackling,snapping,trailblazing.But through all the noise came a sharp warning cry.The elephant stopped and we heard it again—the tell -tale call of a spotted deer. I looked quickly around the shadows of the forest.Rays of sunlight shone through tree branches,beneath which the patchwork (交错) of green plants and shadows-within -shadows would make tiger stripes ( 条纹 ) look more attractive.Apart from an occasional noise from the elephant’s stomach,the forest was silent. Gradually,the tension slipped from our bodies.The elephant seized a nearby branch and put it into her mouth.I reached forward and gently moved my hand over the elephant’s neck;there was a soft part,free of wrinkles and hairs,behind her ear. This was my fourth time to__sense__the__aura of the forest in Corbett,although I saw no tigers in the end.Located at the foot of the Himalayan mountains,Corbett is home to about 135 Bengal tigers , but the forest seemed to be guarding their whereabouts( 出没处 ) , a silent reminder of their secrecy and rarity.Still , I was happy enough touching the elephant behind the ear.If I had so desperately wanted to see a tiger,I could have gone to a zoo.After all,spotting tigers merely confirms their beauty;tracking them can make you aware of something more. 1.Which of the following was a clear signal of alarm? A.The elephant stopped. B.A spotted deer called. C.The elephant seized a branch.

D.The forest was silent for a while. 2.The author begins his account of the tour in the forest mainly by ________. A.describing various sounds B.comparing different animals C.listing different activities D.introducing various plants 3.What does the underlined part“to sense the aura”most probably mean? A.To see the diversity. B.To enjoy the scenery. C.To feel the atmosphere. D.To experience the freedom. 4.How does the author feel after several visits to Corbett? A.Seeing a Bengal tiger is quite thrilling. B.It is very time-consuming to travel in Corbett. C.It is really worthwhile to study the animals in Corbett. D.The process of finding Bengal tigers is most appealing.

Passage 1 (2016· 湖南常德高三 3 月模拟)Whether you live in Seattle or the Sahara desert,the time has come to invest in a good raincoat or umbrella,a new study suggests. As global temperatures continue to rise,more “extreme rain” events—intense,cats -and-dogs downpours—can be expected,said the study,published Monday in the journal Nature Climate Change.And that,scientists said,means an increased flood risk,particularly for the world’s driest areas.The study challenges the idea that global warming is causing dry areas to become drier and wet areas wetter. “In both wet and dry regions,we see these great increases in heavy precipitation(冰 雹),” lead author Markus Donat,a climate scientist at the University of New South Wales,told Nature.

Donat and his team collected data from 1951 to 2010 on extreme precipitation events from 11,000 weather stations around the world,Nature reported. In that time,the number of days with “extreme precipitation” increased 1 percent to 2 percent per decade. “We found a strong relationship between global warming and an increase in rainfall,particularly in areas outside of the tropics,” Donat said in a statement. “Importantly, this research suggests we will see these extreme rainfall events increases at regional levels in dry areas,not just as an average across the globe,” Donat added. Peter Stott,a senior climate scientist at Met Office,told Climate Central that the study’s findings are important , because more violent rainfall and flooding will “challenge our capability to adapt to a rapidly changing climate.” As Nature reported,the research aligns(结盟)with a 2015 study that found global warming has led to a sharp increase in record-breaking precipitation events.Donat told Nature that his study should come as a warning to world governments. 1.Which of the following is one of the study’s findings? A.Global warming is causing dry areas to become drier and wet areas wetter. B.Extreme rain events can be expected at regional levels in dry areas. C.Extreme rainfall events increase at regional levels in wet areas. D.Rainfall increases particularly in the tropics areas. 2.Why does Scott think the findings are important? A.The research aligns with a 2015 study. B.They are about extreme precipitation events. C.They remind us to adjust to rapid climate changes. D.The study involves many famous climate scientists. 3.The purpose of the study is to ________. A.encourage investors to start business in Seattle or the Sahara desert B.persuade people to take a raincoat or an umbrella with them C.challenge the previous findings of research on climate

D.warn world governments to focus on global warming Passage 2 (2016· 陕西宝鸡市高三教学质量检测)Beijing has been suffering this year’s most severe smog since Friday , which has forced schools to close and traffic confusion.Thick,choking smog has enveloped the capital for five days,with the air quality index( 指标 )in many monitoring stations increasing to 500 , the highest possible reading.The city government encourages people to stay indoors when the reading is higher than 300. Concentration of PM 2.5—particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns that causes health risks—was 689 at 5 pm on Tuesday in some southern Beijing monitoring stations,down from the peak reading of 945 on Monday. The capital has also seen more road accidents due to the poor visibility,and traffic jam was around the city through most of Monday.Many expressways linking Beijing and neighboring cities in Hebei province were closed for hours. The city environmental watchdog sent inspection teams to supervise measures to limit emissions(排放)on Tuesday.Of 545 companies they inspected,12 had acted against orange alert restrictions,the capital’s environmental protection bureau said. For example , a Dongfeng Nissan factory to pause word on Tuesday.And a construction site at the China University of Political Science and Law left piles of building materials uncovered which could release dust into the air. All companies and construction sites against the regulations would be severely punished,the bureau said. The smog covering a vast area across northern China has been caused by unfavorable weather,with no wind and high humidity,and an increase of coal in the heating season,the Ministry of Environmental Protection said. 1.We can infer from the first paragraph that ________. A.the smog is the most severe on Friday B.people use envelopes in the capital C.people stay at home doing some reading

D.the smog has taken place several times in Beijing this winter 2.How are paragraphs 4 and 5 developed? A.Using examples and data. B.Describing processes. C.Making comparisons. D.Analyzing causes. 3.Where does this text probably come from? A.A sport magazine C.A book review B.A newspaper report D.A museum guide Passage 3 (2016· 广西桂林、崇左市高三下学期 4 月联考)The way we cook is important.In many countries,the two sources of heat used for cooking are natural gas or electric stoves.The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that millions of people are dying every year from indoor air pollution.The WHO finds that poor cooking,heating and lighting technologies are killing millions of people each year. Indoor air pollution results from the use of dangerous fuels and cook stoves in the home.WHO officials say nearly three billion people are unable to use clean fuels and technologies for cooking,heating and lighting.And they say more than seven million people die from exposure to indoor or outdoor air pollution each year.Of that number,the WHO says about 4.3 million people die from household air pollution given off by simple biomass(生物燃料 ) and coal stoves. These findings show that the home use of poisonous fuels is to blame for many of these deaths. These fuels include wood,coal,animal waste and so on.Carlos Dora is Coordinator in the WHO’s Department of Public Health,Environmental and Social Determinants of Health.He says people should not use unprocessed coal and kerosene (煤油) fuel indoors.He says opening a window or door to let out the harmful air will not correct the situation.It will only pollute the outdoors.“New technologies and clean fuels can rid people of this problem.”

The United Nations found that more than 95 percent of families in sub-Saharan Africa depend on solid fuels for cooking.It says huge populations in India,China and Latin American countries,such as Cuatemala and Peru,are also at risk. Nigel Bruce is a professor of Public Health at the University of Liverpool.He says researchers are developing good stoves and other equipment to burn fuels in a more efficient way.“There are already many technologies for clean fuels available now.An effective and reasonably low-cost ethanol(酒精) stove that is made by Dometic (a Sweden-based company) is now being tested out.Another interesting development is electric induction stoves.” In India,you can buy an induction(电磁) stove for about $8.And in Africa you can buy a solar lamp for less than $1. 1.According to Carlos Dora,what is the best solution to indoor air pollution? A.People should use an effective air cleaner. B.People should use new technologies and clean fuels. C.People should open a window or door to let out the harmful air. D.People should prevent themselves from being exposed to harmful air. 2.How is Paragraph 2 mainly developed? A.By listing numbers. B.By following time order. C.By describing a process. D.By making classifications. 3.What can we learn from the passage? A.Burning solid fuels can help limit indoor air pollution. B.People can buy ethanol stoves made by Dometic in India. C.There are already two technologies for clean fuels available for use. D.Most of the deaths from indoor pollution are in developing countries. 4.Which would be the best title for the passage? A.The Way We Cook Is Changing B.Cause of indoor Air Pollution C.Indoor Air Pollution Kills Millions Each Year

D.The Development of Electric Stoves Passage 4 (2016· 超级全能生 26 省联考甲卷)Britain wants to close all of its coal-fired power plants by 2025 and lower their output from 2023 , the government said on Wednesday,making it the first major economy to put a date on shutting down polluting coal plants to reduce carbon emissions(排放). Amber Rudd,UK secretary of state for energy and climate change,was scheduled to set out further details in a speech later on Wednesday that will seek to encourage the building of new gas and nuclear power plants instead. Coal-fired power plants provided around a third of Britain’s electricity last year but many of the aging plants have been due to close over the next decade due to tightening European Union environmental standards. Now a consultation starting in the spring next year will set out proposals to close by 2025 all coal - fired power stations that are unabated( 猛烈如前的 )—plants not equipped to take and store their carbon emissions—and restrict their usage from 2023. “It cannot be satisfactory for an advanced economy like the UK to be relying on polluting,carbon-intensive 50-year-old coal-fired power stations,” Rudd was scheduled to say,according to extract of the speech she had planned to deliver at the Institution of Civil Engineers. Drax Group,operator of one of Europe’s largest coal and biomass-fired power plants,could see the remaining coal units close two years earlier if the government sticks to the 2025 closure date,analysts Jefferies said. “By putting a specific date by which coal will be phased__out,the government will naturally focus attention on security of supply,”the analysts said in a research note. 1.Britain decided to close its coal-fired power plants to ________. A.keep carbon emission under control B.develop the first major economy C.lower the output of coal-related products D.set an example to other European countries

2.The details in Amber Rudd’s speech can be that ________. A.the aging plants will provide most of Britain’s electricity B.the supply gap will be filled with new type of plants C.the aging plants used have been built for one decade D.the state of energy and climate change will be focused 3.British government’s plan is to ________. A.well equip coal-fired power plants according to standards B.set out proposals to lower output of these aging plants from 2023 C.use new power plants to provide Britain’s one third electricity D.put a specific date to deliver the speech at the Institute of Civil 4.What does the phrase “phase out” mean in the passage? A.take place sometime C.leave at some time B.come around regularly D.be supposed to happen

Passage 1 (2015· 南昌调研)Beijing plans to keep a tight rule on pollution by cutting emissions caused by industrial production and vehicles when it hosts the APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting in November. From November 3 to 12, the city will restrict the use of private vehicles based on even -and-odd-numbered license plates,reducing the use of such vehicles by 35 percent, the municipal(市政府的) traffic committee said on Thursday. All vehicles transporting construction waste and dangerous chemicals will be banned from the capital’s roads during this period, but the restriction will not apply to buses, taxis and other vehicles such as police cars. The measures are similar to those introduced from July 20 to Sept. 20 in 2008 during the Beijing Olympic Games. “The number of passengers using public transport will increase by 3 million a day ,” said Li Shaoming, deputy director of the Beijing Traffic Management Bureau.

During the 10 days, 400 additional buses will be used to transport commuters to meet the increased demands. The municipal government has also drawn up eight plans to reduce industrial pollution during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. Zhuang Zhidong,deputy director of the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau , said “From Nov.3 , production at some companies listed by the government will be suspended for 10 days.” Work will also be suspended at all construction sites and on demolition projects during this period. “More important,Beijing will work with its neighbors to control emissions,” Zhuang said,adding that there will be regular discussion on air pollution among six governments. Neighboring authorities in Tianjin Municipality, Hebei, Shanxi and Shandong

Province and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region will operate strict pollution control measures over the 10 days. Media reports said that from Nov. 7 to 12, employee departments, institutes and social organizations in Beijing can have a holiday, except for departments dealing with the APEC meeting and city management. 1.What can we learn from the passage? A.Cars can’t be used in Beijing from November 3 to 12. B.Not all the people can have a holiday from November 7 to 12. C.Citizens will choose buses as their only means of transport. D.All the neighboring provinces will take the same measures. 2.What is the purpose of the vehicle restriction? A.To reduce the emissions caused by vehicles. B.To call on people to use public transport. C.To advocate a new lifestyle. D.To display the friendliness of Beijing people. 3.The underlined word “suspended” (Paragraph 8) probably means “________”.

A.delayed

B.continued

C.completed

D.reduced

4.Where can you probably read the passage? A.A travel guide. C.A newspaper. B.A research paper. D.A literature magazine Passage 2 (2015· 齐齐哈尔模拟)According to the UN Intergovernmental Panel (专家咨询组) on Climate Change, global temperatures have risen by approximately 0.6 ℃ in the past century, caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases produced by human activities , such as the burning of fossil fuels and

deforestation.Temperatures are to increase between 1.6℃ and 5.8℃ in the next century, accompanied by sea level rise and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. The best available evidence suggests that climate changes since the 1970s may already be causing over 150,000 deaths annually, and that greenhouse gas emissions would increase disease burdens in the coming decades. The risks are

concentrated in the poorest population, who have contributed least to the problem. The Kyoto Protocol ( 京都议定书 ) is signed by 128 nations, and commits the participating industrialized countries to cutting emissions of greenhouse gases by over 5% below 1990 level by the period of 2008-2012. “Over 600 thousand people died in weather - related disasters in the 1990s.Temperature and rainfall influence the rates of diseases and infections including malaria,and malnutrition,which together cause over 3.5 million deaths a year.The Kyoto Protocol is the first step towards protecting the climate system,which exerts such a strong influence on our health”,said Dr Kerstin Leitner,Assistant Director -General for Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments. While acting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it is also essential to protect vulnerable (脆弱的) communities from the effects of climate changes.WHO works to promote measures such as protection from malaria and other climate sensitive diseases, and reliable access to clean water and sanitation, for people in the most vulnerable developing countries. Increasing disease control efforts will also help to

protect current and future generations from the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. 1.According to the passage, what is the reason for the rise of global temperatures? A.The burning of fossil fuels. B.The rise of sea level. C.Extreme weather disasters. D.The emissions of greenhouse gases. 2.Which of the following is true? A.Weather-related disasters caused over 3.5 million deaths. B.The climate system has a deep impact on human health. C.The members of the Kyoto Protocol are all industrialized countries. D.The poorest population are to blame because they contribute least to the problem. 3.In order to protect communities,WHO takes some measures except ________. A.preventing diseases caused by climate changes B.helping to provide clean water C.aiding to offer sanitation D.gaining access to vulnerable developing countries 4.What does the passage mainly talk about? A.Climate changes and the effects on human health. B.Climate changes cause over 15,000 deaths annually. C.WHO promotes measures such as protection from malaria. D.The Kyoto Protocol helps to protect human health.

?科普知识类
词义猜测题解题技巧(Ⅱ) 3.根据原始含义和所在句语境推断熟词新义 众所周知,英语单词词义丰富,搭配灵活,一些熟词在特定语境中常产生新含 义。 (1)有些新含义与原含义没有联系,需要借助上下文进行推断。 (2)有些新含义既来自原含义又体现新特点,只有将原含义和新语境有机结合, 在整体思维、综合考虑的基础上才能准确推断。

【典例】 The way most of us spend our mornings is exactly opposite to the conditions that promote flexible,open?minded thinking.Imaginative ideas are most likely to come to us when we’re unfocused.If you are one of those energetic morning people,your most inventive time comes in the early evening when you are relaxed.Sleepy people’s lack of focus leads to an increase in creative problem solving.By not giving yourself time to tune__into__your__wandering__mind,you’re missing out on the surprising solutions it may offer. By “tune into your wandering mind”(in Para.2),the author means“________”. A.wander into the wild B.listen to a beautiful tune C.switch to the traffic channel D.stop concentrating on anything 解析 词义猜测题。根据语境可知,若一味集中注意力而无暇放松,将错失有

创造性的解决问题的方法。D 项意为“不将注意力集中在某事物上 ”,符合语 境。 答案 D

句意猜测题通常需要考生猜测一个具有概括性的句子或格言、谚语等。这要求 考生通过阅读文章,用合适的语句对其进行直接的或解释性的描述,难度略 大。 做这类题时,考生可在对上下文语境有一定了解的基础上,运用排除法做题, 先排除那些与文章基调不同的选项,而正确选项往往是对上下文的总结和概 括,与文章基调一致。 4.依据语境逻辑推断普通词汇的特殊含义 一些非常常见、十分普通的词汇在特殊场合会产生特殊的含义,解题时应认真 阅读,仔细分析特定词汇所在句和邻近句,弄清作者的表达目的和写作意图, 揭示其在特定词汇使用上的言外之意,从而正确推断该词的真正含义。 【典例】

When Frida Kahlo’s paintings were on show in London , a poet described her paintings as “a ribbon(丝带)around a bomb”.Such comments seem to suggest Kahlo had a big influence on the art world of her time.Sadly , she is actually a__much__bigger__name today than she was during her time. What does the phrase “a much bigger name”in Paragraph 1 most nearly mean? A.A far better artist. B.A far more gifted artist. C.A much stronger person. D.A much more famous person. 解析 墨西哥女画家弗里达· 卡罗,身残志不残,创作了无数优秀作品。虽然在

有生之年其作品未能受到应有的关注,但她最终于上世纪 70 年代底得到了国际 声誉。name 意为“名字”,但在本文提供的语境中其意义变为“名声”。 答案 D 5.略过生词 对于阅读理解中的生词,如果是人名、地名、国家名、组织机构名等次要信 息,我们大可不必过分重视。事实上,不知道这些单词的意思不一定会影响我 们对整句或全文的理解,很多时候更不会影响我们后面的解题。如: On his right the gentleman wore a gauntlet of heavy leather.如果后面没有特别要求考查本 句,那么我们暂时并不需要确切地知道 gauntlet 一词的含义,通过本句的语境知 道它是戴在手上的用皮革制成的某种东西即可(防护手套)。 6.学会只猜测生词的大概意思,而不求其准确含义 The Asian gibbon,like other apes,especially adapts to life in trees. 解析 在这句话中,考生只要猜出 gibbon 是 apes(类人猿)的一种就行了,没必要 知道其准确意思。 做这种类型的题,最重要的是根据词、短语、句子所在的上下文语境来判断其 意义。因此熟练掌握一些猜词技巧是做好这类题的关键。命题者在出这类题时 惯用常规词义来麻痹考生,我们要特别注意熟词生义,切不可脱离语境主观臆 断。 相信过了词汇这一关,阅读理解一定会取得高分的。赶快试试吧。

Passage 1 (2016· 四川高考)A warm drink of milk before bed has long been the best choice for those wanting a good night’s sleep.But now a study has found it really does help people nod off—if it is milked from a cow at night. Researchers have discovered that“night milk” contains more melatonin(褪黑激素), which has been proven to help people feel sleepy and reduce anxiety. The study, by researchers from Seoul, South Korea, involved mice being fed with dried milk powder made from cows milked both during the day and at night. Those given night milk, which contained 10 times the amount of melatonin, were less active and less anxious than those fed with the milk collected during daytime, according to the study published in The Journal of Medicinal Food. Night milk quickened the start of sleep and caused the mice to sleep longer. While the effect of cows milk harvested at different time has not been tested on humans up to now, taking melatonin drugs has been suggested to those who are struggling to fall asleep at night. Previous studies have also indicated that milk can be excellent for helping sleep because of the calcium content, which helps people to relax. Milk is also sugar - free and additive - free with nutritionists recommending skimmed milk as the best choice before bed as it is the least fattening.The more fat you take in before bedtime, the greater burden you will put on your body at night. 1.According to the text, the mice fed with daytime milk________. A.started sleep more easily B.were more anxious C.were less active D.woke up later 2.Which of the following is true of melatonin according to the text? A.It’s been tested on mice for ten times.

B.It can make people more energetic. C.It exists in milk in great amount. D.It’s used in sleeping drugs. 3.What can be a suitable title for the text? A.Night Milk and Sleep B.Fat Sugar and Health C.An Experiment on Mice D.Milk Drinking and Health 4.How does the author support the theme of the text? A.By giving examples. B.By stating arguments. C.By explaining statistical data. D.By providing research results. Passage 2 (2016· 全国Ⅲ)Bad news sells.If it bleeds, it leads.No news is good news, and good news is no news.Those are the classic rules for the evening broadcasts and the morning papers.But now that information is being spread and monitored(监控) in different ways, researchers are discovering new rules.By tracking people’s e-mails and online posts, scientists have found that good news can spread faster and farther than disasters and sob stories. “The ‘if it bleeds’ rule works for mass media,” says Jonah Berger, a scholar at the University of Pennsylvania.“They want your eyeballs and don’t care how you’re feeling.But when you share a story with your friends, you care a lot more how they react.You don’t want them to think of you as a Debbie Downer.” Researchers analyzing word-of-mouth communication—e-mails,Web posts and reviews, face-to-face conversations—found that it tended to be more positive than negative( 消 极 的 ), but that didn’t necessarily mean people preferred positive news.Was positive news shared more often simply because people experienced more good things than bad things? To test for that possibility, Dr.Berger looked at how people spread a particular set of news stories: thousands of articles on The New York

Times’ website.He and a Penn colleague analyzed the “most e-mailed” list for six months.One of his first finds was that articles in the science section were much more likely to make the list than non-science articles.He found that science amazed Times’ readers and made them want to share this positive feeling with others. Readers also tended to share articles that were exciting or funny, or that inspired negative feelings like anger or anxiety, but not articles that left them merely sad.They needed to be aroused(激发) one way or the other, and they preferred good news to bad.The more positive an article, the more likely it was to be shared, as Dr.Berger explains in his new book, “Contagious: Why Things Catch On.” 1.What do the classic rules mentioned in the text apply to? A.News reports. C.Private e-mails. B.Research papers. D.Daily conversations.

2.What can we infer about people like Debbie Downer? A.They’re socially inactive. B.They’re good at telling stories. C.They’re inconsiderate of others. D.They’re careful with their words. 3.Which tended to be the most e-mailed according to Dr.Berger’s research? A.Sports news. C.Personal accounts. B.Science articles. D.Financial reviews.

4.What can be a suitable title for the text? A.Sad Stories Travel Far Wide. B.Online News Attracts More People. C.Reading Habits Change with the Times. D.Good News Beats Bad on Social Networks.

Passage 1 (2015· 全国Ⅱ)Your house may have an effect on your figure.Experts say the way you design your home could play a role in whether you pack on the pounds or keep them

off.You can make your environment work for you instead of against you.Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan. Open the curtains and turn up the lights.Dark environments are more likely to encourage overeating , for people are often less self - conscious( 难 为情 )when they’re in poorly lit places—and so more likely to eat lots of food.If your home doesn’t have enough window light , get more lamps and flood the place with brightness. Mind the colors.Research suggests warm colors fuel our appetites.In one study, people who ate meals in a blue room consumed 33 percent less than those in a yellow or red room.Warm colors like yellow make food appear more appetizing,while cold colors make us feel less hungry.So when it’s time to repaint,go blue. Don’t forget the clock—or the radio.People who eat slowly tend to consume about 70 fewer calories(卡路里) per meal than those who rush through their meals.Begin keeping track of the time,and try to make dinner last at least 30 minutes.And while you’re at it,actually sit down to eat.If you need some help slowing down,turn on relaxing music.It makes you less likely to rush through a meal. Downsize the dishes.Big serving bowls and plates can easily make us fat.We eat about 22 percent more when using a 12-inch plate instead of a 10-inch plate.When we choose a large spoon over a smaller one,total intake(摄入) jumps by 14 percent.And we’ll pour about 30 percent more liquid into a short,wide glass than a tall,skinny glass. 1.The text is especially helpful for those who care about________. A.their home comforts B.their body shape C.house buying D.healthy diets 2.A home environment in blue can help people________. A.digest food better B.reduce food intake

C.burn more calories D.regain their appetites 3.What are people advised to do at mealtimes? A.Eat quickly. B.Play fast music. C.Use smaller spoons. D.Turn down the lights. 4.What can be a suitable title for the text? A.Is Your House Making You Fat? B.Ways of Serving Dinner C.Effects of Self-Consciousness D.Is Your Home Environment Relaxing? Passage 2 (2015· 北京高考) Life in the Clear Transparent animals let light pass through their bodies the same way light passes through a window. These animals typically live between the surface of the ocean and a depth of about 3,300 feet—as far as most light can reach. Most of them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch. Sonke Johnsen, a scientist in biology, says, “These animals live through their life alone. They never touch anything unless they’re eating it, or unless something is eating them.” And they are as clear as glass. How does an animal become see through? It’s trickier than you might think. The objects around you are visible because they interact with light. Light typically travels in a straight line. But some materials slow and scatter(散射) light, bouncing it away from its original path. Others absorb light, stopping it dead in its tracks. Both scattering and absorption make an object look different from other objects around it, so you can see it easily. But a transparent object doesn’t absorb or scatter light, at least not very much. Light can pass through it without bending or stopping. That means a transparent

object doesn’t look very different from the surrounding air or water. You don’t see it—you see the things behind it. To become transparent, an animal needs to keep its body from absorbing or scattering light. Living materials can stop light because they contain pigments(色素) that absorb specific colors of light. But a transparent animal doesn’t have pigments, so its tissues won’t absorb light. According to Johnsen, avoiding absorption is actually easy. The real challenge is preventing light from scattering. Animals are built of many different materials—skin, fat, and more—and light moves through each at a different speed.Every time light moves into a material with a new speed, it bends and scatters. Transparent animals use different tricks to fight scattering. Some animals are simply very small or extremely flat. Without much tissue to scatter light, it is easier to be see-through. Others build a large, clear mass of non-living jelly-like(果冻状的)material and spread themselves over it. Larger transparent animals have the biggest challenge, because they have to make all the different tissues in their bodies slow down light exactly as much as water does. They need to look uniform. But how they’re doing it is still unknown. One thing is clear for these larger animals, staying transparent is an active process. When they die, they turn a non-transparent milky white. 1.According to Paragraph 1, transparent animals ________. A.stay in groups B.can be easily damaged C.appear only in deep ocean D.are beautiful creatures 2.The underlined word “dead” in Paragraph 3 means ________. A.silently C.regularly B.gradually D.completely

3.One way for animal to become transparent is to ________. A.change the direction of light travel B.gather materials to scatter light

C.avoid the absorption of light D.grow bigger to stop light 4.The last paragraph tells us that larger transparent animals ________. A.move more slowly in deep water B.stay see-through even after death C.produce more tissues for their survival D.take effective action to reduce light spreading Passage 3 (2015· 陕西高考)Parents who help their children with homework may actually be bringing down their school grades.Other forms of parental__involvement,__including volunteering at school and observing a child’s class,also fail to help,according to the most recent study on the topic. The findings challenge a key principle of modern parenting ( 养育子女 ) where schools expect them to act as partners in their children’s education.Previous generations concentrated on getting children to school on time, fed,dressed and ready to learn. Keith Robinson,the author of the study,said,“I really don’t know if the public is ready for this but there are some ways parents can be involved in their kids’ education that leads to declines in their academic performance.One of the things that was consistently negative was parents’ help with homework.”Robinson suggested that may be because parents themselves struggle to understand the tasks. “They may either not remember the material their kids are studying now,or in some cases never learnt it themselves,but they’re still offering advice.” Robinson assessed parental involvement performance and found one of the most damaging things a parent could do was to punish their children for poor marks.In general,about 20% of parental involvement was positive,about 45% negative and the rest statistically insignificant. Common sense suggests it was a good thing for parents to get involved because “children with good academic success do have involved parents” , admitted Robinson.But he argued that this did not prove parental involvement was the root

cause of that success.“A big surprise was that Asian-American parents whose kids are doing so well in school hardly involved.They took a more reasonable approach , conveying to their children how success at school could improve their lives.”

1 . The underlined expression “parental involvement” in Paragraph 1 probably means________. A.parents’ expectation on children’s health B.parents’ participation in children’s education C.parents’ control over children’s life D.parents’ plan for children’s future 2.What is the major finding of Robinson’s study? A.Modern parents raise children in a more scientific way. B.Punishing kids for bad marks is mentally damaging. C.Parental involvement is not so beneficial as expected. D.Parents are not able to help with children’s homework. 3.The example of Asian-American parents implies that parents should________. A.help children realize the importance of schooling B.set a specific life goal for their children C.spend more time improving their own lives D.take a more active part in school management Passage 4 (2015· 重庆高考)The values of artistic works,according to cultural relativism(相对 主义),are simply reflections of local social and economic conditions.Such a view, however,fails to explain the ability of some works of art to excite the human mind across cultures and through centuries. History has witnessed the endless productions of Shakespearean plays in every major language of the world.It is never rare to find that Mozart packs Japanese concert halls,as Japanese painter Hiroshige does Paris galleries.Unique works of this kind are different from today’s popular art ,even if they began as works of popular art.They have set themselves apart in their timeless appeal and will probably be enjoyed for centuries into the future.

In a 1757 essay,the philosopher David Hume argued that because“the general principles of taste are uniform(不变的) in human nature,”the value of some works of art might be essentially permanent.He observed that Homer was still admired after two thousand years.Works of this type,he believed,spoke to deep and unvarying features of human nature and could continue to exist over centuries. Now researchers are applying scientific methods to the study of the universality of art.For example , evolutionary psychology is being used by literary scholars to explain the long-lasting themes and plot devices in fiction.The structures of musical pieces are now open to experimental analysis as never before.Research findings seem to indicate that the creation by a great artist

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