必修一 Unit 5
Nelson Mandel-a modern hero
1.______ n. 质量；品质；性质 →_______ n.数量 quality quantity 2. mean v意味着；打算 adj.___________ →meaning ._________ 吝啬的；卑
鄙的 意思 方式 n.____ →means n.____ 3. ______ adj.积极的；活跃的 →activity n.活动；社交活动 _______ active action →_______ n.行动；动作 4. generous adj慷慨大方的 →generosity 慷慨;大方 ._________ n._______ 自私的 5. selfish adj._____→selfishness 自私 →selfless无私的 n. ___ self adj.___ → ____ n. 自我 to 6.______ vt.（与__连用）献身；专心于→_______ adj. 献 devoted devote 身的；专心的→________ n. 献身；专心 devotion 原则；原理 建立；建设 7. found vt.___________ 8. principle n.____________ 活的；在现场的 9. livelihood n.__________ →live 生活；生机 活泼的；生动的 adj.&adv.__________ 活着的（不作定语） 生计；活着的 →lively adj.___________ →alive
安宁的；和平的 人类 10. peaceful adj. ___________ 11. mankind n. ________ 12. giant adj. ___________ 13. leap v. 跳跃；飞跃 ____________ 巨大的 同盟；社团 14. fee n._____________ 15. league n.__________ 费用 指导 引导；导游；指南 16. guidance n. _________ →guide v.&n.____________ 违法的 17. legal adj. 合法的；法律的 → illegal adj.__________ ____________ 青少年 18. youth adj._____ →（teen; teenager; youngster; adolescent） 阶段；舞台 19. stage n.____________ 20.escape vi.逃脱；泄露 ______ voter 21. vote ______ v.& n. 投票；选举 →______ n.投票者 22.attack v. 攻击；抨击→attach v.__________ →attain v. ______ 附上：依恋 ________ 达到；获得 → attract v. ________ 吸引 猛烈；暴力 猛烈的；暴力的 23.violence n.__________ →violent adj.____________ equality 24. equal adj.相等的；平等的→________ n.相等；平等 → ______ unequal ________ adj.不相等的；不平等 25.unfair adj.不公正的；不公平的→______ adj.公正的；公平的 _____ fair
26. willing adj.____________ →will v.&n._____________ 乐于的；情愿的 将：意志；愿望 情愿 不乐于的；不情愿的 willingness n._______ →unwilling adj._____________ 27. blanket n. ______ 28. president n.总统；部长；总裁 _____________ 毯子 educate education educated 29. ________ vt.教育→_________ n. 教育 →________ adj.
beg beggar 30. ______ vi. 请求；乞求→_______ n.乞丐 相对的 ；亲人 交往；联系 31. relative adj.&n.____________ →relation n.___________ 相关的 叙述；把……联系起来 →related adj._________ →relate v._______________ 恐怖 使…恐怖 恐怖的 32. terror n.____→terrify v.______ →terrified adj.______ 残忍 残忍的 33. cruelty n.______ →cruel adj._________ 34.reward n.& v. 酬劳→__________ adj.值得做的；有报酬的 ______ rewarding award →_______n.&v.颁奖；奖品 反…;抗… 句子；判处…刑罚 35.sentence n.&v.________________ 36. anti- _________
1. out of work _______ 2. as a matter of fact______ 3. blow up _________ 4. turn______ 求助于 5. ______ trouble处在困境中 6. lose heart ________ 7. come to power_________ 8. set up _______ 9. be sentenced to death__10.___...into prison把…投进监狱 11. fight ____与…作斗争 12. be ____ in 积极参加 13. _______. 愿意做某事 14. in reward ___作为…回报 15. answer violence with violence_______ 16. be free ___免去…之苦 17. ___ 胜任；与…平等 18. vote _____投票支持某人 19. ____.献身于；专心于 20. believe in ____________
1. 失业 2.事实上 3.使冲气；爆炸 4. to 5. in 7 当权 8. 建立 9. 被判死刑 10. throw/ put 12.active 13. be willing to do . 14.以暴制暴 17. be equal to 18.for 19. be devoted to 6.丧失信心 11.against 15. for 16. from 20.信任；信仰
1) Whatever great difficulty we meet, we’ll never
【答案】lose heart 2) If you can’t finish the work on time, you’ll be .
3) Nobody seems to understand it, I don’t know who to ______. 4) She has been in work again. 5) People expect to environment. 【答案】turn to for a year and is looking forward to being
【答案】out of work
pollution and live in a pleasant
【答案】be free from
6) —— I thought you wouldn’t mind.? ——Well, I don’t; but you should have asked me first. 【答案】as a matter of fact
7) Several people were killed and many were hurt when a bomb at the busy street. 【答案】blew up 8) As soon as he arrived in Paris, he had done. for the wrongs his family 【答案】was put in prison
9) As a Jew, Einstein was forced to leave his homeland after Hitler . 【答案】came to power 10) The government has a working party to look into the problem of drug abuse. 【答案】set up 11) He death because of killing someone on purpose. 【答案】was sentenced to 12) The women workers should do the same work. the men in pay since they 【答案】be equal to
◆活学活用 用上述动词的适当形式填空。? 1._________ in a most famous university in the United States, George formed a special way to solve the problems he came across and finally became an outstanding scientist. 2.The People，s Republic of China _______ in 1949 by Mao Zedong and the old revolutionaries.? 3.The United States __________ by some terrorists on September 11,2001.?
4.Tom __________ for having saved an old man with a cash bonus.?
5.__________to his husband, she never makes close
friends with other men.? 6.The criminal managed __________ from the country after the court __________ him to life imprisonment.? 答案： 1.Having been educated attacked sentenced 4.was rewarded 2.was founded 3.was 6.to escape, 5.Devoted
1. He fought for his country to be free from the UK in a peaceful way. (P33)?
fight for 为……而战 fight back 还击，忍住 fight against 与…作战，和…作斗争 fight with 与…作战，与…并肩作战
【高手过招】 根据汉语提示完成句子： 1. You have to _______________.你必须为你的权利而奋斗 2. If we _____________(如果我们都同污染做斗争), we will have a cleaner world. 【答案】 1. fight for your rights. 2. fight against pollution
2. A great person is someone who devotes his / her life to helping others.
【高手过招】用devote完成句子 1. The idea for the new machine came to Mr. Baker while he was devoted to ________________________（当他专注于） his invention. 2.She devoted herself entirely to her research ________________________________________（她把一生都 奉献给了研究事业）and it earned her a good reputation in her field.
object to 反对 attend to 处理；注意听；照顾 look forward to 期待 be opposed to 反对 devote… to 贡献给… stick to 坚持 lead to 导致 live up to 达到；符合 look up to 尊敬 contribute to有助于 be related to 与…有关 see to 注意；务必；处理； refer to 提到； 指的是 turn to 翻到；转向；求助于 get down to 着手干某事 keep to坚守，坚持 be equal to 与相等；胜任 belong to 属于 pay attention to 注意到 date back to 追溯到 attach...to…使附属，使依恋 ；认为…有重要性 appeal to 使…感兴趣；对…有吸引力 be/get used/accustomed to习惯于 come to谈到；合计；苏醒；突然出现在脑海
1.----How did you like Nick’s performance last night? ----To be honest, his singing didn’t _______to me much A. appeal B . belong C refer D. occur 2.This is the very way I’ve been looking forward ______rid of the pollution. A. to get B. to getting C. to to get D. to have got 3. Parents ____ much importance to education. They will do their best to give their children that priceless gift. A. attach B. pay C. link D. apply 4. Had he her promise, she would have made it to Yale University. A. looked up to B. lived up to C. kept up with D. come up with 5.The good thing about children is that they ____ very easily to new environments. A. adapt B. appeal C. attach D. apply
3) The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. ※ see的特殊用法： 时间/地点+see/witness+事件: (时代/地方等)历经，见证某事
※ see 表示“看到，看见”时的考点主要有： (1) see sb. do表示看到了某个人做的整个动作，强调结果。 (2) see sb. doing表示看到某人正在做某事，强调过程。 (3) see sth. done 表示被动，看到某事被做。 【高手过招】用see的适当形式填空 1. The year 2002 saw remarkable changes in Shanghai's ____ landscape. 2. ---You are drinking too much. is seeing ---Only at home. No one _________me but you.
4. vote vt.& vi.投票，选举 n．投票；选票；表决 vote for 投票赞成 vote against 投票反对 vote on 投票表决 vote through 投票通过 put...to the vote 付诸表决，裁决 1). We voted Democrat in the last election. 2). We’ll listen to the arguments on both sides and then vote on it. 3). The votes are still being counted.
1). The suggestion was voted by a large majority. 2). Shall we take a vote the question? 3). The issue was put the vote. 4). Was the vote or the matter? Keys: 1). through
4). for; against
5. equal adj. 相等的；平等的
n．对手；匹敌 v. 等于
搭配 be equal to胜任；相等；合适 be equal in在…上平等 be without equal/have no equal无与伦比；无敌；无比 A equals B A等于B (1)All men are born equal. (2)They are quite equal ___ ability. in (3)She __________ the task. is equal to equally 派生：________ adv.平等地，同等地
equality ________ n．平等，同等
unequal ________ adj.不相等的，不平等的 equality (4)In some countries，what is called ________ doesn’t really equal mean________ rights for all people. （equal）
6. escape v．& n． 逃脱；逃生；泄露 (1) escape from 从……逃脱；逃避 escape doing 逃避做某事 escape death 死里逃生 escape one’s notice/attention 逃过某人的注意 (2) a narrow escape幸免于难；侥幸逃脱；九死一生 make one’s escape 逃离；溜走
(1) More than once he ____________________ from being had a narrow escape eaten by sharks. 他有好几次差点被鲨鱼吃掉。 (2)The party was boring—we couldn’t wait to _________________. 聚会很无聊，我们迫不及待地要溜走。 make our escape (3) He narrowly escaped being drowned ____________________. 他险些被淹死。 (4)He narrowly ____________________ in the accident. escaped being hurt 他在意外事件中差一点受伤。
7．reward n. 奖赏
e.g. They rewarded him for his great help with a gift of money. Good results rewarded her efforts. ＝Her efforts were rewarded by (with) good results. 搭配 (1)reward sb. for (doing) sth.因某事而奖赏某人
(2)reawrd sb. with sth.用某物回报某人 (3)in/as a reward for sth.为了奖赏…；作为对…的报答 (4) in reward=in return 作为回报 (5)receive/be given a reward for... 因…而得到奖赏 拓展 award vt.奖励 n．奖品 award sb. sth.使某人获得……奖品 sth. be awarded to sb. 某物被授予某人
reward (1)Is this how you ________ me for my help? rewarded (2)She ________ him ________ a smile. with (3)He received a medal in reward for his bravery. (4)He was ________ the first prize. awarded (5)His persistence was rewarded when the car finally started. （6）We will offer a(n) of ten thousand dollars for information about the case. A.award B.prize C.reward D.praise
v．判决 (condemn) n. 句子；判决，宣判 to sth 判处…刑罚
to do sth. 判处某人做某事 be sentenced to...被判……
eg. He received a heavy sentence. The structure of the sentence is strange. e.x. (1)他因参与犯罪被判处三年徒刑。 was sentenced to three years He ___________________________in prison for his part in the crime. (2)He was sentenced to six years in prison.(同义句转换) __________________________________________________ ______________________
(1)in trouble 处于不幸(苦恼，困境)之中
e.g. Elias went to see Mandela when he was in trouble.
ask for/look for trouble 自找麻烦,自讨苦吃? make trouble捣乱 have trouble (in）doing sth. 做某事很费力 get into trouble 陷入困境? get out of trouble摆脱困难 take the trouble to do sth. 不怕费事尽心做某事 put sb to the trouble of doing sth. 给某人增添做 某事的麻烦
(1)I’m sorry ____ working out such a difficult figure. (2)Don’t ____ to break the rules of the company.? (3)Jack _____ because he killed the master’s pet dog. (4)Our teachers ___great __collect all the information for us. (5)I’m sorry to say that you don’t give us any help. Instead, you are ____. (6)Don’t hesitate to come to me whenever you___.
答案: (1)to have put you to the trouble of (2)ask for trouble (3)got into trouble/was in trouble (4)took trouble to (5)making trouble (6)are in trouble?
(2) put…sb. in prison 把…投入监狱
e.g. It was very dangerous because if I was caught I could be put in prison.
break (out of) prison越狱? be in prison被监禁? be taken to prison被关进监狱? put/cast/throw/send sb. in prison把…投入监狱?
◆即学即练 选用上述短语完成下列小片段。? Tom ___once ____ for killing his wife. After he ___for three years, he tried ___. However, the police captured him and thus he ___ again.? 答案: (1) was, (2) put/thrown/cast in prison, (3) had been in prison,(4) to break out of prison, (5)was taken to prison
3．out of work 失业(＝out of a job/without a job)
be out of work/lose my job (1) I am worried about whether I will_________________________. (2) He’s been out of work for two years. 他失业两年了。 out of place 不适当，不相称 out of patience不耐烦 out of balance 失去平衡 out of use 没用了 out of sight看不到 out of one’s power 力所不及 out of question毫无疑问? out of the question不可能的 out of sight, out of mind. 眼不见, 心不烦。 out of kindness 出于好意 out of sympathy with 出于对…的同情 e.g.1). Although my computer is date now, it's still use. 2). After fours’ operation, the patient has been danger. Keys: 1). out of; in 2). out of
out of 用法归纳： 1) 表示地点(从里向外)或者动作运动的方向 As my car pulled out of the garage，I saw the gun pointing against the car window．? 2)表示部分关系? This will happen in nine cases out of ten． ? 3) 表示“在……范围以外”，“越出……界限之外”? The ship is out of sight． 4) 表示“出于…动机”，“由于…原因”? The traffic accident was out of carelessness in driving．? 5)表示竭尽和缺乏? We are out of tea． 6)表示材料或来源? He made the box out of plastic． ?? 7)与某些动词连用，表示“放弃”；“丧失”? He talked his wife out of buying a new bicycle． ? ?
4. lose heart 丧去信心
He failed many times, but he didn’t lose heart. So don’t lose heart，whatever you do. lose one’s heart to sb.喜欢上 with all one’s heart 全心全意地 break one’s heart 使人难过 heart and soul 全心全意地 take heart鼓起勇气，打起精神 learn sth. by heart熟记 put one’s heart into sth.对…全力以赴，一心一意?
Though the girl hasn’t lost heart to him, he hasn’t lost A. her; / B. the; his C. /;his D. her; the (2)A mother loves her baby with all her heart .
5．as a matter of fact 事实上
e.g. As a matter of fact，few of us admit that examinations can contribute anything really important to the students’ studies. 联想 in (actual) fact事实上，实际上 actually事实上，实际上 in reality事实上，实际上 ----Do you think it‘s a good idea to make friends with your students? ----_____, I do. I think it’s a good idea. (安徽09高考24题 ) A. Really B. Obviously C. Actually D. Generally
6.turn to 翻到；求助于；求救于
(1)Open your books and _____________ (翻到第98页). turn to page 98 turned to the teacher (2) He didn’t know what to do and _________________ for help. (求助于老师。)
turn against 背叛 turn down 关掉;拒绝 turn in归还;呈交 turn into 使…变成;译成 turn on打开 turn off 关掉 turn out证明是，结果; 关掉;生产;赶走 turn over翻转;移交 turn up出现;开大音量
by turns轮流地；交替地 take turns轮流
1. ----You look upset. What’s the matter？ ----I had my proposal _____ again. A. turned over B. turned on C. turned off D. turned down
2. Thousands of people ____ to watch yesterday’s match against Ireland. A．turned on B．turned in C．turned around D．turned out
3. ----What are you reading, Tom??
----I’m not really reading, just the pages.? A.turning off B.turning around? C.turning over D.turning up
7．in a way 从某种程度上(in one way或in some way)
e.g. In a way，I don’t like the super girls’ performance.
联想 all the way 一路上
no way 不行，决不 on the way在途中 under way已经进行着 fight one’s way 奋勇前进
by the way 顺便说 by way of 经过，途经 in the way挡道的；妨碍人的 give way to sb./sth.向…让步 make one’s way（to）前往
(1)The changes are an improvement ________. in a way (2)He kept asking the same question all the way . (3)They stopped for a picnic on the way . No way (4)________ will I go on working for that man. (5)I’m afraid your car is in the way . by way of (6)They are traveling to France ________ London.
8．set up 设立；创立；建立
(1) A new government was set up after the civil war. (2) The school has set up a special class to help poor readers. 联想 set about (doing) 着手做 set aside储蓄；搁置 set off动身;引爆 set out (to do)出发；开始做 set down记下
Sam _____ some knowledge of the computer just by watching others working on it. A. brought up B. looked up C. picked up D. set up Einstein liked Bose’s paper so much that he______his own work and translated it into German.? A.gave off B.turned down C.took over D.set aside
疑 难 语 句 细 解
…only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. ※ only 放在句首且后接状语（副词 / 介词短语 / 状语从句）， 要使用部分倒装，即将助动词、情态动词或系动词放在主语前。 注意only后接状语从句时，从句无需倒装，只倒装主句。
eg. Only yesterday did his father tell him the truth, which was a big surprise to him. Only by shouting was he able to make people on the other side of the river hear him. 【联想拓展】 (1) 如果置于句首的由only引导的词语不是状语就不用倒装。 Only some of the children seemed to have understood it． (2) 当not only…but also句式的not only部分置于句首时， 其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。但but (also)句子后面不倒装。
Not only did they bring ex.1. ____________________（他们不但带来了） snacks and drinks but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the forest.
Only then did she realize 2. _____________________ (只有在那时她才意识到) how much damage had been caused.
3. Only in this way ______to make improvement in the operating system.? A. you can hope B. you did hope? C. did you hope D. can you hope
(2)I felt bad the first time I talked to a group.
句中的 the first time 用作连词，引导_________从句，意为 时间状语 第一次??时 ”。? “ （1）名词短语作连词，引导时间状语从句的有：? every time每次/回…就… each time每当…时? next time下次…时? any time（在）任何时间? （2）有时副词也可充当连词，引导时间状语从句，它们是： instantly, immediately, directly等，都相当于as soon as。 Each time I called on him, he was very busy.? He came to see me immediately he came back. ______they visited the Science Museum, they showed great interest in everything they saw. A. The first time B. For the first time? C. At first D. At the first time
1) I have reached a point in my life____ I am supposed to make decisions of my own. （浙江高考） A. which B. where? C. how D. why? 解析 当point, case, stage, situation等表示抽象地点的名词充当 先行词时，若定语从句中缺少状语，则用关系副词where来引导 定语从句。 2) For a moment nothing happened. Then all shouting together. （福建高考） A. voices had come? B. came voices? C. voices would come D. did voices come 解析 当某些副词如then, now, here, there, up等置于句首时，句 子要用完全倒装形式。
3) Because of the financial crisis, days are gone local 5star hotels charged 6，000 yuan for one night.（江苏高考） A.if B.when C.which D.since? 解析: when引导一个限制性定语从句修饰先行词days,并且在从句 中作状语。
4) 1.The time he has devoted in the past ten years the disabled is now considered of great value.? A. to help; being B. to helping; to be C. to help; to be D. helping; being 解析: 该句的前一部分考查了devote one’s time to doing sth.结构。 the time之后跟了省略关系代词which/that的定语从句。
5.As a(n) his contribution to botany, Joseph Banks had a flower named after him.? A. reward; for B. reward; with C. award; for D. award; with 解析 as a reward for...意为“作为对…的回报/报酬”；award表 示“奖励，奖赏”。
6. For Chinese,2008 is a special year, a year the 29th Olympics were held in China for the first time and saw so many natural disasters.? A. that; the one that B. when; one that? C. that; the one what D. when; one when 解析: 第一个空后为一定语从句修饰先行词a year，从句中缺少时 间状语，故应填when；第二个空应填one that,one相当于a year与前面的a year并列，that引导定语从句，并在从句中作主 语。 7. Only as an interpreter how important it was to practise spoken English. A.when I worked;I realized?B.when did I work;did I realize? C.when I work;did I realize?D.when I worked;did I realize 解析: 当only出现在句首修饰时间状语从句时，主句应使用部分倒 装。