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2015高考英语语法精讲精练 专题五 动词时态和语态常考点


专题五

动词时态和语态常考点

在高考英语中, 动词的时态和语态是重中之重, 试题在考查固定句式中的时态和语态的 同时,注重在上下文语境中考查时态和语态。要了解几种时态的一些常规规则,答题时要研 读题干,搜索出尽可能多的“时间参照信息” ,尤其要注意时态的呼应情况。 时态 一般现在时 一般过去时 现在完成时 现在完成进行时 现在进行时 过

去进行时 过去完成时 将来完成时 主动语态形式 am/is/are/do/does was/were/did has/have done has/have been doing am/is/are doing was/were doing had done will/shall have done will /shall do am/is/are going to do am/is/are coming/leaving am/is/are to do am/is/are about to do would do was going to do was coming/leaving was to do was about to do will /shall be doing 被动语态形式 am/is/are done was/were done has/have been done / am/is/are being done was/were being done had been done will /shall have been done

一般将来时

will /shall be done am/is/are to be done

过去将来时

would be done was/were to be done

将来进行时

/

1

一般现在时

一般现在时表示动作的经常性或真理; 表示现状、 性质、 状态时多用系动词或状态动词; 在条件、时间、让步状语从句中用一般现在时或现在完成时表示将来;表示预计或规定;方 位副词或介词短语放在句首,主语是名词,且全部倒装时,用一般现在时表示正在发生的动 作;还可使用于文学作品和文学评论中。

用所给词的适当形式填空: ①I'll go there after I ________(finish) my work. ②The water will be further polluted unless some measures ________(take). ③My train ________(leave) at 6:30. ④A snow ________(expect) to come next week. ⑤On the wall ________(hang) a picture. ⑥This kind of cloth ________(wash) well. ⑦Don't take it away. It ________(belong) to me.

⑧He said water________(boil) at 100 ℃. 【答案】①finish ②are taken ③leaves ⑦belongs ⑧boils

④is expected

⑤ hangs

⑥washes

2

一般过去时和现在完成时

一般过去时(标志词:yesterday,just now,last year,the other day 等)表示动作 发生在过去,和现在毫无关系。 现在完成时(标志词:since,in the past/last years,just,recent(ly),lately, so far=up to now=up until now=by now,already,yet,several/many/...times)则 强调的是对现在的影响和结果,动作到现在刚完成或还在继续。 请区别下列几组句子: ①He has lived in London for three years.(现在还住在伦敦) He lived in London for three years.(现在不在伦敦了) ②It's two years since he smoked.(他不抽烟已两年了) It's two years since he began to smoke.(他抽烟已有两年了) ③This is the first/second/...time (that) I have_visited the school. This was the first/second/...time I had_visited the school. ④ He was writing a book last year.(去年他在写一本书) He wrote a book last year.(去年他写了一本书) ⑤I thought he was an American.(我原以为他是美国人) I think he is an American.(我想他是美国人)

用所给词的适当形式填空: ①—I haven't seen you for ages. Haven't you graduated from college? —Yes. I________(study) English for four years in Nanjing University. ②Where ________ you________(put) my book? I can't find it anywhere. ③ Although he has lived with us for years , he ________(not leave) us much impression. ④My brother is an actor. He ________(appear) in several films in the past few years. ⑤—Li Pin may not come tonight. —But he ________(promise). 【答案】①studied ②have;put ③hasn't left ④has appeared ⑤promised

3

过去完成时和将来完成时

过去完成时表示一件事情发生在过去,而另一件事情先于它发生 (即表示“过去的过 去”)。常用的时间状语有:by then,by that time,by the end of,before 2000,by the time,hardly/scarcely/rarely...when...和 no sooner...than... [注]表示原打算做但未做的几种表达: ①I had hoped/expected/meant/intended/... to do...,but... =I hoped/expected/... to have done...,but...

=I would like/love to have done...,but... =I was to have done...,but... =I was going to do...,but... =I would have done...,but... ②I was coming/leaving/arriving/..., but... 将来完成时表示到将来某一时间, 某一动作将会完成, 常用的时间状语为“by+将来的 某个时间”。如: They will have completed the project by the end of next year.

用所给词的适当形式填空: ①Helen ________(leave) her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ________(come) home. ②I ________(hope) to meet Mr. Thompson this morning,but I found nobody left in the room. ③By the time he ________(return) home,the work had been finished. By the time he returns home,the work ____________(finish). ④We plan to reach the North Pole in mid-July,and by then we ____________(walk) for six weeks. 【答案】①had left; came ②had hoped ③returned; will have been finished ④will have walked

4

现在进行时,过去进行时,现在完成进行时和将来进行时

现在进行时表示现在正在进行的情况,计划、安排要做的事,还可以表示反复出现的动 作,往往含有赞赏、厌恶、遗憾等情绪,常与 always,continually,constantly 连用; 过去进行时表示过去某一刻或一段时间内正在进行的动作,还可以表示过去的将来动 作; 现在完成进行时表示动作的未完成性和暂时性,还可以表示感情色彩; 将来进行时表示将来某个时候或某段时间正在进行的动作。

用所给词的适当形式填空: ①—Have you moved into the new house? —Not yet. The rooms ____________(paint). ② My father ________(fall) while he ________(ride) his bicycle and ________(hurt) himself. ③—Why are her eyes red? —She ____________(cry). ④He ____________(fly) over the Atlantic at this time tomorrow. ⑤You ________ always ________(watch) TV. Why not do something more active? ⑥—Did you find the missing couple in the mountain yesterday? —No,but we ________(try) to get in touch with them ever since. 【答案】 ①are being painted ②fell; was riding; hurt ③has been crying ④will

be flying ⑤are;watching ⑥have been trying

5

一般将来时

注意区别 will do,be going to do,be about to do,be doing,be to do: ①will do 表示事物的固有属性或必然趋势,此外,还表示临时决定; ②be going to do 表示计划、打算要做某事,还表示根据现在的迹象,对未来进行推 断; ③be about to do 表示立即的将来,因此,不与表示将来的具体时间状语连用; ④有些动词如 come,go,arrive,leave,begin 等,其一般现在时、现在进行时亦可 表示按计划或安排将来要发生的动作或状态; ⑤be to do 表示按计划或安排要做的事,意为“应该;想,打算;注定会”。

用所给词的适当形式填空: ①Ladies and gentlemen,please fasten your safety belt. The plane________(take) off. ②Look at the timetable. Flight 4026 ________(take) off at 18:20. ③If you ____________(succeed),you should work hard. ④Look at the dark clouds. It ____________(rain). ⑤—The light is still on. —Sorry. I ________(go) and turn it off. 【答案】①is taking ②takes ③are to succeed ④is going to rain ⑤will go

6

get+过去分词

“get+过去分词”可以表示被动,此结构比较口语化。

用所给词的适当形式填空: ①The patient ________(treat) once a week. ②He fell off the building and ________(kill). 【答案】①gets treated/is treated ②got killed/was killed

7

主动形式表示被动意义

需用主动形式表示被动意义的情况: ①当系动词 feel,look,smell,taste,sound,prove,remain,stay 等后面接形容 词时; ②当 cut,read,sell,wear,write 等词有状语 easily,well 等修饰时; ③measure,weigh,add up to 后接数字时; ④在“be+形容词+to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动形式表示被 动意义。如: The problem is easy to solve.

⑤need,want,require,deserve 后接动名词主动形式,相当于 to be done。如: The watch needs repairing. He deserves praising. ⑥be worth 后接动名词主动形式表示被动意义。如: The book is well worth buying. ⑦固定短语 be to blame,be to let。

①The water ________ cool when I jumped into the pool for morning exercise. A. was felt B. was to feel C. felt D. was to be felt ②I feel it is your husband who ________ for the spoiled child. A. is to blame B. is going to blame C. is to be blamed D. should blame ③Doctors and medical supplies ________ to the scene of the accident soon after the coal mine explosion. A. had rushed B. were rushed C. were rushing D. rushed ④The moment the 28th Olympic Games ________ open,the whole world cheered. A. declared B. have been declared C. have declared D. were declared ⑤—Why did you leave that position? —I________ a better position at IBM. A. offer B. offered C. am offered D. was offered ⑥—How are the team playing? —They are playing well,but one of them ________ hurt. A. got B. gets C. were D. is ⑦I want to buy that kind of cloth because I ________ the cloth ________ well. A. have told;washes B. have been told;washes C. was told;was washed D. have been told;is washed 【答案】①C ②A ③B ④D ⑤D ⑥A ⑦B

8

感官动词和使役动词的被动语态

感官动词和使役动词的宾补是动词原形,改成被动语态时要加 to。

将下列句子改为被动语态: ①I saw him fall down. He was seen____________. ②I made him wash the dishes. He was made____________. 【答案】①to fall down ②to wash the dishes

9

“据说/据报道/??”的表达

Somebody is(was)said/reported/believed/thought/known to...意为“据说/据报道/ 大家认为/众所周之/人们认为??” 。 此时,动词不定式有三种形式,即 to do, to be doing 和 to have done。到底用哪种 形式,可用下面的方法来辨别: 把不定式的动作发生的时间和谓语的动作发生的时间相比较: 动词不定式动作先于谓语动作发生:用 to have done; 动词不定式动作与谓语动作同时发生:用 to be doing; 动词不定式动作发生在谓语动作之后或同为经常性:用 to do。

①The bank is reported in the local newspaper ________ in broad daylight yesterday. A. being robbed B. having been robbed C. to have been robbed D. robbed ②Wang Ming is said ________ abroad, but I am not sure which country it was. A. to study B. to have studied C. to be studying D. to have been studying ③Linda is thought ________ in Africa, but I really don't know what country she's working in. A. to have worked B. to work C. to be working D. working 【答案】①C ②B ③C

10

不用被动语态的动词或动词短语

appear, disappear,occur,benefit,end, begin,happen,last,spread,break out, take place,belong to,come about,suffer from 等。

用所给词的适当形式填空: ① The place caught fire three times in the last century, and little of the original building ____________(remain) now. ② The medicine ____________(prove) vital for reducing fever and helping stop pain. 【答案】①remains ②has proved

1. (2014·湖南卷)Whenever you ________ a present, you should think about it from the receiver's point of view. A. bought B. have bought C. will buy D. buy 2. (2014·江西卷)—Tony, why are your eyes red? —I ________ up peppers for the last five minutes. A. cut B. was cutting C. had cut D. have been cutting 3. (2014·江苏卷)—How much do you know about the Youth Olympic Games to be held in Nanjing? —Well, the media ________ it in a variety of forms. A. cover B. will cover C. have covered D. covered 4. (2014·重庆卷)James has just arrived, but I didn't know he ________ until yesterday. A. will come B. was coming C. had come D. came 5. (2014·重庆卷)You'd better write down her phone number before you ________ it. A. forget B. are forgetting C. forgot D. will forget 6. (2013· 浙 江 卷 )During the last three decades , the number of people participating in physical fitness programmes ________ sharply. A. was increasing B. has increased C. had increased D. will be increasing 7. (2013·江苏卷)—Could I use your car tomorrow morning? —Sure. I ________ a report at home. A. will be writing B. will have written C. have written D. have been writing 8. (2013·山东卷)I didn't think I'd like the movie,but actually it ________ pretty good. A. has been B. was C. had been D. would be 9. (2013·江西卷)I ________ to visit you later that day,but I had to phone and cancel. A. come B. came

C. am coming D. was coming 10. (2012·江苏卷)The manager is said to have arrived back from Paris where he ________ some European business partners. A. would meet B. is meeting C. meets D. had met 【答案】1. D 2. D 3. C 4. B 5. A 6. B 7. A 8. B 9. D 10. D

1. Unfortunately,when I got to her flat,she ________,so we had only time for a few words. A. just left B. had just left C. has just left D. was just leaving 2. Kate________ on her new novel,which is supposed to come out next month. A. has been working B. had worked C. will be working D. was working 3. Profits in his company went up by 25% last year,and ________ so far this year though the financial situation is bad. A. haven't decreased B. didn't decrease C. haven't been decreased D. weren't decreased 4. —Jeff,you look so excited today. —Sure I am,I ________ a good job in a big company,you know. A. offered B. will offer C. have been offered D. was offered 5. —Are you about to have dinner? —Yes,it ________ in the dining-room. A. is serving B. serves C. is being served D. is served 6. —I ran into the back of a truck yesterday and damaged my car badly. —I suppose you ________ too fast. A. had driven B. drove C. have driven D. were driving 7. If a computer crashes,you will lose the file you ________on if you don't save it early enough. A. are working B. work C. will work D. worked

8. I don't understand why you ________ your mind constantly!We haven't been able to decide where to spend our holiday,you know? A. change B. will change C. are changing D. have changed 9. —Ring me at 5:00 a.m.? No better not so early!I ________. —I got it. A. will sleep B. sleep C. am sleeping D. will be sleeping 10. —I'll come to see your performance at 9:00 tomorrow evening. —I'm sorry,but by then my performance ________ and I ________ reporters in the meeting room. A. will end;will meet B. will have ended;will be meeting C. will be ended;am going to meet D. is to end;will meet 11. Miss Li ________ as a secretary for five years in the company,and now she is general manager of it. A. serves B. served C. had served D. has served 12. —We all had a lot of fun at the barbecue yesterday. Pity you weren't there. —I really should have gone with you but I ________ on some remaining problems. A. was working B. would work C. worked D. would have worked 13. —Listen,someone is knocking at the door. —Yes. ________ answer it. A. I was going to B. I'll C. I plan to D. I am to 14. —Isn't it amazing that I met Francis at the Christmas party? —Really?For how many years ________ each other? A. didn't you see B. haven't you seen C. hadn't you seen D. don't you see 15. I ________ to help you to do homework but I couldn't spare any time. I ________ a composition last night and I'll finish it today. A. wanted;wrote B. had wanted;was writing C. have wanted;wrote

D. wanted;have been writing 16. Now the world's attention ________ the stocking markets,as they have great influence on the world's economy. A. is fixing on B. is being fixed on C. had been fixed on D. has fixed on 17. —I thought you were going to see your sister last weekend. —I ________,but at the last minute she called me to say that she had to deal with something urgent. A. was to have B. was going to have C. would like to D. would 18. In this experiment,they are woken up several times during the night,and asked to report what they ________. A. had just been dreaming B. are just dreaming C. have just been dreaming D. had just dreamt 19. —Can you give me the right answer? —Sorry,I ________.Would you repeat that question? A. hadn't listened B. haven't listened C. don't listen D. wasn't listening 20. It is certain that you were in a great hurry; you ________ your jacket inside out. A. wore B. had worn C. were wearing D. are wearing 21. Food supplies in the flood-stricken area ________. We must act immediately before there's left. A. have run out B. are running out C. have been run out D. are being run out 22. I won't tell the student the answer to the maths problem until he ________ on it for more than an hour. A. will have worked B. had worked C. has been working D. will have been working

23. —Jerry loves his new dog, doesn't he? —Yes, he ________ it out for a walk every day since he picked it up. A. takes B. took C. has taken D. has been taking 24. —Have you been to the United States? —Yes, only once. I ________ there only for seven days. A. have stayed B. was staying C. stayed D. had stayed 25. —I'm sorry, but I don't quite follow you. Did you say you wanted to return on September 20? —Sorry, I ________ myself clear. We want to return on October 20. A. hadn't made B. wouldn't make C. don't make D. haven't made 26. Look at the pride on Tom's face. He ________ to have been praised by the manager just now. A. seemed B. seems C. had seemed D. is seeming 27. Every year a flood of farmers arrive in Shenzhen for the money-making jobs they ________ before leaving their hometowns. A. promised B. were promised C. have promised D. have been promised 28. —Have you heard about that fire in the market? —Yes, fortunately no one ________. A. hurt B. was hurt C. has hurt D. had been hurt 29. The discovery of gold in Australia led thousands to believe that a fortune ________. A. is made B. would make C. was to be made D. had made 30. My mind wasn't on what he was saying, so I'm afraid I ________ half of it. A. was missing B. had missed C. will miss D. missed 【答案】1. D 2. A 3. A 4. C 5. C 6. D 7. A 8. C 9. D 10. B 11. B 12. A 13. B 14. C 15. B 16. B 17. A 18. C 19. D 20. D 21. D 22. C 23. D 24. C 25. D 26. B 27. D 28. B 29. C 30. D


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