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济南沃尔得国际英语

E.宾补动词+宾语+各种补语 和 S+DV+O+O 句型的直接宾语一样,S+FV+O+C 句型中的宾语通常为名词或代词 (而补语可以是形容词、名词、地点副词、介词短语、分词或不定式): I find John talking with his child. I want him to dress like a nice boy. 但这种句型中的宾语间或也可能是不定式、动名词或名词从句。在这种情况下,不定 式、动名词或从句应用代词 it 代替,本身则移到补语后面去,成为 it 的同位语。 I find it hard to persuade a woman.(不可说 I find to persuade a woman hard.) He considers it necessary that a man should know at least one foreign language.(不可说 He considers that…language necessary.) 37.S+FV+N+A(John made the house dirty.) 约有200个宾补动词可用形容词作补语。 a.约有50个宾补动词表示精神活动(有些结构属书面语): 1)They found the book easy;felt it cold;felt themselves guilty;saw him so sad;learned her gone;discovered the house empty. 2)They thought him honest;fancied themselves right;imagined it easy; supposed it true;presumed it genuine;esteemed themselves happy;considered it easy;figured(or counted)it good;accounted themselves innocent; believed it true;judged it good;concluded him dead;held it cheap;held me dear;conceived themselves safe;knew him honest;took it easy(or ill, amiss);remembered him still young. 3)They called(or termed)him generous;declared him dead;avowed themselves wrong;pronounced it genuine;professed themselves mistaken; confessed them- selves guilty;were reputed very generous. 4)They proved it false;showed themselves honest;certified him insane (or healthy);guaranteed(or warranted)it pure;passed him honest;rated it good;granted it possible;graded his handwritting illegible.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

5)They feigned themselves ill;pretended themselves innocent; counterfeited themselves crazy;boasted it precious. 6)They wished him dead(or ill,happy);wanted the house clean and tidy;liked their tea very strong;preferred the soup fresh and warm. b.约有30个宾补动词既不表示精神活动也不表示具体动作: 1)They made him responsible;got the floor dirty;had the tickets ready; had their pockets empty;rendered the work difficult;turned the situation favourable;drove(or set,made)him mad(or wild);sent me crazy;struck him dead(or dumb,speechless,deaf,blind);left everything topsy-turvy. 2)They put(or set,brought)things right;kept the room clean;placed him first in maths;bled their parents white;ranked him honourable;cut me dead;marked six of the students absent.He is aged twenty- six.He's born blind.It is dated May 1. c.至少有50个宾补动词表示具体动作: 1)He pushed(or flung,threw,burst,broke,forced,kicked,held)the door open;slammed the door shut;cut the string short;shot her dead;boiled the eggs hard;opened it wide;beat(or hammered)it flat;washed(or brushed,wiped,licked,swept)it clean;slit the envelope open;beat(or pinched)her black and blue,burned himself dead;knocked himself senseless; shook me awake. 2)He baked the cake brown;pulled it long;ground it sharp;chopped it short;turned the light low;wrapped it up tight;raised the portrait high; copied it fair;dyed it red;stained it blue;pumped(or squeezed,shook, wrung,drank)it dry;rubbed it smooth;stripped it bare;sliced it thin; stuffed(or filled)his pockets full,burned the bread black. d.约有20个宾补动词(多由不及物动词变成)表示人的动作,后面常跟自身代词: They talked(or sang)themselves ill(or hoarse);drank themselves drunk;ate themselves sick;slept themselves sober;read themselves asleep; cried(or wept)themselves blind;laughed themselves red in the face(or hoarse);shouted themselves hoarse;walked themselves lame;stripped themselves naked;danced themselves weary,wept themselves sober;studied themselves silly.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

当宾补动词和形容词都是单音节词,尤其当宾语较长,或包含有疑问词或关系代 (副)词时,形容词常紧跟在动词后面: They made good(单音节词)the loss(or their promise);made clear(or plain)their opinion;let loose their caged birds;laid bare(or open)the enemy's design;laid waste the enemy's country. He set free all the prisoners of the city(较长宾语),threw open the private garden which they had closed many years;broke open the door which they could not open with the key;cut short the sentence that seemed too long. Whose(疑问词)letter are you copying fair?Which string are you going to cut short?What people do you consider great? He has a grey beard which(关系代词)he shaves close every five days.He spoke to a woman whose husband he was going to set free.He spoke kindly to John,whom he secretly wished ill. 在上述句子中,宾语的补语表示宾补动词所指动作的结果。但在下面句子中,宾语的 补语常是 when 所引起的从句的紧缩形式。例如 alive 意思是 when he was alive,young 意思是 when it was young,约有20个动词常可这样用: They trapped the animal alive;trained it young. They took (or caught,saved,buried,burned)him alive. They usually ate the herb raw;drank their tea very weak;served the food hot;roasted an ox whole. The snake swallows its prey whole. They carried him half-dead to the hospital;returned the purse intact to the owner;bought it ready-made(or second- hand);brought the child safe to land;sent me healthy and happy back to my parents. So 可以用来代替任何形容词补语: “Is it correct?”“I find it so.”“But I don't think it so.” “He is cunning.”“But I don't call him so.” Your future will be fine if you decide to make it so.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

至少有30个及物动词(大多表示精神活动),可以成为宾补动词,但要求形容词前加 as: a.They abandoned it as useless;acknowledged themselves as careless; accepted(or announced)the story as true;censured this chapter as unnecessary;certified the statement(as)correct;construed his reply as unfavourable;counted themselves as(or for)dead(or lost);criticized him as heartless;declared themselves as clever;denied it as stupid;denounced him as traitorous;decided him as silly;described the case as serious; designated him as dishonest;couldn't ensure the business as profitable; feigned themselves as ignorant of the robbery;gave me up as(or for)dead (or hopeless). b.They held it as valuable;labelled him as dishonest;looked upon the stone as genuine;looked up to him as holy;ranked Shakespeare as the first; reckoned the child as clever;recognized it as important;regard the plan as difficult;represent the situation as hopeless;see him as trust worthy;set down the advice as valuable;stigmatized him as cruel;warrant the liquor as genuine. 38.S+FV+N+AP(John laughed it away.) 无数的宾补动词可用地点副词(或称副词型小品词)作宾语补语。 这个句型38可以看作是句型7 S+TV.AP+N 的变体。句型7包含3个部分(参阅 1341)。TV 和 AP 放在一起,作为一个整体;N 可能由3个或更多个重要的词构成。而句 型38包含4个部分。句型7的 TV 变为 FV,AP 变为补语,起独立作用,并受强调;N 包含一 个(多为代词)或两个较不重要的词(参阅1364)。 a.He pulled me aside.They set the decision aside(=did not carry it out).Put it aside(=reserve it). He kept the child away from the dog;scolded his maid away;wished me away;bothered the guests away;snatched her letter away.He talked the hours away (=talked so that the hours flitted away);wept the night away; dreamed his hours away(=passed his hours in dreaming);drank his property away(=drank so much that he became poor);laughed my fears away (=dismissed them by laughing);explained my doubts away. He called me back;hit me back;answered me back;paid the money back; frowned me back.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

b.He helped her down;got(or had)it down(=had it written);took my letter down(=wrote it in short-hand while I dictated it).The applause brought the house down (so loud was the applause).He laughed this idea down (=so that it failed);talked(or laughed)me down(= talked or laughed so that I couldn't speak or act);has lived the scandal down(=lived until it is forgotten by people).They voted the measure down.Put me(or my name)down for ten dollars(given to a charity). c.Send the child home;see her home.He drove the argument home(=made the listeners understand its full force). He let us in;rang the guests in.We danced the New Year in;bowed the guests in;count him in,plug the kettle in.She has her pupils in by 8 a. m. He saw her off;helped her off with her coat;could bite his tongue off (=regretted having said something wrong).He turned the lights(or the radio)off;slept the headache(or fatique)off(=slept until he got rid of his headache or fatigue);walked his meal off;laughed the idea off = (down);paid his debt off;let me off at the station. d.He put(or had)his white shirt on;pulled her socks on;helped her on with her coat;left the light on;turned (or switched)the TV on. He let the dog out;bowed his guests out;found his way out;pushed the window out;had an evening out.He blew the candle out;brought the meaning out(=made the meaning clear);cried his heart out;swore his tongue out. He told the secret straight(or right)out;had it out with his enemy(=came to a settlement with him by frank discussion).She had her cry(or sleep) out(=cried or slept until she felt satisfied);sat the show out(=sat until the show was over).The wind raged itself out(=raged until it was exhausted). e.He knocked the glass over;helped her over;handed the business over to me;asked me over(=asked me to call on him);turned the page over.We talked the matter over(=discussed it carefully);thought the matter over; looked the letter over.He counted the the apples over(=again).he declared the war over(=at an end).He had his grandson over in Berlin. f.He slept the clock round(=slept 24 hours). He called his men together;tied all the prisoners together.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

He read it through(=till the end);saw the event through;sat the night through;saw your trick through(=was not deceived by it);waved me through. He pulled his socks up.He kept his reputation up;brought his children up;looked the word up in the dictionary;locked(or chained,nailed, packed,tore,broke)it up(=thoroughly,completely). They cannot keep the revolt under.

39.S+FV+N+N(John called me Lee.) 至少有110个宾补动词用名词作补语。 约有70个宾补动词后面不必跟 as.这类动词有些后面可以加 as,但也可不加: a.They made(or crowned,anointed)him King;appointed(or nominated)him (as)Minister of Finance;consecrated him archbishop;constituted(or inaugurated)him president;chose(or elected)him(as)their leader; promoted him general;commissioned him general.The King created him count; dubbed him a knight.He was named assistant;ordained priest;incorporated a member. b.They call(or name;nickname,dub)him Fatty;christen(or baptize) her“Mary”;term(or style)themselves “Doctors”;label(or brand)him (as)a fool;entitled the book“Words”;phrase the failure a “success”, abbreviate New York“NY”;write Peking“Beijing”;mark the bottle“Poison”;pronounce ski[?i:]. c.They count(or reckon,esteem)it(as)an honour;consider(or deem)it their duty;suppose(or think,ac- count)her a good girl. d.They acclaimed(or hailed)him(as)a hero;voted him a good teacher; declared him(as)the saviour of their country;pronounced him(as)a great philanthropist;pro- claimed him(as)a great poet. e.They admit(or acknowledge,confess,feel)themselves (as)inferiors; show(profess)themselves artists;reveal him(as)a murderer,a monster.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

They warrant him(as)a very honest person;certify him as one of the members of their association;prove him a criminal;judge him a silly fellow;know him(as)a rascal. f.They made the plan an object of ridicule;made the distance seven miles (or the total a thousand dollars);found the city a prosperous place;left the city a ruin;left me an orphan(or me their son's guardian);kept nothing a secret;saw their son a beggar;had a son a great sportsman.He was born a poet(or a rich man). They led(or took,made)him captive;took him prisoner. They entered(or enrolled)him(as)a member. g.John is a nice gentleman and everyone thinks him so(=a nice gentleman).“Is she his wife?”“We consider her so (=his wife).”The rose still smells sweet although you don't call it so(=the rose).They say John is a funny fellow,and I find him so(=a funny fellow). 有许多动词(多数表示精神活动)由于使用 as,变成宾补动词,这和上面的例句不 同,as 不能省略: a.They described(or depicted,represented)the place as a paradise.They qualified him as a hypocrite;defined me as a rogue. They fancied(or imagined)their leader as a god. They accepted his words as the real truth of the matter;recognized the country as an independent state. b.They criticized the plan as a failure;denounced him as a public enemy;blamed the policy as a great mistake;cursed me as a madman;looked down upon him as a fool;mocked me as a clown. They valued it as a precious gift;admired her as an intelligent girl; looked up to him as an authority;extolled him as a hero;held him up as an example;thought much of me as a good writer. c.They set him down as a fool;put it down as a pretext;regarded her as a tigress;took me as his best friend;looked to me as their benefactor; relied upon me as their adviser;held my gift as something valuable; contemplated my advice as nothing;treated me as a child;looked upon me as
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济南沃尔得国际英语

their enemy;remembered Smith as a cheat;introduced me as a musician;spoke (or thought)of her as a nice girl;saw me as nothing. They rank him as a great poet;rate him as a pedant. d.They designated Williams as the successor;inaugurated him as principal of the school;installed him as chair- man;engaged me as a clerk. They owned(or claimed)the child as their own.They cited many cases as evidence;gave the number as 72. His speech stamped him as a gentleman;characterized him as a snob. They designed the room as a kitchen;used a table as a bed. He is bred up as a scholar;is known as John;is naturalized as an American;is regarded as a philanthropist;is established as president of the company. 这类动词之后有时用 for 代替 as: They branded John for a hypocrite;knew him for a villain;put him down for a fool;gave John up for a dead man;chose her for their servant; nominated(or elected)him for president;took(or mistook)the stone for a diamond;in- tended the house for a hospital. 下面4句话意思相同: He chose her a wife.He chose her as a wife.He chose her for a wife.He chose her to be a wife. 下面4句也如此: They elected him president.He elected him as president. They elected him for president.He elected him to be presi- dent. 在这类句子中可用一个由 what 引起的从句作补语: Call it what you will. I found the city what it had been.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

Consider her as what you think the best. 注意把 S+FV+N+N 和 S+DV+N+N 分开,试比较: We called him Shortie.We called him a taxi. We found John a good man.We found John a job.

40.S+FV+N+P.N(John put everything in order.) 至少有70个宾补动词用介词短语作补语。 这类介词短语多数都可用在系动词后(参阅1453),作为形容词型的补语。它们对宾 语加以说明,对句子的完整性至关重要。它们和用作状语修饰动词的介词短语不同,后 者可以省略,例如:I thank him for the gift.He paid the rent to the landlord.中的斜体部分便是。 a.They PUT everything in order(=They made everything orderly.Cf. Everything was in order).They put her in charge of a class(=They caused her to take charge of a class Cf.She was in charge of a class).They put the police on the track of the thief,a thief on trial,him out of humour,me out of countenance,me to shame.They put the piano in tune,all things in shape,the machine in action,the law in force,their doctrine in practice,a new currency in circulation,everything out of order(or gear,joint),the loss out of account(or consideration). b.They SET the prisoners at liberty(=They made the prisoners free.Cf. The prisoners were at liberty).They set those people at odds(or at variance)(=They made those people quarrel).They set a person over the department,him on the right way,John against her,the machine in order,the table in a roar,a project on foot,a house on fire. c.They PLACED it at my services(=made it serve me),a sum at my disposal,the government in their power,me in command of an army,the department under a minister,an orphan in my hands,the boy under the care (or the protection)of his uncle,me under their order. d.They HELD the property in trust(or in pledge)(=kept the property as security),learning in esteem,the lesson in remembrance,the money in their hands(=at their disposal),themselves in readiness,him in respect(or veneration,disdain,contempt),the enemy in check(or in play,at bay).
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济南沃尔得国际英语

e.They KEPT their children in good health(=kept their children healthy),him in prison(or custody,chains,confinement),him in countenance,me in the dark,me in suspense,the house in good repairs,the school in order,the articles in stock,their own mind(or nerve)on the stretch,their own children out of harm's way,some of the mad men under restraint,the prisoners under guard (or control). f.They LEFT it out of account(or consideration,calculation)(=ignored it),me in the dark,the servant in charge of the house,it on deposit in the bank. g.He TOOK them at a disadvantage,her at her word,his little children in tow,every small thing into account(or consideration,calculation),his enemy off his guard,everything she said on trust,the child under his wing. h.He HAD four servants in his employ(=Four servants were in his employ).He had her in his mercy,something in view(or mind),a matter in hand. i.They BROUGHT the custom into being(=They caused the custom to exist. Cf.The custom came into being).They brought the law into force(=They made the law effective.Cf.The law came into force).They brought his genius into play,the machine into use,the war to an end,the country to a crisis. j.The doctor got me on the diet,the pest under control. k.They laughed themselves into fits(=They made them- selves convulsed with laughter.Cf.They burst into fits of laughter).They cried(or wept) themselves into a fit; overworked(or worried)themselves into consumption (=worked or worried so much that they became ill of consumption(“肺痨”的 古老字).They drank themselves in- to their graves;smoked themselves into calmness;thought themselves into a paradise;worked themselves into a temper.They waved me into their house(=made me enter their house by waving to me);dined him into a good humour;talked black into white;kissed a full sense into empty words. l.He talked me to death(=He killed me by talking so much).He swore me to secrecy;cried(or sang)himself to sleep;drank(or laughed)himself to death. m.They laughed(or looked)her out of countenance(= made her abashed by laughing or looking at her);
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济南沃尔得国际英语

laughed(or shamed)me out of a bad habit;bought me out of my house; reasoned me out of my plan;talked money out of my pocket.He drank himself out of his job;ate himself out of house and home;ran himself out of breath;sinned himself out of salvation. 下面的介词短语表示宾补动词所表示精神活动的结果。这些短语前有时可插入 to be,例如:They imagined themselves (to be)out of danger.They thought it (to be)of great importance.但在 C 类句子中不可插入 to be: a.I held the matter of no account(=thought the matter to be unimportant),my fortune and life at nothing,him in esteem(or respect), nobody in contempt(or disdain). They found their family in tears,me at work,you out of humour, everything in order. I felt myself in the mood for singing(or at home,up to swimming).I felt everything in order. b.They wished the war at an end;supposed(or thought,fancied, considered,judged)it of little importance;esteemed(or counted, accounted)themselves on the right scent(or the right way);declared(or pronounced)the report beyond belief;avowed(or confessed,professed) themselves out of contact with the times;showed(or proved,guaranteed)it of great value;showed them- selves of noble spirit.(还有一些其他动词在 1512节中列出) c.They referred to it as of no value,looked upon him as past cure, regarded the flowers as out of place,thought (or spoke)of the news as beyond belief. 就像系动词后的介词短语一样,宾补动词后的介词短语中有些介词(特别是 of)有 时可以省略(参阅1455): He found them the same shape;wished it a red colour;saw it no use; painted the door a green colour;made the desk a large size. 上面提到的介词短语是形容词型的补语,因此是句子不可缺少的部分。下面的介词短 语是修饰动词的状语,因此在语法上是可以省掉的: He studied music on Sunday. He passed his youth in Paris.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

He pronounced every word with care. He loved her out of pity.

41.S+FV+N+to be or to have(John believed you to be honest.) 约有90个表示判断的动词用“to be +补语”或“to have +过去分词”作补语。这个 句型一般表示主语认为或宣布某人或某物是什么(样)或做过某事: a.They believed(or thought,figured,maintained)him to be honest,the book to be useful,him to have been unruly,the book to have been useful. They supposed(or presumed,assumed,allowed [dated],conceived)him to be an expert(or an honest man),the instrument to be useless;granted this to be true. They took(or guessed,conjectured)me to be a French- man. I estimated the size of this room to be 400 sq.ft. He made the cost to be a hundred dollars. b.They suspected him to be a thief,to have stolen their things.They doubted him to be an honest man. They considered(or held,esteemed,counted,account- ed,reckoned,made out,looked on)themselves to be lucky,the plan to be a foolish idea. He is reputed to be a good doctor.(They repute him[to be]a good husband.陈旧用法)He is recorded to have made this canal. They judged(or concluded,determined)him to be a fool,the plan to be of little use. c.They construed his reply to be unfavourable. They found(or perceived,felt,saw,discovered)the trouble to be unavoidable,their new teacher to have studied many subjects.They noted David to be too clever.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

They knew(or understood,realized)the situation to be against them, their friend to be a snake in the grass. They fancied(or imagined)themselves to be the best men in the town,the circumstance to be favourable,themselves to have been cheated. d.They proved(or argued,bespoke)him to be worthy of promotion,it to be wrong. They denied the rumour to be true,the accusation to be just,you to have given them any assistance. They declared(or proclaimed,affirmed,pronounced,announced,stated, asserted,reported)themselves to be members of a secret society,the rumour to be unfounded,the diamond to have been stolen.The diamond is alleged to have been stolen. They showed(or indicated,denoted)themselves to be trustworthy.His conduct shows him to be a great man. e.Their accent revealed(or betrayed)them to be foreigners. They disclosed this matter to be a conspiracy. They professed(or claimed)themselves to be engineers; gave themselves out to be scientists;bragged of them- selves to be the richest men in the city. They recognized(or owned)him to be their bosom friend. They confessed(or owned,professed)themselves to be guilty(or mistaken),to have made a great mistake. They acknowledged(or admitted)themselves to be silly,their idea to be a dream,the accusation to be just. He warranted(or guaranteed,vouched,avouched,at- tested,ensured)it to be pure. He certified the statement to be correct. f.He boasted himself to be a great scientist(or to have done great things);feigned himself to be ill.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

They nominated(or named)her to be secretary;appointed John to be the supervisor;promoted him to be a general;chose(or elected)him to be the president;voted him to be a good boy. They described me to be a mysterious person. They apprehended their son to be in danger. They discerned him(or made him out)to be a hypocrite. They implied him to be honest. They idealized her to be a perfect angel. 在上面句子中,to be 后面的形容词或名词表示某种特点,而在下面句子中,to be 和后面的现在分词表示现在正在进行或在主要动词所表示时间当中正在进行的动作,而 “to have +过去分词”表示主要动词所表示时间之前已完成的动作: They suspected him to be playing a trick on them;believed him to be telling the truth;imagined themselves to be making great progress. They supposed him to have seen much about the world; judged him to have stolen the watch.The wrinkles on his face represented him to have suffered much. 在上述动词后只能用不定式 to be 和 to have,其他动词的不定式一般不能用,但 表示状态(而不是动作)的动词不定式可以用: They knew him to go to school.(错句) I believed John to make poems.(错句) I considered him to read English very easily.(错句) They knew the box to contain 20 cigarettes.(正确) I believed the sentence to mean something ill.(正确) I consider it to belong to another category.(正确) I find it to have several advantages.(正确)

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济南沃尔得国际英语

在不少情况下,不定式 to be 可以省略,这时句型变为 S+FV+N+N 或 A 或 PN.但 “to have been”及“to be +现在分词”却不能省略(参阅1488 a,1500 a,1508, 1509): They supposed him(to be)wrong,found it(to be)a good policy,reported him(to be)the best man for the job,be- lieved him(to be)a thief,think it(to be)of little value. 但:They believed it to have been stolen.I should guess him to be playing a trick on me. 此外,上面的简单句(都是书面语或正式文体)可以变为包含一个 that 从句的复合 句,这时句子则变为非正式文体,不过有少数宾补动词不允许作这样的改变: They believed him to be honest.=They believed that he was honest. I considered this trouble to be unnecessary.=I considered that this trouble was unnecessary. He declared himself to have done his best.=He declared that he had done his best. 但: He named her to be secretary.=He named that she was sec- retary.(错句) I count myself to be lucky.=I count that I am lucky.(错句)

42.S+FV+N+I(John wanted me to do it.) 约有140个宾补动词(表示“愿望”或“命令”)可以用任何不定式(包括 to be) 作补语。这种句型通常表示“主语+希望或请求+名词+作某事或成为什么”: a.They wanted(or wished)him to teach their son,every- body to be a saint.They intend(or mean,desire)him to study abroad.This story is calculated(=designed)to mislead the public.They expected him to work hard.He designed the furniture to fit his room.I recommend her to learn music. b.He asked(or told)her to(please)open the door.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

She notified us to move out. He required(or requested,needed)me to help him. He reminded me to shut the window when I went to bed. We urged the public to take precautions. They caused(or got,had,occasioned)everybody to kneel down,their men to destroy the bridge,provisions to be ready,the rule to be observed. They gave me to understand all the intrigue. The module programs the flash to provide the right light. c.I cannot bring myself to acknowledge the fault,to scold her,to believe the news,to leave my children hungry.I wish I could bring(=lead) you to understand it.Those gangsters compelled(or forced,constrained, coerced)me to accept the proposal.Poverty forced him to work hard.Hunger drove(or goaded)him to steal. He condemned them to be imprisoned. The judge sentenced him to die. He likes(or hates,loves)his wife to dress well,summer to come. I should prefer my daughter to study art,them to talk less. d.He charged me to send the letter,me to keep the diamond. He commissioned me to buy a car for him. He set his servant to go to the market,her to cook. He trusts me to arrange everything. He sent me to pick grapes. He enjoined us to obey. I phoned(or called,wired,wrote)him to come. He ordered(or directed,commanded)his men to get ready.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

They delegated him to speak at the meeting. He instructed the agent to sell it. I was assigned(or scheduled)to sing. He summoned them to appear. e.I should not oblige you to spend your money. I am obliged to help him. He pressed(or urged)me to drink more. They invited(or asked)me to spend the vacation at their country-house; him to speak,to sing,to dance. He welcomes you to enjoy his hospitality. f.They begged him to accompany them,me to help them. They entreated(or besought)the mayor to pardon them,me to do something for them. They conjured him not to criticize them. They implored him to spare their son,the king to be mer- ciful. I adjured him to tell me the truth. They prayed the god to save them,the enemy to set them free. g.He advised(or counselled,recommended)his friend to work hard,his friends to try this pill. He persuaded his friend to work hard,me to help her. They warned(or cautioned)me not to go out that night,me to be careful. I pledge myself not to be unjust. I have committed myself to support his son. I bound myself(or him)to pay the debt.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

h.He suffered nobody to touch his flowers,himself to be caught. He allowed(or permitted)the students to play in the classroom,but other teachers forbade them to do so. He cannot bear any man to speak with his wife. He left the students to find it out,the readers to judge,them to sink or swim. i.The ticket entitled the bearer to see the movie.His ability entitled him to command an army. I empowered him to supervise the city. The law authorized the judge to sentence him to death. They promoted him to direct this department. They licensed me to practise medicine. j.His success decided me to try. The circumstance determined him to work hard. We programed her to sing. We enrolled him to be a freshman. The weather influenced him to change his mind. The high salary disposed(or inclined)him to take the job. God has chosen us to take land. I selected(or picked,found)a man to teach English. k.I induced him to accompany me.Nothing could induce him to believe it. This matter led me to think(or him to make a discovery). Nothing can move him to change his mind. He bribed them to keep silent about his crime.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

Poverty might prompt(or entice,move)me to commit a crime. They tempted him to be a playboy. He coaxed her to give her apple to him. He badgered his father to buy a bicycle for him. l.He helped me(to)do everything,us(to)cook rice;aid- ed us to do it (or in doing it). He assisted me to prepare coffee(less common than in preparing coffee). His wealth enabled him to buy a big building. Their assistance enabled me to succeed. They prepared their students to take the exam.I have to prepare her to receive the bad news. m.You provoked(or exasperated)him to speak rudely. They challenged(or dared,defied)us to fight again. This success inspired(or prompted,encouraged)me to study harder. They excited(or incited,stimulated)the people to rebel. n.They trained(or disciplined)him to be patient. They educate(or teach,bring up)David to be nice. He conditioned them to watch each other. I must accustom myself to get up earlier. I will trouble(or bother,thank)you to do something. I understood(or misunderstood)him to say so. I have(never)known him to curse,him to help the poor. o.He used(or employed,utilized)the coconut shell to take water.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

He beckoned them to approach,them to draw nearer. They whispered us to be quiet. He signed(or signalled)(to,for)them to wait. He nudged her to speak. He has paid(or hired)you to do the dirty work;bribed the police to excuse his offence;engaged(or employed) me to type. 这种句型有一些变体: a.He caused(or ordered,enabled)music to be played.(在没有必要说明谁 演奏时,可用不定式的被动形式) He allowed(or permitted)his good name to be soiled. b.I do not want there to be another war(=another war to come). (another was 为宾语,to be there 为补语。) He likes(or wishes)there to be a picnic(=a picnic to take place). He held there to be no god(=that there is no god). He meant there to be no trouble. He hates there to be any quarrel. I should prefer there to be a meeting. I hate there to be some misunderstanding between us. I expect there to be some kind of agreement. 但注意: I promised him to work harder(=that I would work harder;不是指 that he would work harder).

43.S+IV.P+N+I(John cried to me to stop.)
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济南沃尔得国际英语

约有40个不及物动词后面跟特定的介词,可用作宾补动词,用不定式作补语: a.I prayed(to)God to save me. I telephoned(or wrote,wired)to her to come immedi- ately. He cried(out)(or shouted)to her to stop. The bugle called to the troops to assemble. I motioned(or signalled)(to)them to go away. He beckoned(to)me to follow. He signed(to)me to take a seat. I nodded to him to do so. I proposed(or suggested)to John to accompany me. We appealed to(or called upon)him to do something. We applied to the government to assist us. We looked to him to supply us with rice. b.They asked for us to settle the matter. They gestured and shouted for him to come back. Most of us longed(or hoped)for the war to be over,but some dreaded for a peace to come. I wished(or pressed)for it to be done at once. I agree for him to pay me next week. The plan provided for the rich to assist the poor. I have arranged(or planned)for her to go to college. We have fixed for the wedding to take place on Sunday. We waited for them to tell us the news.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

They sent for him to build the house(or the doctor to come at once). He didn't care for me to do anything for him. They looked for someone to assist them.They did not look for a stranger to come at night. The company advertised for boys to do the job. c.We called upon him to act. We depended(or relied,counted)upon him to help us. Everything depends upon him not to interfere.We count on him not to know it(=count on the chance that he does not know it). He prevailed upon her to marry him. They fixed on him to speak on their behalf. d.I pleaded with him to do something for me. They demand of me to keep a secret. We beg of him to save our lives. He trusts in me to help him. He yelled at her to stop. 试和上述句子比较: I made signs for(=signed)him to come,made an appeal to (=requested) them to help the victims. I am anxious(or willing,impatient,in a hurry)for(= entreat)John to come.

44.S+FV+N+I(John let me do it.) 约有20个宾补动词用不带 to 的不定式作补语:
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济南沃尔得国际英语

I made him study(不要用 to study)hard.I will make him stay. He let me go(不要用 to go).Let him come here at seven. Let it be destroyed. He had some accident happen to him(=Some accident happened to him).I had many friends call on me. I watched(or looked at,beheld,perceived,saw,observed,noticed)him come.We watched the plane fly.He found (or witnessed)her speak with someone.He heard(or overheard,listened to)her sing.I felt the pressure in- crease.He felt himself grow interested in music. I have(never)known him tell lies. He let slip the opportunity(=let the opportunity slip),let fall a hint (=let a hint fall),let go my hand,let drop the unessential parts,let pass my mistake. 在某些结构中,一些宾语可省略: She helped(me)make my clothes.(Am.) He has to make do(=manage)with a table for a bed. He made believe(=pretended)not to see me. I hear(people)say that John has died,hear(people)tell(or speak, talk)of the accident. 在某些宾补动词后 to 可用可不用: I will have him(to)come at once.Would you have me(to) believe it. He'll help(me)(to)carry it.Catherine helps(me)(to) cook the dinner.(Am.) He bade me(to)wait. I have never known(or never knew)him(to)behave so bad- ly. 不要说:
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济南沃尔得国际英语

I make him studies hard.(错句) I make him to study hard.(错句)

45.S+FV+N+Prp 或 S+IV.P+N+Prp(John kept me waiting.) 至少有60个宾补动词可用现在分词作补语。 a.约有40个宾补动词后面不用 as: 1)They kept me waiting;kept the machine running. He left me standing outside.The news left me wondering. I cannot have(=cannot suffer)(or won't have)them wasting their time.I will have(=insist on)you finishing it by January.We shall have the rain coming (=The rain will come).I had many friends waiting for me(=Many friends waited for me). He got his son learning(=made his son learn)English,the water boiling. He got(=had)some friends wait- ing for him(=Some friends waited for him). 2)I took her(out)shopping,hunting. The bell brought people gathering on the square. He sent his child tramping,begging;sent the price soaring,them packing,his enemy sprawling backwards. He set the house burning.The story set them laughing,roaring,gasping, trembling,thinking.He started (or set)the engine running,the ball flying,the clock going,the music playing.He started(=set) me laughing. (Cf.Let us set the period as beginning on June 1.) 3)I caught him(while he was)stealing it.He caught you doing that.I met her(while she was)walking with John.He surprised her bathing in the river. I sensed him doing something very mysteriously.I felt the house shaking, my heart beating,my end approaching;felt myself trembling in his arms.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

I saw(or beheld,looked at,observed,watched,glimpsed,perceived, descried,scanned)a rat running past;noticed(or felt,found)him stealing something.I saw(or heard)him talking with her (=I happened to observe part of the action).I saw (or heard)him talk with her(=I observed the whole action.)但:I should like to hear him talk(不用 talking)with her. 4)I heard him giving orders. His imagination depicts(or pictures,paints)himself hovering in the sky.I imagined(or fancy)him wandering about the city like a beggar.(Cf. Imagine yourself as being respected by your friends.) He thought himself doing the best thing.Never suppose yourself knowing everything. I anticipated something happening. I recollected(or recalled,remembered)her glancing at me more than once. 5)Newspapers reported him missing. I cannot understand(or conceive)him doing such a foolish act. I don't like(or hate,dislike,detest)my wife going out often;don't want anyone cheating me. I saw lying on the street a dead man who seemed to have been killed several days earlier.(如果宾语太长,分词应放在宾语前面。) He set running the engine which we had thought use- less. b.至少有20个不及物动词要求分词前加 as 才能变成宾补动词: He fancied her clothes as being made of gold;recognized me as speaking on behalf of all;accepted me as having seen much of the world;described the city as expressing a modern idea of speed;treated money as having little value;dismissed the fault as being the result of carelessness;visualized her as having pretty eyes;saw life as being a dream;struck me as being a fool. It is regarded(or looked upon)as(being)useless,accepted as(being) the largest,recorded as(being)the best,portrayed as belonging to a new
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济南沃尔得国际英语

era.He is quoted as saying that education is all important;well-known as being upright. c.有些不及物动词加介词可以用作宾补动词,后面用分词作补语。由于这类句子很 少,或许可以把 S+IV.P+N+ PrP 这种句型看作是和 S+FV+N+PrP 一样: They heard of him living a comfortable life;told of my brother having succeeded;listened to her singing; thought of their boss planning to fire them. I think of him as representing modern writers.They spoke of the factory as(being)the best.They looked upon him as(being)their teacher;referred to the book as teaching everything.Bad novels are sometimes referred to as poisoning the mind of young people.

46.S+FV+N+PaP(John had it done.) 1533 约有30个宾补动词可用过去分词作补语:

a.She had a red dress made,a picture taken,her teeth pulled out,me put in prison.He had his watch stolen.King Charles had his head cut off.I had no breath left,no rice left,my car repaired. (She made a red dress.=She made it herself.She had a red dress made. =Someone made it for her.He had his watch stolen.=Someone stole it.不是 He caused someone to steal it.have 表示状态。) The house has its windows broken. b.You must get your hair cut,the rules obeyed,your house cleaned.He got his watch dislocated.If you do so,you will get yourself disliked (=become unpopular). (You must get your hair cut.=You must cause somebody to cut your hair. get 表示动作。) c.He could not make his voice heard.His power made him respected.He made his influence felt and recognized,the secret known,the proposal listened to,it understood that he was an honest man.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

He will keep me well informed,the bitter lesson remembered,every child well fed,his mouth shut. He left the matter undecided,it unsaid,his work half done,no means untried,no stone unturned. d.I heard my name called.Have you ever heard Italian spoken?I've never heard this song sung. He felt himself lifted up,insulted,hypnotized. I must(or will)see(=ensure)the work done,her revenged.I've never seen a man hanged.He saw the village burned. He found the work already done,his country attacked by the enemy,the house deserted,his eyes dazzled by light,himself elected president. He watched(or perceived,noticed)the situation changed,his country occupied by foreigners. e.He imagined himself insulted;fancied himself defeated,lost,buried. He thought himself neglected(or honoured)by his friends. I considered matters settled,myself discarded by men. I want(or wish,desire)the package insured,everything finished by twelve;like it done at once,such things discussed;preferred grammar studied first. I owned(or confessed,professed,acknowledged)myself beaten,myself mistaken. f.He brought me acquainted with her. He reported seven planes shot down,twenty persons killed. He ordered them banished from the city. I cannot bear this matter mentioned again. 间或过去分词前有一个 being 表示动作正在(被)进行:

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济南沃尔得国际英语

I saw the village burned.(=The village was burned when I saw it.) I saw the village being burned.(=The village was being burnt when I saw it.)(更形象) He first discovered potatoes being used as food. I found the work being done. I heard the song being sung. 如果宾语过长,过去分词可以放在宾语前面: He left untouched all the things to be done immediately. He heard played again the music he had played when young.

47.S+FV+it+C+I or G or CI(John made it a rule to get up early or that everyone should obey him.) 约有40个宾补动词可用不定式、动名词、that 从句或疑问词引起的从句作宾语,但 它们都由 it 代表,而它们本身则移到补语后面。补语可以是形容词、名词、介词短语或 分词: a.不定式作宾语: 1)He acknowledged it difficult(or troublesome)(形容词作补语)to begin any business.He considered(or esteemed,held)it convenient to come at once.He imagined(or fancied)it easy to learn a language.He supposed it wrong to tell a lie.They believed(or called)it silly to do so.I think it fit(or well)to wait here.They declared(or affirmed)it illegal to criticize the government. 2)He made it a rule(or a point,his entire business)(名词作补语)not to eat between meals.The situation rendered it a matter of difficulty to tell the truth.She judged it a useless attempt to advise him.They don't hold it a sin to steal.They pronounced it a crime to say anything against them.He accounted it fun to go to sea.He thought it no harm to smoke. 3)He took(or had)it upon himself(介词短语作补语) to settle the problem.He took it into his head to invent a translating machine.He had it
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济南沃尔得国际英语

in his mind(or his head,his thought)to talk with her seriously;had it in mind(or in view,in contemplation)to advise her.He had it in charge to take care of an orphan.He has it in his power to do good or evil.He wished it in his power to do good.He considered it beyond his power to help me.He put it in his head to go to sea.He has left it to me to decide.He owed it (=was under an obligation) to his boss to tell the secret(or to work hard).He couldn't find it in his heart(or mind,conscience)to abandon her. 4)He saw(it)fit(or good)to take a rest;thought(it) fit(or right, well,proper)to wait and see(it 有时省略。)He made(it)plain that we would fight on for democracy. 5)He regarded it as of great importance for you to be humble;looked upon it as useless for us to learn art. b.动名词作宾语: 1)He considered it useless(形容词作补语)discussing the matter with them.I found it tiresome doing the same thing every day. 2)He thought it a pity(名词作补语)having to let slip the chance.I don't call it living being a blind man.I think it dangerous your doing so. c.That 从句作宾语: 1)I thought it likely(形容词作补语)that he would fail.He considered it important that everything should be finished by seven.He made(it)clear(or plain)that he could not help anybody.He took it amiss (or ill, unfriendly,unkindly)that I kept reticent. 2)He wished it to be understood(不定式作补语)that she is not his wife. 3)He had heard it said(过去分词作补语)that somebody would murder him. He won't have it concluded that his son is a fool. 4)The trial put it beyond a doubt(介词短语作补语)that he was the murderer.He cast(or flung,threw)it in my teeth that I was a toady.He took it to heart that I called him a fool.I owe it to him that I am still alive.I have it on good authority(or by all accounts)that she will marry John.They took it for granted that a girl must marry before twenty.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

5)He laid it down(地点副词作补语)that we should be more frugal.He set it about that she was to marry him. 6)He gave it as his opinion(补语前加 as)that all men are alike.You may take it as a rule that I am ready to help any friend. d.疑问句引起的从句作宾语: 1)He declared it mysterious(形容词作补语)why she should be killed. 2)He found it astonishing(现在分词作补语)how they could accomplish it. 3)I heard it debated(过去分词作补语)whether country life is good.They left it undecided who was to be the chief.He wanted it answered how the picture was drawn.(Cf.S+FV+N+PaP) 试比较下面句子: 不定式、动名词、that 从句或疑问词引起的从句作主语时,也常用 it 代表它们,本 身则移到句子后面(参阅1318-20): It is very easy to talk nonsense. It seems necessary that we should know many people.

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