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史上最全的 构词法 用法详解


史上最全的 构词法用法详解
语言中词的总和构成词汇,但是词汇并不是一堆杂乱无章、互不相关的群体,而是一 个严密体系,在这个结构的体系中,词与词之间有着各种各样的联系。英语中的这些联系的 规律总结起来就是构词。英语中构词的方法就是构词法。构词法主要有合成法、转化法、派 生法和缩略法四种。掌握构词法是迅速扩大词汇量的重要方法之一。

第一节 合成法

/>合成法就是指由两个或两个以上的单词合成的词叫合成词。 这种构词方式主要有两种: 复合法、结合法。合成法主要是构成合成名词和合成形容词。 复合法构成的复合词,它们各个结合的部分相互间的语法关系是紧密相关的。如 blackboard 和 darkroom 都是形容词和名词形成的结构,writing desk 是动词名词和名词形 式的结构。 结合法形成的词是形态合成词, 它的结合是用一个起来连接作用的中缀来把两个或两 上以上的词根词素紧紧的连缀在一起。如,用辅音字母-s-来缀全两个词根词素构成的词 有:salesman, townspeople 等。 合成的方式常见的有如下几种: 一、合成名词 1、名词/代词+名词: woman-doctor, women-doctors, workshop, spaceship, he-goat, coal fire, motorcycle, gas cooker, oil well, power plant, silk worm, gold mine, bottleneck, piano keys, telephonereceiver, television screen, chairman, fireman, motorman, police-officer, postman, pine tree, girl friend, boy friend, goldfish, raindrop, birdcage, breakfast time, flowerbed, tearoom, 2、动词+名词:blowpipe, flashlight, watchdog, call-girl, searchlight 3、形容词+名词: blacksmith, blackboard, supermarket, superman, darkroom, blackbird, highchair, hothouse, greenhouse, madman 4、动名词+名词: reading-room, sitting-room, classroom, schoolroom, dining room, building materials, dancing girl, cleaning women, flying machine, washing machine, working conditions, boilding point, drinking water, swimming pool, drinking cup, typing paper, writing desk, sewing machine, walking stick,
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5、名词+动名词: machine-building, shoe-making, paper-correcting, book-keeping, dressmaking, letter-writing, story-telling, town-planning, handwriting, sun-bathing, horse riding, churchgoing, daydreaming 6、动词+副词:stand-by, take-off, cut-off, breakdown 7、副词+名词:downfall, rainfall, outhouse 8、现在分词+名词: running dog, running water, flying fish, rising sun, burning stick, 9、名词+介词+名词:man-of-war, editor-in-chief, 10、名词+连词字母+名词:handiwork, nowadays 11、介词/副词+名词:afternoon, inland, overbalance 二、合成形容词 1、形容词+名词+ed:five-storeyed, one-eyed, double-faced, blue-eyed, 2、名词+名词+ed:honey-mouthed, 3、名词/代词+分词: man-made, heart-broken, self-educated, snow-covered, man-eating, peace-loving, paper-making, ocean-going, heartfelt, handmade, home-made, sunburnt, weather-beaten 4、名词/代词+形容词: color-blind, ice-cool, seasick, airsick, tax-free, grass-green, snow-white, rock-hard, sea-green 5、形容词/数词+名词:full-time, high-grade, second-hand, 6、形容词/数词+分词:ready-made, sleepy-looking, good-looking,

7、副词+分词:

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far-reaching, so-called, hard-working, far-reaching, well-meaning, newly-laid, well-meant, wide-spread 8、副词+形容词:ever-green, under-ripe, 9、形容词+形容词:dark-blue, red-hot, grey-green 10、介词+名词:downhill, overnight 三、合成副词 1、形容词+名词:sometimes, meanwhile 2、副词+名词:oftentimes, indoors, outdoors, overhead 3、介词+名词:alongside, beforehand 4、名词+形容词:skyhigh, stonestill, 5、副词+介词:nearby, upalong, 四、合成动词 1、 名词+动词:overhear, underline 2、 形容词+动词:moonwalk 3、 副词+动词:white-wash, safeguard 五、其它合成词 1、合成代词:everybody, everyone, everything, anyone, anybody, anything 2、合成介词:outside, inside, throughout

第二节 转化法
不用借助构词词缀,把一个单词从一种词类转化成另一种词类的方法就是转化法。由 于词类转化的结果,英语中就形成了大量外形相同但词类不同的词,即同形异类词。转化主 要有如下几种类型。 一、名词起定语作用(类似名词转化为形容词): space travel, television network, stone table, paper bag, water pipe, history teacher, college students 二、名词转化为动词:
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boat ? go boating, dust ? to dust the desk, film ? to film this story, mail ? to mail, ship ? to ship the goods, train ? to train 三、形容词转化为动词: slow ? to slow down a little bit, dry ? to dry your hands, wrong ? to wrong sb, free ? to free the slaves, narrow ? to narrow the street, 四、动词转化为名词: to act ? an act, to dress ? a good dress, to doubt ? without any doubt, to guide us ? a local guide, to smell ? a terrible smell, to love ? love of one’ s country, to taste ? a good taste, to demand ? a demand for more equal rights 五、形容词转化为名词: chemical ? dangerous chemicals, daily ? China Daily, final ? a maths final, native ? a native

第三节 派生法
派生法又叫词缀法,即在一个单词前或其后加上词缀,构成新的单词。中学英语中以 派生法生成的词汇占整个中学词汇总量的 25%。 一、前缀 一般说来前缀不会改变一个词的词性。 1、否定前缀 (1) una. un +形容词:unfit, unhappy, unfair, unlucky, unfortunate, unkind, unimportant, unnecessary, uncomfortable, unselfish, unusual, uncommon, unexpected, unknown, unthinkable, unbelievable, unseen, unforgettable, unwise, unhealthy, unpleasant, unable, untrue b. un+副词:undoubtedly, unexpectedly, unfortunately, unusually, unhappily, unluckily 由 un+形容词构成的词除了 unknown, unseen, unfit 等词之外, 其它词都可变为加 -ly 的副词(个别形容词尾需要变动)。 c. un+动词:uncover, untie, unlock, undress, undo, unpack
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(2) im+形容词:impossible, impolite (3) in+形容词:incorrect, incomplete, invisible, independent (4) ir+形容词:irregular (5) mis+动词:misspell, misunderstand, mistake (6) disa. dis+名词:dishonour, disease, discomfort b. dis+形容词:dishonest, discouraged c. dis+动词:disappear, dislike, discover, disclose, disagree, discomfort, dismiss 2、表示空间、位置关系的前缀 (1) a-, 大多加在音节较少的名词或不及物动词上构成新词, 表示 “在……之上、 向……、 处于……状态”:ahead, abroad, aside, alive, awake, above, about 等。 (2) fore-,表示“在……前面”:forehead, foreground, forearm, foreleg (3) in, il, im, ir 表示“向……内 在……内”:inside, include, import (4) inter-,表示“在……间、相互”:international (5) intro-,表示“在(向)……内”:introduce (6) out-,表示“向外”:outside, outlook, outdoors, outflow (7) over-, 表示 “在上面的、 在外的” : overhead, overlook, overcoat, overcome, overtime, overgrow (8) pre-,表示“在前”:prefix, preposition (9) pro-,表示“在(向)前”:progress, programme (10) sur-,表示“在……上”:surface, surround (11) trans_,表示“转移”:translate (12) under-,表示“在……下”:undergraound, underline (13) up-,表示“向上”:upward, upset, upstairs
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(14) be-,表示“在,靠近”:before, behind, below, between, beyond (15)ex-,表示“向外,从……出来”:exchange, export (16) tele-,表示“远”:telephone, television, telegram, telegraph 3、表示时间、序列关系的前缀 (1) fore-,表示“在前,预先”:foreword, foresight, foretell (2) mid-,表示“中间”:midnight, midsummer, midautumn (3) post-,表示“在……后”:postwar, postlistening (4) re-,表示“重复”:review, retell, rewrite, replace, return, rebuild (5) extra-,表示“格外、超越”:extraordinary (6) over-,表示“超过”: overcome, overeat, overpass (7) super-, 表示 “极、 超” : supermarket, superpower, superman, superpower 4、表示共同、相等关系 (1) com- (在 b, m, p 前),col-,con-,cor- (com 在 g, l, r 及其它辅音前) : company, cnnect, correct (2) co-:cooperate, coexist (3) sym-:sympathy, symphony 5、表示整个、完全关系 (1) al-:alone, almost, altogether (2) over-:overall, overflow, overfall 6、表示“离、离开” (1) a-:arise, away, apart (2) de-:depart, dewater, decolour (3) se-:separate, select (4) for-:forget, forgive
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7、变换词类作用的前缀 (1) en-/em-:enable, enlarge, enrich, enclose, empower (2) ad-,ac-,af-,ag-,an-,ap-,ar-,as-,at-,(ad-在 c, f, g, I, n, p, r , s, t 前的变体):adapt, across, affect, appear, arrange, assist, attend, attract 8、表示加强意义 (1) a-:ashamed, arouse, amuse (2) ad-:address, admire, advise, advance (3) be-:belong, believe 9、表示特殊意义 (1) arch-,表示“首位、主要”:architect (2) auto-,表示“自动”:automobile, autobiography (3) magni-,表示“大”:maginificent (4) micro-,表示“微小”:microscope, Microsoft, microcomputer (5) bi-,表示“数量”:biweekly, bicycle, bimonthly (6) mini-,表示“小型”:minibus, miniskirt, mini-factory, mini-market 二、后缀 后缀是指在一个词的尾部加上一个词缀构成新的词。后缀往往会改变一个词的词性。 常用后缀大约有 96 个,大致可分为五类。 1、名词后缀 (1) 构成表示人的名词后缀 a. 动词+er 表示人:traveller, hunter, reader, worker, keeper, driver, listener, discoverer, reporter, owner, speaker, weaver, winner, buyer, leader, runner, swimmer, ruler, viewer b. 名词+er 表示人或物:villager, prisoner, geographer, farmer, lawyer, cooker c. 形容词+er 表示人:foreigner, stranger, southerner

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d. 动词+or 表示人:actor, director, inventor, operator, governor, professor, conductor, visitor, sailor e. 名词+eer 表示人:engineer, volunteer, mountaineer, pioneer f. 名词(动词)+ress 表示女性:actress, waitress, authouress, millionaires, tailoress, tigeress g. 名词+cian:mathematician, physician, politician, musician h. 名词+ese:Chinese, Japanese, Portugese, Taiwanese, Cantanese i. 名词+an:American, Australian, Austrian, Canadian, Hungarian, Indian, Italian, Russian j. 名词(或-al 结尾的形容词)+ist:artist, communist, novelist, physicist, violinist, pianist, naturalist, socialist, scientist, typist (2) 构成抽象名词与集合名词的后缀 a. 动词+age:package, marriage, carriage, postage, storage, luggage, baggage, percentage b. 动词+ure:failure, pleasure, pressure, mixture, fixture c. 形容词+ity:majority, electricity, activity, equality, possiblility, ablility d. 动词+ment:argument, judgement, achievement, astonishement, development, excitement, encouragement, movement, government, punishment, treatment, statement, department, enrichment e. 动词+ion/sion/ation/action/cation/ition:education, graduation, translation, separation, operation, celebration, congratulation, action, invention, attraction, connection, election, collection, devotion, pollution, decision, division, attention, description, production, redution, revision, permission, examination, explanation, consideration, invitation, imagination, pronunciation, satisfaction, addition, repetition, competition f. 名词/形容词/动词+ery/ry:bravery, discovery, machinery, slavery, chemistry g. 形容词/动词+y: difficulty, honesty, safety, activity, injury, unity, discovery h. 动词+al:arrival, survival, burial, proposal, disapproval, refusal
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i. 名词/形容词+ship:friendship, leadership, hardship, citizenship, comradeship, professorship, warship, memberhip j. 名词+hood:boyhood, girlhood, childhood, neighbourhood, manhood k. 动词+ance/ence:appearance, entrance, guidance, difference, reference l.. 形容词/动词+th:truth, length, youth, strength, depth, wealth, warmth, width, growth m. 形容词/名词+dom:wisdom, freedom, kingdom n. 形容词/名词+ism:communism, socialism, Marxism, imperialism o. 动词+ing:building, feeling, dancing, meeting p. 形容词+ness:kindness, illness, sickness, brightness, selfness, correctness, happiness, darkness, weakness, carelessness 2、形容词后缀 (1) 名词/动词+able/ible:valuable, reasonable, comfortable, countable, enjoyable, horrible, terrible, responsible (2) 名词+al/ia/ual:cultural, agricultural, natural, physical, musical, practical, national, technical, industrial, material, actual (3) 名词+ic/ical:electric, basic, electric, atomic, plastic, magic, scientific, electrical, historical, medical, chemical, physical (4) 名词+ish:foolish, childish, womanish, Spanish, British, English (5) 名词/动词+ful:careful, powerful., tearful, beautiful, hopeful, wonderful, fearful, thankful, harmful, useful, frightful (6) 名词/动词+less: careless, hopeless, useless, harmless, homeless, wireless, endless, selfless, powerless, fearless, valueless (7) 名词+ar:regular, particular, (8) 名词+ary:revolutionary, extraordinary, contrary (9) 名词/形容词+ly:friendly, motherly, brotherly, monthly, weakly, wooly, lovely, lively, lonely
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(10) 名词+en:wooden, woolen, golden, (11) 名词+ern:eastern, western, northern, southern (12) 名词+y:cloudly, sunny, shiny, windy, rainy, snowy, lucky, salty, hilly, funny, healthy, sleepy, foggy, dusty, lucky, muddy, wealthy, noisy, easy, dirty, thirsty, angry, hungry, smoky, sandy (13) 名词+ous/ious:dangerous, famous, nervous, poisonous, serious, curious, various, mountainous, homourous (14) 名词/动词+some:handsome, troublesome, tiresome (15) 动词+ant:pleasant, excellent (16) 动词+ive(atove):active, expensive, talkactive, comparative, relative (17) 动词+ed:excited, learned, tired, interested, surprised, pleased (18) 动词+ing:interesting, moving, exciting, tiring, surprising 3、副词后缀 (1) 形容词+ly:badly, nearly, mostly, quickly, roughtly, quietly, sliently, sadly, slowly, commonly, softly, frequently, rapidly, deeply, slightly, lightly, fairly, smartly, certainly, excitedly, curiously, firmly, sliently, constantly, seriously, particularly, coldly, suddenly, freely, highly, lately, finely, politely, completely, widely, immediately, unfortunately, surely, closely, truly, wholly, probably, simply, possibly, impossibly, getly, terribly, easily, busily, happily, heavily, angrily, prettily, hungrily, shyly, dryly, carefully, finally, usually, actually, really, naturally, beautifully, dully, fully, scientifically, phsically (2) 名词/介词+ward/wards:northward, southward, eastward, westeward, downward, upward, backward, forward, toward, afterwards 4、动词后缀 (1) 形容词/名词+en: deepen, broaden, widen, darken, weaken, sharpen, blacken, redden, whiten, tighten, stengthen, lengthen, heighten (2) 形容词/名词+fy:beautify, satisfy, electrify, purify, terrify

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(3) 名词/形容词+ ize/ise:realize, modernize (4) -ate/由外来词构成:libreate, educate, operate, translate, graduate, separate, celebrate, congratulate (5) -ish/由外来词构成:finish, publish, astonish (6) 形容词+en:enable, enlarge, enrich 5、数词后缀 (1) 基数词+teen:thirteen, fourteenk fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen (2) 基数词+ty:twenty, thirty, forty, fifty (3) 基数词+th:fourth, fifth, sixth, eighth, ninth 三、中缀 在英语有些词在结合时,需要有一个中间的起连接作用的中缀,这类词汇不多,常见 的中缀是字母―s―。如:salesgirl, salesman, townspeople, townsman。

第四节 缩略法
缩略法是把原有的词汇通过缩短,在读音和写法一呈现新的形式,这种构词方式用得 很普遍,特别是近几年来,随着科学技术的飞速发展,产生了很多新的缩略词。缩略法构词 主要有如下几种。 一、剪切法(clipping) 剪切法的含义是从某个词的完整形式中删除一个或更多音节, 这种方法构成的词汇往 往认为是非正式的。 1、剪切原词的开始部分:omnibus---bus, bicycle---cycle, airplane/aeroplane---plane, taxicab---cab, telephone---phone 2、剪切原词的末尾部分:advertisment---ad, examination---exam, photograph--- photo, taxicab---taxi, laboratory---lab, public house---pub (3) 剪切原词的中间部分:foot/feet---ft, half---hf, Greek---GK, yard---yd, year---yr, continued---contd

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(4) 剪切原词的两端部分, 保留中间的部分字母:infludenza---flu, refiderator---fridge 二、混成法 (blending) 混成法是由两个词混合或紧缩而成为一个复合词的方法。 这种复合词都保留了原来两 个词的一部分,其后半表示主体,前半部分表示属性。 breakfast+luch ? brunch smoke+fog ? smog motor+hotel ? motel boat +motor ? botor news+broadcast ? newscast television+braodcast ? telecast cheese+hamburger ? cheeseburger beef+hamburger ? beefburger European+television ? Eurovision 三、用首字母缩略(acronym) 大量的缩略语是其所含各个成分的第一个字母或多个字母构成的, 由这种方式杨成的 词叫做首字母缩略语 (acronym)。 (1) 按首字母拼读的缩略语:British Broadcasting Corporation---BBC, European Economic Community---EEC, United Nations---UN, Unidentified Flying Object---UFO, Very Important Person---VIP, Do-it-yourself---DIY, World Tread Organization---WTO (2) 象单词一样拼读的首字母缩略语:North Atlantic Treaty Organization---NATO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization---UNESCO, lightwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation---laser, acquired immunity deficiency syndrome---AIDS

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