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Unit 4


1 . Y o u s h o u l d g o n o w , otherwise ( 否 则 ) you’ll miss the bus. 2.He donated(捐献) a sum of money from his private purse.

3.The boy dreamed of becoming an astronaut (宇航员).
4.The place where he was born was very remote (偏远的).

5.His low income (收入) can’t provide for such a big family. 6.The university is going to have an anniversary (庆典). 7.He can ’ t grasp the basic concepts mathematics. 8.After a while his eyes adjusted dark. to the of

9.They carried out security

checks at the

10.The organization distributed food to the

earthquake victims.

1. hear from 接到??的信 2. (be) dying to 极想;渴望 3. for sure 无疑,肯定

4. come across(偶然)遇见
5. bubble over 冒着泡;溢出;抑制不住地激动 起来 6. stick out 坚持到底;伸出 7. upside down 颠倒,翻转 8. dry out (使浸水等之物)完全变干,干透 9. dry up (指河流、井等)干涸 10.in need 在困难中;在危急中

1.Later,I noticed a tin can standing upside down on the grill over the fire. 后来我发 现有一个锡罐子倒放在火炉的烤架上。 此句中的noticed a tin can


standing是一个动词后接 复合宾语的结构。其 中的宾语是 a tin can ,standing作宾语补足语。 ________常可用在see,watch,hear,feel,find, 现在分词


2.It was such a privilege to have spent a day with Tombe’s family.同汤伯一家度过一 天是一种荣耀。 考点提炼 这是一个由it作 形式主语,代替后

it作形式主语有以下几种情况: (1)It is/seems/feels...+adj.+to do sth. (2)It is+n.+to do sth. (3)It+动词短语+to do sth.

3.Sometimes I wonder how relevant chemistry
is to these students,most of whom will be going back to their villages after Year 8 anyway.有时候,我真想知道,化学对这些孩子 究竟有多大的用处。他们中大多数学完八年级

考点提炼 名词/代词/数词+of+which/whom... 引导定语从句。先行词若是 物 ,关系词用 which;先行词若是 人,关系词用 whom。关系代 词充当介词的宾语。

The hut was dark inside so it took time for our eyes to adjust.(回归课本P30) 观察思考

Who can adjust the focus of a camera?
谁会调准照相机的焦距? The former soldiers have difficulty in adjusting to civilian life. 退伍军人很难适应平民生活。

The body quickly adjusts (itself) to changes in temperature. 身体迅速(自行)调节以适应气温的变化。 归纳总结

adjust __________________ vt. & vi.调整;使 。 适合 adjust to 适应
adjust oneself to...使自己适应于??

adjustable adj.可调整的,可调节的
adjustable seat belts可调节的座椅安全带 adjustment n.调整,调节;适应 make an adjustment作出调整

即学即用 (1)调好闹钟的定时装置。 Adjust the setting of the alarm clock.

She adjusted the seat to the height of her child. (3)她很快使自己适应了他的生活方式。 She soon adjusted herself to his way of

(4)她发现自己很难适应夜间工作。 She found it hard to adjust to working at night.

Sometimes I wonder how relevant chemistry is to these students,...(回归课本P29)

His nationality isn’t relevant to whether he is a good lawyer. 他的国籍跟他是不是一个好律师不相关。 What you say is not relevant to the

matter in hand.

relevant ________________ 。 adj.有关的;切题的 (1)relevance n.关联;贴切;中肯 relevantly adv.有关地;切题地 irrelevant adj.无关的;不切题的

be related to...
be concerned with...

(2) be relevant to... be involved in...
be associated with...


(3)be irrelevant to sth./sb. 与某物/人不相关

(1)他所说的与我们应讨论的毫无关系。 What he says isn’t relevant to what we should discuss. (2)我们最好注意一下相关细节。

We’d better pay attention to the relevant details .
(3)不要在乎这些不相关的言论。 Don’t care about the irrelevant remarks .

...,even though I could not participate in the conversation.(回归课本P30) 观察思考 She actively participates in local

她积极参与本地政治活动。 I participate in your sufferings and joys.

participate ___________ 。 vi.参加;分担 participate in参加 participate in sth.with sb.同某人参与某事 participant n.参加者;共享者

participation n.参与;参加

易混辨异 participate,attend,take part in,join,join (sb.) in (1)participate 参与,侧重指参加某一项活动,

常与in搭配,即participate in sth.。
(2)attend参加,不强调参加者在活动中所起的作 用。 (3)take part in参加,侧重参加者持积极态度并 在其中起一定作用。

其中的一员。 (5)join (sb.) in指参与某种已进行着的活动。

巧学妙记 加入组织join选,出席到场attend用。

参加活动起作用,take part in来闹场。
和人一起来活动;join sb.in来凑份。 提起participate,和in作伴齐参加。


(1)She didn’t


in the
in the

( 2 ) W e w a n t m o r e participation decision-making.

(3)All the participants in the debate will

have an opportunity to speak.
(4)Details of the competition are available at all participating stores.

Would you like to donate an unusual

观察思考 This van was donated to us by a local

这辆货车是当地一家公司捐赠给我们的。 She donated a large sum of money to the charity. 她捐了一大笔钱给慈善机构。

donate _____________ vt. 捐赠,赠 。 送 donate sth.to sb./sth.把某物捐给?? donate blood to a blood bank 向血库献血 donation n.捐赠,捐赠物;捐款

give/make/present a donation to...捐赠
给?? send a donation to...把捐款寄至?? donator n.捐赠者,赠送者


(1)她捐出了1 000美元。
She made a donation of 1,000 dollars. (2)他向慈善事业捐款数千英镑。 He donated thousands of pounds ___ to charity. (3)所有献的血都要接受艾滋病病毒和其他传染 病检查。 All donated blood is tested for HIV and

other infections.

This gift covers the cost of exercise books and textbooks for community primary schools that operate in poor or remote villages.(回归课本P35)

His company operates in several countries. 他的公司在几个国家都有业务活动。

The doctor is operating on the patient.
医生正在给病人动手术。 The department store is well operated. 那家百货公司经营得法。

归纳总结 operate __________________________________ 。 vi.工作;运转;给??做手术; vt. 操作 (1)operate on/upon sb.给某人动手术 operate a business经营一家企业 (2)come/go into operation开始工作/运转;生效 put/bring into operation实施,施行

do/perform/carry out an operation实施行动
be in operation在运转中,在行动中,在实施中

(1)What skills are needed to operate this machinery (操作这台机器)? (2)The new rules come into operation (开 始生效) from next week.

(3)The system has been in operation (已经
运行) for six months. (4)We will have to operate on his eyes (给他的眼睛动手术).

6.be dying to do sth.
I know you are dying to hear all about my life here,...(回归课本P29) 观察思考

Jerry is dying to be a policeman.
杰瑞渴望成为一名警察。 I’m dying to know what has happened. 我很想知道发生了什么事。

归纳总结 be dying to do sth.意为: 渴望做某事。 be dying for sth.渴望得到某物 be dying of (doing) sth.因(做)某事而要死 die off相继死亡 die away消逝;静下来 die out灭绝,废除;绝迹 die down平息;变弱 die for one’s country为国家捐躯 be anxious to do sth./for sth. be eager to do sth./for sth. 想要??,渴望?? long to do sth./for sth. be thirsty for sth. be keen to do sth.

巧学妙记 提到die短语多,病饿冻死of用, 相继死亡off拖,绝种绝迹跟out,

即学即用——用die的相关短语填空 (1)I am dying for a piano. (2)The deer in the forest are all dying off from disease.

(3)The sound of the music died away.
(4)Those species inadaptable to changing conditions may die out .

7.There were no windows and the doorway

was just big enough to get through.
典例体验 I don’t have enough clothes to last a week.

There’ll be time enough to relax when you’ve finished your work.

There was enough food for all (to eat). 所有人都有足够的食物。

归纳总结 enough用作 形容词修饰名词时,可置 其前或其后。 常见搭配:

enough+n. to do sth.
n.+enough to do sth. enough+n. for sb. (to do sth.) (1)enough用作副词修饰形容词或其他副词时,应置 于被修饰词之后。 (2)enough用作代词作主语或宾语时,常见搭配有: enough for...对??来说足够了 enough to do sth.足够去做??

enough of+n./doing sth.太多??

即学即用 (1)这本书很容易,6岁的孩子都能读得懂。

The book is easy enough for a six-yearold boy to read.

We have enough time to get to the airport.
(3)我受够你了! I’ve had enough of you! (4)如果你们中有足够多的人感兴趣,我们就组 织去看一场戏。 If enough of you are interested,we’ll organize a trip to the theatre.

后缀串联扩展 后缀 -er 含义 表示人或物 表示人,置 于动词后 表示 “从 事??者” 词例

-or -ist

speaker演讲者;扬声器, passenger旅客, firefighter消防队员,reader读者 competitor竞争者,director董事长, editor编辑,operator接线员
chemist化学家,journalist记者, typist打字员,scientist科学家

(adj.→n.) sadness悲伤,darkness黑暗, -ness 表示性质, weakness虚弱 状态

-ment -dom

(v.→n.) 表 statement陈述,argument争论, 示方式,结果, treatment疗法,encouragement鼓励 状态 表示状况,领 域 freedom自由,kingdom王国, wisdom智慧 length长度,width宽度, truth事实,honesty诚实, difficulty困难,ability能力, poverty贫穷,performance表演, silence沉默,difference不同

-th, -ty, -ence (adj.→n.) (ance)


(n./adj.→v.) beautify美化,terrify使恐怖, 表示 “使成为; classify分类,modify更正,修改 使??进入状 态”

-is (z)e

(adj./n.→v.) summarize概括,apologize道歉, 表示 “使成为; realize实现, 使??化” modernize使??现代化
表示 “使??” , broaden拓宽,blacken染黑, 置于形容词、名 strengthen加强,enlarge扩大, 词后(也可以置 enrich使丰富,encourage鼓励 于形容词之前作 前缀) (n./v.→adj.) respectable可敬的,eatable可吃 表示 “可 的,comfortable舒服的,valuable 以??的;显 有价值的,fashionable时髦的, 示??性质” lovable可爱的





beautiful漂亮的, (n./v.→adj.) successful成功的, 表示 “充 wonderful精彩的, 满??的” mouthful满嘴的,shameful可耻的, hopeful充满希望的 jobless无业的,cordless无线的, (n.→adj.)表示 homeless无家可归的, “没有??的” helpless无助的


nervous紧张的, (n.→adj.)表 dangerous危险的, 示 “具有?? poisonous有毒的, 性质的” mountainous山区的, humorous幽默的


quarrelsome好争吵的, (n./v.→adj.)表示 “有??倾向的;使 wearisome使人疲倦的, 人??的;产生?? fearsome可怕的, 的;以??为特征的” bothersome带来麻烦的

cloudy多云的, (n.→adj.) “有?? wealthy富有的, -y 特征的;趋向于??; catchy易记住的, 倾向于??” sunny阳光灿烂的, sleepy困乏的 -ish, foolish愚蠢的, -ic, basic基础的,scientific -ical, (n.→adj.) 科学的,medical医药的, -al, expensive昂贵的,selfish -ive 自私的,productive多产的

【例 1 】 She brought with her three friends,

none of
A.them C.whom 解析


I had ever met before.
(全国Ⅰ高考) B.who D.these

句 意为:她带来了她的三个朋友 ,以前

我 一 个 也 没 见 过 。 本 句 中前 句 是 一个 完 整 的句 子 , 但 没 用 句 号 , 用 了 逗号 , 并 且中 间 也 没有 连 词 ,所 以 后 一个 分 句 应是 前 一 个分 句 的 定语


课文原文 Sometimes I wonder how relevant chemistry is to these students,most of whom will be going back to their villages...

【例2】—Have you



—No.I had the wrong number. A.got in C.got off B.got away D.got through



电话”。A项意为“进入;收获”;B项意为 “逃离”;C项意为“下车”。 课文原文 There were no windows and the doorway was just big enough to get through.

【例 3 】— Could you tell me how to get to Victoria Street?

—Victoria Street? C
Grand Theatre is. A.Such C.That 解析

is where the
(辽宁高考) B.There D.This

句意为: —— 你能告诉我怎么去维多利

亚大街吗?——维多利亚大街?那是Grand T h e a tre 所 在 的 地方 。 ” 用 th a t 替代上 文 的 Victoria Street。 课文原文 Well,that’s actually quite difficult as I don’t speak...

【例4】—Do you want a lift home? — It ’ s very kind of you,but I have to work late in the office.I overslept this morning because my alarm clock A.doesn’t go off D . (江西高考) B.won’t go off

C.wasn’t going off

D.didn’t go off

由上文的I overslept this morning 可

知此处谈论的是发生在过去的一件事,所以用 一般过去时。 课文原文

It was wonderful to hear from you.

【例 5 】 Many Chinese universities provide

scholarships for students
aid. A.in favour of



(天津高考) B.in honour of

C.in face of

D.in need of


帮助的学生提供奖学金。in favour of支持; in honour of为了纪念;in face of面对;in need of需要。

C h o o s e f r o m this catalogue a really useful gift for some of the world ’ s p o o r e s t a nd bring hope for a better future to a community in need.

1.Bill Gates made a generous d onation to
the charity. 2.She lived in a remote village. 3.Would p articipants in the next race come forward?

4.Study harder from now on.O therwise ,you will fall behind.
5.After he studied abroad,he went on

o perating the company.

6.The shears aren’t to cut the grass.

sharp (锋利的) enough

7.They began to regret the purchase (购买)
of the car. 8.Have you heard of the relevant (相关的)

9.The girls complained that the distribution(分发) of prizes was unfair. 10.Today is the tenth anniversary (周年纪念 日) of the country’s independence.

make no difference,hear from,stick out,dry out,be dying to,adjust to,arrange for,come across,be relevant to,in need 1.I’m glad to help people in need .

2.He has left the paint to dry out .
3.When they did not hear from out of his pocket. 5.Whether you go or not makes no difference. 6.It took us some time to adjust to the

dark cave.

7.What he has done is relevant to his
personality. 8.He is dying to lottery tickets. 9.I’ll arrange for a car to meet you at make a fortune by buying

the airport.
10.Don’t refer to the dictionary every time you come across an unknown word.

1.Her success is relevant to (有关) whether she works hard. 2.You can adjust the color on the TV (调整 电视的色彩) by turning this knob.

3.Education used to be a privilege for the
privileged class (特权阶级). 4. The purchasing power of dollar (美元的购 买力) has gone down. 5.All the chickens have been vaccinated (已

接种疫苗) against bird flu.

6.They need your active participation in (积极参与) making process. 7.We are trying our best to build an

economical society (建设一个节约型社会).
8.The city of London is a great financial center (大金融中心).

9.The passengers have to be searched for security reasons (出于安全的考虑).
10.He donated 100,000 yuan (捐款十万元) to

the disaster area.

1.The secret of success is to be each wave of life wash us a little farther up the shore. A.in hope of C.in need of 解析 B.in harmony with D.in honor of


existence, to be always calm,and to let


可知应该是“与生活相协调”。in harmony
with协调,融洽;in hope of希望;in need of需要;in honor of纪念。

2.Because he was A.good at C.unaware of


the new limit,he was

stopped and wanted for speeding. B.tired from D.uninterested in



被 拦 截 扣 留 了驾驶证 。 be unaware of 不 知 道??。

3.A model or an experiment in a science

class can help students see things which
would A remain hidden. B.still A.otherwise




次试验可能会帮助学生看到否则就会隐藏起来 的东西。otherwise否则,要不然,符合句意。

4.A talk on Chinese history
school hall next week. A.is given C.will be given 解析


in the

B.has been given D.gives

根据时间状语next week可知,应用一般


5.He often A.comes out C.hangs out


in the street,doing B.brings out D.puts out

nothing, which worries his parents a lot.


由doing nothing及which worries his

parents a lot 可知“他经常在街上闲逛”。 hang out 闲逛; come out 出版; bring out 阐 明;put out扑灭。

6.When the cheering continued his speech. A.died off


,the teacher

B.died down

C.died out

D.died of

die off相继死亡,先后死去;die down

平息;变弱; die out 灭绝,消失; die of 死 于??,结合题意可知B为正确选项。

7.Big businesses enjoy certain smaller ones don’t have. A.regulations C.arrangements 解析



B.privileges D.distributions


的特权。privilege特殊利益,优惠待遇; regulation规则;调节;arrangement安排;排


8.To tell the truth,I am D have a holiday. A.leading to C.addicted to B.accustomed to D.dying to

9.—She decided to B the kidney (肾) of her dying son to a sick boy in the hospital.

—She is a great mother.
A.award C.subscribe B.donate D.distribute



subscribe捐款;订阅;distribute分发,分配。 结合句意“她决定把她将死的儿子的肾捐给医


10.Every four years,many athletes from different countries D the Olympic Games. A.take part in C.join B.participate in D.both A and B


take part in 与 participate in 都有

“参加某种活动”之意,而 join 意为“加入某 种组织或团体”。

11.The hospital wounded


well,where many

every day.

A.is operated;operation

B.operates;are operated on
C.operates;are operated D.operates;operates on 解析 operate表“运转;经营”时,为不及物 动词,没有被动语态形式,用主动形式表示被 动意思; operate on sb. 为某人做手术,其被 动语态形式为 sb.be operated on ,故选项 B 正 确。

12.The school has very good teachers,but when it D buildings,the school is poor. B.comes out A.comes at

C.comes on

D.comes to

come out出版,发行;come on出现;加

油;继续; come to 涉及;谈到;无 come at 这 种结构。句意为:这个学校有许多好教师,但 涉及到建筑物时,该校就很破了。

13.She had no idea how it A.came about

A that her husband met with trouble again.
B.came across

C.came out

D.came up

考查动词短语辨析。come about发生;

变方向;come across(偶然)遇到;come out 出版;结果是;come up被提出,由题意知应选 A项。

14.I A.do


invite Mr.Green to the party that B.does D.doing

day,but he forgot it completely.
C.did 解析



15.With the guide for. A.led


the way,we finally

got to the village which we were looking B.leading

C.to lead

D.had led

考查 with+ 复合宾语。 to lead 表示将来

动作,根据语境应排除;guide与lead为逻辑上 的主谓关系,故排除A项;with为介词,不是连 词,故排除D项。

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