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初中英语句子成分讲解简单明了附练习答案(精品)


初中英语句子成分
一. 句子的成分:句子的成分是指组成句子的各个部分,即:主语、谓语、表语、 宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语) 、补足语、定语、状语等。 主要成分:主语 和 谓语 句子的成分 次要成分:表语、宾语、补足语、定语、状语 等 (一) 主语:主语是一个句子的主要成分,也是句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首, Subject 表示句子所说的是“什么人”或“什么事物” 。一

般由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名 词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等充当。 注意:在 there be 结构、疑问(当主语不是疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语动词、助动词 或情态动词后面。 例如:Tom is a good boy. We often speak English in class. One-third of the students in this class are girls. To swim in the river is a great pleasure. Smoking does harm to the health. The rich should help the poor. (名词) (代词) (数词)

(不定式) (动名词) (名词化形容词)

When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. (主语从句) It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it 为形式主语,真正的主语是不定式) (二)谓语:谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。说明主语“做什么” 、 Predicate “是什么”或“怎么样” ,一般由动词或动词短语来充当,一般放在主语之后。谓语和 主语在人称和数两方面必须一致。谓语的构成如下: 1. 简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。例如: I like apples. He practices running every morning. ( 动词 ) (动词短语)

2. 复合谓语: (1)由(情态动词或其他助动词+动词原形)构成; 例如:You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (2)由(系动词+表语)构成。 We are having a quick breakfast. (三) 表语:表语用于说明主语的性质、身份、特征和状态等,说明主语“是什么” Predicative 或“怎么样” 。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、动名词、介 词短语、 副词及从句充当。 它一般位于系动词 (如 be, keep, remain, become, get. grow, turn, look, seem, feel, smell, sound, taste 等)之后。表语须和连系动词一起构成句子的复合谓

语,即成系表结构。 如: My mother is a doctor. Is it yours? The weather has turned cold. The speech is exciting. The door is closed. Three times seven is twenty one. His job is to teach English. His hobby is playing football. (名词) (代词) (形容词) (现在分词) (过去分词) (数词) (不定式) (动名词)

The machine must be out of order.(介词短语) Time is up. The class is over. (副词) (表语从句)

The truth is that he has never been abroad.

(四) 宾语:宾语表示动作的对象或承受者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面,和及物 Object 动词一起说明主语“做什么” ,由名词、代词、数词、名词化的形容词、不定式和宾 语从句。如: They went to see an exhibition yesterday. (名词) (代词)

The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. How many dictionaries do you have? I have three. They helped the old with their housework yesterday. He pretended not to see me. (不定式) (动名词) (宾语从句) (数词)

(名词化形容词)

I enjoy listening to popular music. I think (that) he is fit for this job.

宾语种类:< 1 > 双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) ,例如: Lend me your dictionary, please. =Lend your dictionary to me, please. 间宾 直宾 直宾 间宾

※ 有的动词后面可接双宾语,包括常用来指人的间接宾语和常用来指物的直接宾语 可带双宾语的动词有 bring, give, show, send, pass, tell, lend, offer, buy, make, do 等。 “七 给” 一 “带” to 不少, “ 买 ” 画 “ 制作” for 来了。 带双宾语的及物动词,如果把直接宾语置于间接宾语之前,必须在变换时加“to”或“for”。 11 个及物 这 动词可以概括如下: 1、“七给”(give, pass, lend, write, show, send, hand)和“带”(bring) 8 个及物动词,在直接宾语前置时,必须 在后面加上“to”。即“ vt. + sth. + to + sb.” 如:He lent some money to me.

类似动词的还有:get, mail, offer,pay, promise, read, sell, take, teach 等 2、“buy” (买) ;“draw” (画) ;“make” (制作) 三个动词,在直接宾语前置时,则必须在后边加“for”,构成 “vt. + sth. + for + sb.”。 如:Mother bought a new dress for me。 类似的动词还有:build,choose, cook, cut, do, find, fix, leave, order 等。 3、当直接宾语是代词时,间接宾语 for 和 to 于直接宾语之后 如:Richard made it for him。理查德为他做的这个东西 Give it to me。把它给我 4、有些动词后可单独用直接宾语、间接宾语或双宾语,如 ask, teach, tell, owe, pay. I asked John. 我问约翰 I asked a question. 我问了一个问题 I asked John a question.我问了约翰一个问题

< 2 >复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语) ,例如: They elected him their monitor. 宾语 宾语补足语 (五)宾语补足语:用来补充说明宾语的特征、状态或身份,宾语补足语可由名词、 Object Complement 形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。并与宾语一起构成复合宾 语的句子成分, 叫做宾语补足语。 英语中有些及物动词, 除有一个直接宾语以外, 还要有一个宾语补足语, 才能使句子的意义完整。 带有宾语补足语的一般句型为: 某些及物动词(如 make, let, see, find, name 等)或介词(如 with)+ 宾语 + 宾 补。例如: His father named him Dong Ming. They painted their boat white. Let the fresh air in. I ask him to go home now. We saw her entering the room. He found the door locked. (名词) (形容词) (副词) (不定式) (现在分词) (过去分词) (介词短语)

We found everything in the lab in good order.

We will soon make our city what your city is now. (从句) (六) 定语:修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。定语可由名词、形容词、 Attributive 代词、数词、副词、介词短语、不定式、分词等来充当。 Guilin is a beautiful city. (形容词)

China is a developing country. America is a developed country.

(现在分词) (过去分词) (名词)

There are thirty women teachers in our school. His maths is very good.

(形容词性物主代词) (不定式) (动名词) (介词短语)

I am the last person to leave the classroom.

The teaching plan for next term has been worked out. He is reading an article about how to learn German.

(七)状语:用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,表示行为发生的时间、 Adverbial 地点、目的、方式、程度等。一般由副词、名词、介词短语、不定式、从句或相当于 副词的词组或短语等来充当。如: Light travels most quickly. He has lived in the city for ten years. (副词性词组) (介词短语)

He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination. (不定式) He is in the room making a model plane. Wait a minute. (名词) (状语从句) (现在分词短语)

Once you begin, you must continue.

状语种类:时间状语、原因状语、条件状语、地点状语、方式状语、目的状语、结果状语、让步状语、 伴随状语、比较状语等。如: How about meeting again at six? (时间状语)

Last night he didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain. (原因状语) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain. Mr. Smith lived on the third floor. She put the eggs into the basket with great care. She came in with a book in her hand. In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder. He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. She works very hard though she is old. I am taller than he is. (条件状语从句) (地点状语) (方式状语) (伴随状语) (目的状语) (结果状语从句) (让步状语从句) (比较状语从句)

八、独立成分:与全句没有语法关系的句子成分叫做句子的独立成分 感叹词:oh, hello, aha, ah,等。 肯定词:yes 否定词:no

称呼语:称呼人的用语。 插入语:一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。 如: The story, I think, has never come to the end. 我相信,这个故事还远没结束.

句子成分练习题( 一 )
1. 指出下列句中主语的中心词(4 分)
① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.

2. 选出句中谓语的中心词(10 分)
( )① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't ( B. like C. picture D. wall

)② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer



)③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C.go D. bus



)④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon



)⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast?

A. Did (

B. twins

C. have

D. breakfast

)⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework



)⑦ What I want to tell you is this. A. want B. to tell C. you D. is



)⑧ We had better send for a doctor. A. We B. had C. send D. doctor



)⑨ He is interested in music. A. is B. interested C. in D. music



)⑩ Whom did you give my book to? A. give B. did C. whom D. book

3. 找出下列句中的表语(5 分)
① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it.

4. 挑出下列句中的宾语(10 分)
① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is.

5. 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语(5 分)
① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?

6. 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语(6 分)
① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?

7. 找出下列句中的定语(6 分)
① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!

8. 找出下列句中的状语(8 分)
① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books.

⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.

句子成分练习题( 一 )答案
1. ① teacher ② man ③ dictionary 2. ① B② A ③C④A ⑤C ④ To do ⑥C⑦D ⑧ C⑨ A⑩ A ⑤the first ⑥ he was ill.

3. ①tired. ②worried

③yellow.

④interested

4. ①homework. ②English. ③attention ⑦ him monitor

④ words ⑤to go swimming

⑧ bridge museum ⑨ it school.

⑩ who"Father Christmas"really is. 5. ① us, 间接宾语 a story, 直接宾语

② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直接宾语 ③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直接宾语 ④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语 6.① to read newspapers and books get on the bus ⑥ playing football ⑤ downstairs ② to take the boy ③ difficult ④ Lily ⑤

7.① family ②given③third ④ some ⑥ of the other shoe! 8.① on her face. ②Every night

③ when he was eleven.

④ too fast.

⑤ With the medicine box under her arm ⑦ if you’ve lost it

⑥ because she loves books.

⑧ to see the other machine.

划分句子成分练习题(1) 1.They are working on the farm now. 2.Seeing is believing

3.All of us like Kobe Bryant very much 4.She became a doctor in 1998 5.The book lying on the floor are mine 6.Suddenly it begins to rain 7.To catch the train ,I got up early yesterday 8.I always find her happy 9.He wonders If I still study English 10.The mine 11.We always work hard at English. 12.He said he didn't come. 13.They love each other. 14.What did you bye? 15.She watched her daughter playing the piano. 16.your job today is to help the old. 17.Speaking doesn't mean doing. 18.Bye the time I got to the station,the train had left. 19.The children bought their parents a car for the 25th anniversary of their marriage. 20.It takes me an hour to get there. letter which I received the day before yesterday was a friend of

答案: 1They(主语) are working(系表结构做谓语) on the farm(地点状语) now(时间状语). 2.Seeing(动词 ing 做主语)is(谓语) believing (宾语) 3.All of us(主语) like (谓语)Kobe Bryant (宾语)very much (程度副词状语) 4.She(主语) became(谓语) a doctor (宾语)in 1998 (时间状语) 5.The book(主语) lying on the floor(补语) are(谓语) mine (宾语)

6.Suddenly (状语)it(形式主语) began to rain (谓语) 7.To catch the train ,(目的状语)I(主语) got up (谓语)early yesterday (时间状语) 8.I(主语) always find(谓语) her (宾语)happy (状语) 9.He (主语)wonders (谓语)if I (条件句中的主语)still study(条件句中的谓语) English (条件句中的宾语) 整个条件句做主干的宾语 10.The letter(主语) which I received the day before yesterday(定语从句) was(谓语) a friend of mine (宾语) 1.We always work hard at English。 —— —— —— —— —————— 主语 状语 谓语 状语 状语 2. He said he didn't come. ——— ——— ——— —————— 主句主语 主句谓语 从句主语 从句谓语 3.They love each other. —— —— —————— 主 谓语 宾语 4.What did you bye? —— —— —— —— 宾 助动词 主 谓 5.She watched her daughter playing the piano. —— ———— —————— ————————— 主 谓 宾 宾语补足语 6.your job today is to help the old. ———— ——- —— ———————— 主 定语 系动词 表语 7.Speaking doesn't mean doing. ———— —————— —— 主 谓 宾 8.Bye the time I got to the station,the train had left. ———————————————— ————— ———— 时间状语从句 主句主语 主句谓语 9.The children bought their parents a car for the 25th anniversary of —————— ——— —————— ——— ————————————— 主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语 状语 their marriage. ———————— 10.It takes me an hour to get there. —— ——— ————— —————— 形式主语 谓语 宾语 真正主语

(一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词

划分句子成分练习题(2)
① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the

teacher's help is very difficult.

⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A. Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast ⑥ Tom didn't do his homework

(二). 选出句中谓语的中心词 ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C. go D. bus ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon

yesterday. A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework ⑦ What I want to tell you is this. A. want B. to tell C. you D. is ⑧ We had better send for a doctor. A. We B. had C. send D. doctor ⑨ He is interested in music. A. is B. interested C. in D. music ⑩ Whom did you give my book to? A. give B. did C. whom D. book

(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother hasn't done his homework. A B C D

② People all over the world speak English. A B C D

③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. A B C D

④ How many new words did you learn last class? A B C D

⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? A B C D

⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. A B C D

⑦ They made him monitor of the class. A B C D

⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. A B C D

⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. A B C D

⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is. A B C D

(四) 挑出下列句中的表语 ① The old man was feeling very tired. A B C D

② Why is he worried about Jim? A B C D

③ The leaves have turned yellow. A B C D

④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. A B C
12

D

⑤ She was the first to learn about it. A B C D

(五) 挑出下列句中的定语 ① They use Mr. Mrs. with the family name. A B C D

② What is your given name? A B C D

③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. A B C D

④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. A B C D

⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. A B C D

⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe! A B C D

(六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. B C D A

② He asked her to take the boy out of school. A B C D

③ She found it difficult to do the work. A B C D

④ They call me Lily sometimes. A B C D

⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. A B C D

⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now? A (七) 挑出下列句中的状语 ① There was a big smile on her face. A B C D B C D

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② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. A B C D

③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. A B C D

④ The man on the motorbike was travelling to fast. A B C D

⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. A ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. A B C D B C D

⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. A B C D

⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine. A B C D

(八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语 ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?

答案 (一) ① teacher ② man ③ dictionary ④ To do (二) ① B ② A ③ C ④ A ⑤ C ⑥ C ⑦ D ⑧ C ⑨ A ⑩ A (三) ① D ② D ③ B ④ A ⑤ B ⑥ D ⑦ C ⑧ D ⑨ A ⑩ D (四) ①D ②B ③D ④C ⑤B (五) ① C ② C ③ A ④ B ⑤ B ⑥ D
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(六) ① C ② C ③ C ④ C ⑤ D ⑥ B (七) ① D ② A ③ D ④ D ⑤ A ⑥ D ⑦ C ⑧ D (八) ① us, 间接宾语 a story, 直接宾语 ② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直接宾语 ③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直接 宾语 ④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语

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