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THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (9405

2008)

Tables of contents
1. Legislation, statutory regulation in Hong Kong & relevant standard for electrical services _________________________________________________________________ 1 2. Electrical load estimation ________________________________________________ 2
2.1 For flats _________________________________________________________________ 2 2.2 For shops and kindergarten ________________________________________________ 3 2.3 For landlord Supply _______________________________________________________ 3 2.4 For essential Supply _______________________________________________________ 3

3. Generator loading ______________________________________________________ 4 4. Lightning hazards ______________________________________________________ 4 5. Earthing system ________________________________________________________ 5 6. Cable sizing ___________________________________________________________ 5 7. Vertical transportation __________________________________________________ 7
7.1 Lift Performance _________________________________________________________ 7 7.2 Escalator performance ____________________________________________________ 8

8. Lighting system ________________________________________________________ 9
8.1 Shopping arcade corridor for G/F-2/F________________________________________ 9 8.2 Canopy _________________________________________________________________ 9 8.3 Open atrium/corridor for L1-L5 ___________________________________________ 10 8.4 Shops __________________________________________________________________ 10

Appendix

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

1. Legislation, statutory regulation in Hong Kong & relevant standard for electrical services
All of building services system is designed in accordance to legislation, statutory regulation in Hong Kong , relevant standards and guidance listed in the followings.
Services Electrical ? ? ? BS 7671 – Requirements for Electrical Installation. Guide Books of Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers. General Specification for Electrical Installation in Government Buildings, Hong Kong and General Requirement for Electrical Contract/Subcontract/Quotation let by Building Development Department, Hong Kong, 1984 edition. (E.G.S) Code of Practice for the Electricity (Wiring) Regulations issued by EMSD 1997 edition. Supply Rules of Hong Kong Electric Co., Ltd. Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Electrical Installations (Draft) Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Technical Memoranda TM12 Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Technical Memorandum No.5 Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Code for Interior Lighting BS5266, Part 1, Code of Practice for Emergency Lighting. Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Lighting Installations (Draft) Code of Practice for minimum Fire Service Installations and Equipment and relevant circular letters issued by the Fire Service Department (COP/Fire) Regulation of Environmental Protection Department. BS6651, Code of Practice for Protection of Structures against lightning. Code of Practice on the Design and Construction of Lifts and Escalators, EMSD 1993. (COP/Lift) General Specification for Lift and Escalator Installation, in Government Buildings, Hong Kong, 1984 edition. Building Regulation, CAP 123 General Technical Specification for Monochrome closed circuit television systems, Specification No .ESG 14 Issue No. 2 – Electronics Division, EMSD. General requirements for electronics contracts, Specification No. ESG01, Issue No. 6 – Electronics Division, EMSD BS 4737 Intruder alarm systems. General Technical Specification for Communal aerial broadcast distribution systems and aerial distribution systems, Specification No. ESG 17 Issue No. 3-Electronics Division, EMSD General requirements for electronics contracts, Specification No. ESG01, Issue No. 6 – Electronics Division, EMSD. General specification for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, Ventilation and Central Monitoring and Control System Installation in Government Building, Hong Kong, 1988 Edition (A/C,\. G.S.)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Closed circuit television ? System (CCTV) ? Security System Communal aerial broadcsat distribution system (CABD) ? ? ? Building Management System (BMS) ?

Lighting

Emergency Generator

Lightning Protection Lift and escalator

Appendix - P.1

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

2. Electrical load estimation
2.1 For flats According to ‘Code of practice for electricity (wiring) regulation), the electrical load demand for each flat is calculated as the following table: Purpose of switchgear Air-conditioning for living room (for summer) Air-conditioning for bedroom (for summer) Air-conditioning for bedroom (for summer) Heater for living room (for winter) Lighting for living room & terrace Lighting for bedrooms, bathroom Lighting for kitchen & entrance Lighting for staircase & lav Exhaust fan for kitchen Washing machine Socket outlet for living room Socket outlet for bedrooms Socket outlet for kitchen, entrance & staircase Rating of switchgear 20A 20A 20A 15A 10A 10A 10A 10A 10A 15A 30A 30A 30A Estimated design current 12A 8A 8A 13A 8A 4A 4A 3A 4A 7A Diversifie d factor 100% 40% 40% 100% 66% 66% 66% 66% 100% 100% 100% 30% 30% Overall Diversified current demand 12A 3.2A 3.2A 13A 5.28A 2.64A 2.64A 1.98A 4A 7A 30A 9A 9A

89.14A (for summer) 81.24A (for winter) The main switch for each flat shall be 100A single phase or 30A three phase. However, according to HEC’s supply rule, 30A three phase is recommanded as the main switch rather than 100A single phase because meter for 100A single phase is not available. The electrical load for all flat = 89.14A/3 per flat x 220V x 64 flats = 418.4kVA

Appendix - P.2

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

2.2 For shops and kindergarten In reference to ‘COMMERCIAL CODE OF PRACTICE 215 LOAD ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE (REVISION 2)’ issued by China Light & Power Company Ltd., the electrical load is estimated as below: Usage Location U.F.A.*1 ADMD*2 Estimated Load 2 2 (m ) (kVA/m ) (kVA) Shops*3 G/F 254 0.23 58.42 3 Shops* 1/F 270 0.23 62.1 3 Shops* 2/F 320 0.23 73.6 4 Kindergarten 3/F 212 0.05* 10.6 Total 1056 204.72 *1 means Usable Floor Area (U.F.A) *2 means After Diversified Maximum Demand (ADMD) based on COP 215 by CLP *3 Shops is assumed as light metal retail stores. *4 ADMD is included central A/C. 2.3 For landlord Supply Usage AC System Escalators P&D System General Lighting & Power Qty 43.6TR 6 Nos 1 Lot 1000m2 including Mech/F 180m2 Estimated Load 1.85 kVA/TR @30kVA 20W/m2*5 Estimated Load (kVA) 80 180 60 23.5

External Lighting, 40W/m2*5 7.2 Atrium Lighting & Facade Lighting Total 350.7 *5 Data is based on Maximum Allowable Lighting Power Density extracted from Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Lighting Installation. 2.4 For essential Supply Usage Firemen’s Lift FH/HR System Sprinkler System Sump pump Essential Lighting & Power Qty 2 Nos 1 Lot 1 Lot 1 Lot 1 Lot Estimated Load @40kVA Estimated Load (kVA) 80 40 20 15 10

Appendix - P.3

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

Security & BMS System Total

1 Lot

10 175

Overall electrical load = (418.4 + 204.72 + 350.7 + 175)kVA = 1138.82kVA However, two factors shall be considered as below: Electrical load 1138.82kVA Mixed development diversity factor (MDDF) 1.14 Future extension 15% Total electrical load 1493.0kVA Total usable floor area = 7600m2 Total demand density = 0.196kVA/m2 So, 1 No of 1500kVA HEC’s transformer is required for the proposed residential building.

3. Generator loading
An emergency generator set is required to handle the following essential loads in case of power failure & fire conditions. If the equipment is started simultaneously, the starting current will be larger. So, in the building, the equipment of essential load is started in sequence and control by BMS to reduce the starting current so as to select a smaller generator. The essential load estimated in (1) = 175kVA Taking a safety factor of 10% for overload and a factor of 30% for future expansion, The total essential load = 175kVA x 1.1 x 1.3 = 250kVA So, a 300kVA generator set is selected. The generator should be operated normally within 15 seconds in case and the capacity of fuel tank should be capable to operate the generator for 6 hours. Based on some manufacturer’s catalogue, the capacity of fuel tank is about 400L.

4. Lightning hazards
Based on BS 6651:1992, Part 2, the overall lightning is calculated as the following to determine whether or not lightning protection is needed. Probability of being struck, P = Ac x Ng x Ka x Kb x Kc x Kd x Ke x 10-6 ,where Collection area, Ac = Area of roof + Area of perimeter of building + Area of four
Appendix - P.4

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

rounded corners formed by quarter circles of building height = LW + 2LH + 2WH + ?H2 = 46x12 + 2x46x73 + 2x16x73 + ?x732 = 26.3 x 103 m2 No. of flash per km2 per year, Ng = 1.1 Factor for use of structure, K = 1.2 Factor for type of construction, Kb = 0.4 Factor for contents (or consequential effects), Kc = 0.3 Factor for degree of isolation, Kd = 0.4 Factor for type of terrain, Ke = 0.3 So, P = 26.3 x 103 x 1.1 x 1.2 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.4 x 0.3 x 10-6 = 5.0 x 10-3 The probability of risk (5.0x10-3) is greater than the critical risk (10-5) so that lightning protection is necessary. And, the actual design of the installation is illustrated by drawing no. EE-EP-RF

5. Earthing system
In accordance with BS 7671, the earthing loop impedance shall not be greater than 0.5???Due to the site constraint, the plate electrode and tape electrode cannot be used as the earthing conductor. The most suitable and economic way is to use the rod electrode. The following calculation is to determine the no. of rod electrode and the size. Resistance of rod electrode ?
? ? 8L? ? ? ? 1? ? ln ? ? d ? 2? L ? ?

?

, where

L = length of rod,

d = diameter of rod, ??= soil resistivity Code 12C of COP electricity (wiring) regulation stated that the diameter of rod electrode should not be less than 12.5mm. The standard size of rod electrode in the market is 12.5mm & 15mm. After site visit, the soil in the Wan Chai is marshland. The soil resistivity is around 4 ?-m. Consider a rod electrode of 4.5m length and 15mm diameter, the resistance = ?
? ? 8 * 4 .5 ? ? ? ? 1? ? ln ? 2 ? * 4 .5 ? ? 0 .0 1 5 ? ? 4

= 0.9596???

so that 2 rod electrodes in parallel is required to maintain 0.5?? earth loop impedance. And, the spacing between the earth pits shall be more than 9m (2x4.5m) to avoid the return loop.

6. Cable sizing
In this design report, the cable sizing procedure is referring to Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Electrical Installation (Draft). ? ? To determine the design current Ib, nominal rating of protective device In To calculate the min. tabulated value of current It(min) as the below formula:
Appendix - P.5

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

I t (m in ) ? I n x

1 Ca

x

1 Cg

x

1 Ci

,

Ca = Correction factor for ambient temperature (Assume the ambient temp = 35 0C) Cg = Corection factor for grouping Ci = Correction factor for thermal insulation Note that all correction factor is referring to Appendix 4 of IEE Wiring Regulation (16th Edition) ? To select a suitable size It of conductor which satisfy It ? To find effective current-carrying capacity Iz (Iz = It x Ca x Cg x Ci) and ensure that
Iz ? In ? Ib

?

To calculate the voltage drop along the conductor and determine whether or not cable size selected is acceptable. For sub-main circuit, the max. voltage drop is 1.5% and for final circuit, the max. voltage drop is 2.5%. V.D. = r x p.f. x k x Ib x L , where r = Voltage drop per ampere per metre at the conductor operating temperature p.f. = Power factor (assume 0.85) k = correction factor of operating temperature
k ? 230 ? tl 230 ? t p
Ib It
2 2

, where tl = operating temperature tp = max. permitted conductor operating temp

tl ? ta ?

( t p ? 3 0 ) , ta

= expected ambient temp. (assume 35 0C)

?

To calculate the percentage copper loss with respect to the total active active power transmitted.
% lo ss ? 3 xI b
2

xrxL

3 x 3 8 0 xI b xp . f .

The following table (EE-Table 1) shows the cable size.

Appendix - P.6

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

7. Vertical transportation
7.1 Lift Performance In accordance to the CIBSE Guide D, the lift performance is calculated as the following table: Number of floor 9 Capacity of lift car 9 passengers Number of passenger 7.2 passengers Floor height 6m Highest reversal floor 7.34 Probable number of stop 5.146 Total lift travel 54m Contract speed 2.5m/s Acceleration /deceleration 1m/s2 Upward running time 47.33 seconds Downward running time 26.6 seconds Door opening/closing time for centre door 2.5 seconds Door operating time 30.73 seconds Passenger transfer time 10.8 seconds Round trip time (RTT) 115.46 seconds No. of lift cars 2 Waiting interval 57.73 Handling capacity in 5 minutes 74.83 Total occupants 6 persons/flat x 64flats = 384 Peak arrival rate 19.49% The lift performance is also simulated by computer software HEVACOMP (Results please refer to ) From the CIBSE Guide D, the recommended arrival rate and waiting interval are 5-7% and 40-90s for flats. For the proposed building, the performance is satisfactory.

Appendix - P.7

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

7.2 Escalator performance According to CIBSE Guide D, the escalator handling capacity, Cp = 60 v k s , where v = horizontal speed (m/s) k = average occupant density (people/step) s = number of step (steps/m) Due to architectural constraint, the physical data of escalator: inclination of escalator = 300 height of escalalator = 4m length of escalator = 6.9m no. of step = 6900mm/400m = 17.25 width of step = 800mm k = 1.5 h = height of step = 4000/17.25 = 231mm s = 1000mm/231mm = 4.33 the speed = 0.5m/s (max. for 300) the handling capacity = 60 x 0.5 x 1.5 x 4.33 = 194.85 person/min From the CIBSE Guide D, the handling capacity for kindergarten is 92 person/min. For the proposed building, the performance is satisfactory.

Appendix - P.8

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

8. Lighting system
8.1 Shopping arcade corridor for G/F-2/F Physical data of corridor, width = 2m, height = 4m Data of luminaire: Manufacture = BEGA Model no. = 6743 Type = Wall mounted discharge lamp with asymmetrical reflector Lamp = 250W metal halide lamp (MBI-E) Lumen output = 17000lm Mounting height of luminaire = 3.5m The angle of illuminating area = 300-00 The following calculation is based on technical data of BEGA 6743 the spacing between luminaires = 4m (obtained from cone diagram) the average illuminance = 265 lx (obtained from cone diagram) the luminous intensity (angle = 300) = 360 cd/klm x 17 lm = 6120 cd the horizontal illuminance at the opposite side of corridor = 6120cd/(22+3.52)x0.8 = 302 lx 0 the luminous intensity (angle = 0 ) = 300 cd/klm x 17 lm = 5100 cd the horizontal illuminance below the light fitting = 5100cd/(3.5)2x0.8 = 333 lx (Assume the light loss factor = 0.8 & neglect the reflectance of walls due to open corridor) 8.2 Canopy Physical data of corridor, width = 3m, height = 4m Data of luminaire: Manufacture = BEGA Model no. = 6180 Type = Recessed ceiling downlight c/w aluminium refelctor Lamp = 80W metal halide lamp (MBF) Lumen output = 4000lm Mounting height of luminaire = 4m The angle of illuminating area = -200-200 The following calculation is based on technical data of BEGA 6743 the spacing between luminaires = 4m (obtained from cone diagram) the average illuminance = 80 lx (obtained from cone diagram) the luminous intensity (angle = 300) = 360 cd/klm x 4 lm = 1440 cd the horizontal illuminance at the side of canopy = 1440cd/(1.52+42)x0.8 = 63 lx the luminous intensity (angle = 00) = 600 cd/klm x 4 lm = 2400 cd the horizontal illuminance below the lighting fitting = 2400cd/(4)2x0.8 = 120 lx (Assume the light loss factor = 0.8 & neglect the reflectance of walls due to open corridor)

Appendix - P.9

THE HONG KONG

PO LY T EC H N IC UN IVER SIT Y D EPAR TM EN T O F BU ILD IN G SER VIC ES EN GIN EER IN G

D esign Project - Phase 2
P repared by W ong W ai M an (94052008)

8.3 Open atrium/corridor for L1-L5 Data of luminaire: Manufacture = THORN Model no. = DLC 250/400 Type = Narrow bam medium bay lighting Lamp = 250W/400W high pressure sodium lamp (SON-E) Lumen output = 25500/45000 lm Power input = 260W/410W per luminaire The illuminance level is simulated by OPTILUME INTERIOR V3.03 by THORN LIGHTING LTD. And the results is summarised as below tables
Floor L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 Mounting height above floor level 12m 12m 12m 6m 6m Displacement from corridor 3.5m 2.5m 2m 2m 1m Nos. of luminaire 5 5 5 5 5 Type of luminaire Direct illuminance Power 2450W 2450W 2450W 2450W 2450W

8.4 Shops Physical data of typical shop: 9m(L) x 6m(W) x 4m(H) Data of luminaire: Manufacture = SIEMENS Model no. = CR370SA-cent04-S70T Type = Sealed-frame luminaire with dished triumph lens Lamp = 70W high pressure sodium lamp (SON-T) Lumen output = 5900lm Mounting height of luminaire = 3.3m By using lumen method, E ?
N xn x ? xU F xL L F A

According to CIBSE Lighting Guide LG1(The Industrial Environment), the standard illuminance is 500lx. Assume UF = 0.5 & LLF = 0.7
N ? 500 x 9 x 6 1 x 5 9 0 0 x 0 .5 x 0 .7 ? 13

nos. required

So, the decision is made to use N=15 luminaires. (3 columns of 5 pcs each). The spacing between each luminaires = 1800mm The power input = 15x87W = 1305W Lighting power density = 24W/m2 The results is also simulated by manufacturer software SILICHT V4.1.

Appendix - P.10


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