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word formation ppt


6

outline
? 1affixation ? 2compounding ? 3conversion ? 4blending ? 5clipping ? 6acronymy ? 7back-formation ? 8sound reduplication ? 9commonization of proper names

? Affixation is generally defined as the formation of words by adding word-forming or derivational affixes to bases . This process is also known as derivation ,by which new words are derived from old or base forms . The words created in this way are called derivations . According to the positions affixes occupy in words , affixation falls into two subcategories: prefixation and suffixation

1.1Prefixation
Prefixation is the formation of new by adding prefixes to bases . Prefixes do not generally change the word-class of the base but only modify its meaning . For convenience of study, we shall present prefixes on a semantic basis, that is , we shall group prefixes into semantic sets , each consisting of all the major prefixes that have similar meaning and functions . At same time , for ease of access, the affixes in each set are arranged in alphabetical order.

?1.1prefixation
? 1.1.1negative prefixes ? 1.1.2reversative or privative prefixes ? 1.1.3 pejorative prefixes ? 1.1.4prefixes of degree or size ? 1.1.5prefixes of orientation and attitude ? 1.1.6locative prefixes ? 1.1.7prefixes of tie and order ? 1.1.8number prefixes ? 1.1.9conversion prefixes ? 1.1.10miscellaneous prefixes

1.1prefixation
表示否定意义的前缀常用的有dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, non-, un-等,在单词的前面加这类前缀常构 成与该词意义相反的新词。e.g: ? agree同意→ agree 同意 ? fair公平的→ fair 公平的 ? possible可能的→ possible 可能的 ? understand理解→ understand

?

1.1prefixation

? 表示其他意义的前缀常用的有a-(多构成表语形容 词), anti- (反对;抵抗), auto- (自动), co- (共同), en- (使), inter- (互相), re- (再;又), sub- (下面的; 次;小), tele- (强调距离)等。e.g:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? worker工人→ co-worker 同事,帮手 large 大的→ enlarge 使变大 operate工作→ cooperate 合作 write写字→ rewrite 重写 way路→ subway 地铁

?1.2 suffixation
? Suffixation is the formation of new words by adding suffixes to bases . Unlike prefixes which primarily effect a semantic modification of the base ,suffixes have only a small semantic role ,their primary function being to change the grammatical function of the base ,i.e. the change of the word class with a slight modification of meaning.

?1.2 suffixation ?The suffix in the first case will be referred to as a deverbal noun suffix while that in the second will be called a denominal noun suffix.

?1.2 suffixation
? 1.2.1noun suffixes ? 1.2.1.1denominal nouns ? 1.2.1.2deverbal nouns ? 1.2.1.3de-adjective nouns ? 1.2.1.4noun and adjective suffixes

?1.2.2.adjectivesuffixes ?1.2.2.1denominal suffixes ?1.2.2.2deverbal suffixes ?1.2.3adverb suffixes ?1.2.4verb suffixes

?后缀 ?给单词加后缀也是英语构词的一种重要方 法。后缀通常会改变单词的词性,构成意 义相近的其他词性;少数后缀还会改变词 义,变为与原来词义相反的新词。

?1.2 suffixation
? (1)构成名词的后缀常用的有-ence,-(e)r/ -or (从 事某事的人),-ese (某地人),-ess (雌性),-ian (精 通……的人),-ist (专业人员),-ment (性质;状 态),-ness (性质;状态),-tion(动作;过程)等。 例如: ? differ不同于→difference区别 ? write写→writer作家 ? China中国→Chinese中国人 ? act表演→actress女演员 ? music音乐→musician音乐家

?1.2 suffixation
? (2)构成动词的后缀常用的有-(e)n (多用于形容词 之后),-fy (使……化),-ize (使……成为)。例如: ? wide→widen加宽 ? beauty→beautify美化 ? pure→purify提纯 ? real→realize意识到 ? organ→organize组织 ? sharp→sharpen使变锋利

?1.2 suffixation
? (3)构成形容词的后缀常用的有-al,-able (有能力 的),-(a)n(某国人的),-en (多用于表示材料的名词 后),-ern (方向的),-ese(某国人的),-ful,-(ic)al, -ish,-ive,-less (表示否定),-like (像……的),-ly, -ous,-some,-y (表示天气)等。例如: ? nature自然→natural自然的 ? reason道理→reasonable有道理的 ? America美国→American美国的 ? China中国→Chinese中国人的 ? gold金子→golden金的 ? east东→eastern东方的 ? child孩子→childish孩子气的 ? snow雪→snowy雪的

?1.2 suffixation
? (4)构成副词的常用后缀有-ly (主要用于形容词之后 表示方式或程度),-ward(s) (主要用于表示方位的 词之后表示方向)。例如: ? angry生气的→angrily生气地 ? to到→towards朝……,向…… ? east东方→eastward向东 ? (5)构成数词的后缀有-teen (十几),-ty (几十),-th (构成序数词)。例如: ? six六→sixteen十六→sixteenth第十六 ? four四→forty四十→fortieth第四十

2.compounding
? Compounding (or composition) is the formation of new words by joining two or more bases. Words formed in this way are called compounds. So a compound is a ?lexical unit consisting of more than one base and functioning both semantically as a single word?. Compounds can be written solid (silkworm) , hyphenated (honeybee) , and open (tear gas and easy chair) . The separation or lack of it in writing is a fair indication of how deeply the heat of fusion has penetrated, and of how much the individual component has kept of its own identity.

2.compounding
?2.1characteristics of compounds ?1.phonological features ?2.semantic features ?3.grammatical features ?4.orthographical features

2.compounding
?2.2 formation of compounds ?1.noun compounds ?2.adjective compounds ?3.verb compounds ?4.other compounds

2.compounding
?英语词汇构词法之【合成法】 ?英语构词法中把两个单词连在一起合成一 个新词,前一个词修饰或限定后一个词, 这样的方法就是合成法。

2.compounding
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2.2.1合成名词 构成方式例词 名词+名词weekend周末 名词+动词daybreak黎明 名词+动名词handwriting书法 名词+及物动词+er/or pain-killer止痛药 名词+介词+名词sister-in-law嫂子 代词+名词she-wolf母狼 动词+名词typewriter打字机 动名词+名词reading-room阅览室 现在分词+名词flying-fish飞鱼 形容词+名词freshman大一新生 副词+动词outlook景色,风光 介词+名词 afterbrain后脑

2.compounding

? 2.2.2合成形容词 ? 名词+形容词bloodred血红的 ? 名词+现在分词French-speaking讲法语的 ? 名词+to+名词one-to-one/one-on-one一对一的 (如one-on-one tutoring一对一外教) ? 名词+过去分词man-made人造的 ? 数词+名词one-way单行道的 ? 数词+名词+形容词three-year-old三岁的 ? 数词+名词+ed ten-storeyed十层的 ? 动词+副词one-off 一次性的 ? 形容词+名词high-quality高质量的 ? 形容词+名词+ed noble-minded高尚的 ? 形容词+形容词light-green浅绿色的 ? 形容词+现在分词ordinary-looking相貌一般的

2.compounding
? 2.2.2合成形容词 ? 副词+形容词ever-green常青的 ? 副词+现在分词hard-working辛勤的 ? 副词+过去分词well-known著名的 ? 副词+名词fast-food专门提供快餐服务的 ? 介词+名词indoor室内的

? 2.2.3合成动词 ? 名词+动词sleep-walk梦游 ? 形容词+动词white-wash粉刷 ? 副词+动词overwhelm压倒,制服

2.compounding
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2.2.4other compounds 4.合成副词 形容词+名词hotfoot匆忙地 形容词+副词everywhere到处 副词+副词however尽管如此 介词+名词beforehand事先 介词+副词forever永远 5.合成代词 代词宾格+self herself 她自己 物主代词+self myself 我自己 形容词+名词anything 一切 6.合成介词 副词+名词outside在……外面 介词+副词within在……之内 副词+介词into进入

3. conversion
? One class convert words another class (one part of speech another part of speech)
? E.g. He was knocked out in the first round (n.).

Round (v.) the number off to the nearest tenth. The neighbours gathered round (prep.) our barbecue. The moon was bright and round (adj.). Peple came from all the country round (adv.).

3.conversion
?3.1 Conversion to Nouns 1) Deverbal e.g. Every student has a say here.
Many young men admire that movie
star’s strong build.

have a swim/talk take a look/rest make a show/deal give a cry/start

3. conversion
2) De-adjectival full conversion---shorts, the blacks partial conversion---the old, more or less
区别:1.部分转化多数无词尾变化,不能表示多数; 2.部分转化无所有格; 3.部分转化仍存在形容词特征,可用副词修饰, 有比较级和最高级。

3. conversion
?3) Miscellaneous conversion conjunctions, modals, finite verb, prepositions… e.g. Everyone knows it is a must. ( pron.-- n.)
I know the ins and outs. (prep.-- n.) I don?t know any ifs, ands or buts, do it at once! (conj.—n.)

3. conversion
? 3.2 Conversion to Verbs 1) Denominal a. To put in or on N: to pocket the money b. To give or provide with N: to oil the machine c. To remove N from: to skin the lamb d. To do with N: to knife the steak e. To be or act as N: to nurse the baby f . To make/change into N: to cash the cheque g. To send or go by N: to bicycle

3. conversion
? 2) De-adjectival mostly used as: vt. or vi. to make or to become vt.+ vi.--- empty, clam, warm, clear vt.--- free, blind, bare(暴露) vi.--- sour(变酸)

? 3) Miscellaneous Conversion Buts me no buts.(别老跟我但是但是的。) she downed a glass of milk.(她喝了一杯牛奶。)

3. conversion
?3.3 Conversion to others I total agree with you. (n.---adv.) Easy come, easy go. (adj.---adv.) Time has go by. (prep.---adv.) Take your hands off mine! (adv.---prep.) I don?t have one, neither do I want.
(adj.---conj.)

4. Blending
? Blending is the formation of new words by combing parts of two words or a word plus a part of another word. ? 1) head + tail autocide (automobile+ suicide) chocoholic (chocolate+ alcoholic) ? 2) head + head Amerind (American+ Indian) sitcom (situation+ comedy)

4. Blending
?3) head + word medicare (medical+ care) autocamp (automobile+ camp) ?4) word + tail workfare (work+ welfare) bookmobile (book+ automobile)

?Clipping: to shorten or clip a longer word
? Four common types of clipping

Four common types of clipping
Clipping

Front Clipping

Back Clipping

Front and Back Clipping

Phrase Clipping

Four common types
?1)Front Clipping ? quake(earthquake) ? chute(parachute) ?2)Back Clipping ? deli(delicatessen) ? fan(fanatic)
copter(helicopter) phone(telephone) gent(gentleman) exec(executive)

Four common types
?3)Front and Back Clipping ? flu(influenza) fridge(refrigerator) ? jams(pajamas) ?4)Phrase Clipping ? pub(public house) ? zoo(zoological garden) ? pop(popular music) ?

?In some cases, clipping gives rise to alterations in spelling and pronunciation ? eg:bike(bicycle) mike(microphone) ? coke(cocacola) telly(television)

6.Acronymy
?Acronymy:the process of forming new words by joining the initial letters of composite names of social and political organizations or phrases used as technical terms

6.Acronymy
?1.Initialisms ? 1)letters represent full words ? VOA Voice of America ? BBC British Broadcasting Corporation ? 2)letters represent constituents in a compound or just parts of a word ? TV television ? ID identification or identity card

6.Acronymy
?A true acronym is a word formed from initial letters but pronounced as a normal word ?Three kinds of acronymys

Three kinds of acronymys

acronymy

pure acronymys(formed from initial letters only) hybrid acronymys like radar (formed with more than initial letters)

syllabic acronymys like Delmarva(Delaware,Maryland,Virgi nia)

7.Back-formation
?1.Denifition ?back-formation is a method of creating word by removing the supposed suffixes ?edit←editor beg←beggar ?The nouns beggar, editor appeared first in the English language , and then the verb beg and edit.

8.Sound Reduplication
?Difenition ?sound reduplication is the formation of compound words by repeating the same element with little or no chang

8.Sound Reduplication
? Semantically,Quirk et al put such word into four groups: ? 1)words to imitate sounds e.g tick-tuck (of clock), ha ha ha (of laugher) ? 2)words to suggest alternating movements, e.g ping-pong seesaw flipflop ? 3)words to disparage by suggesting “instability,nonsense,insincerity,vacillation” e.g fingle-fangle miz-maze ? 4)words to intensify e.g teen-weeny,tiptop,super-duper

9.Commonization of Proper Names
?Proper names enriched english vocabulary ?It includs names of people,names of places,names of books and tradenmes ?e.g Newton,from the English scientist Newton is a example used now as a commom term both in physics and chemistry

9.Commonization of Proper Names
?e.g china(porcelain)from the homeland China. ?e.g odyssey(an extended journey)from Homer?epic The Odyssey,which describles all the hardships Odysseus experience on his voyage home after the fall of troy. ?e.g Omega(a kind of cigarette) deepfreeze(a deep freezer)

Back-formation
? 2. Classification: ? According to its origin, back-formation may be formed from the following parts of speech (词类). ? 1). Verbs back-formed from nouns ending in –er, -ar, -or, -sion, -ion, etc ? edit←editor ? 2) Verbs back-formed from nouns in other forms or from adjective ? to laze(懒惰,混日子)← ? lazy (adjective)

Back-formation
?3) Many new back-formation verbs come from compounds ?to house-keep ← ?housekeeper ?4) A few nouns back-formed from adjective ?Gloom(昏暗, 阴暗)(n.)← ?gloomy (adjective


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