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2012清华保送模拟一


2013 清华保送模拟一
Part 1 Reading Comprehension Section A Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For ques

tions 1 7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8 10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. Most people often dream at night. When they wake in the morning they say to themselves, “What a strange dream I had! I wonder what made me dream that. ”Sometimes dreams are frightening. Sometimes, in dreams, wishes come true. At other times we are troubled by strange dreams in which the world seems to have been turned upside-down and nothing makes sense. In dreams we do things which we would never do when we ?re awake. We think and saythings we would never think and say. Why are dreams so strange and unfamiliar? Where do dreams come from? No one has produced a more satisfying answer than a man called Sigmund Freud. He said that dreams come from a part of one ?s mind which one can neither recognizenor control. He named this the “unconscious mind” . Sigmund Freud was born about a hundred years ago. He lived most of his life in Vienna, Austria , but ended his days in London, soon after the beginning of the Second World War . The new worlds Freud explored were inside man himself. For the unconscious mind is like a deep well, full of memories and feelings. These memories and feelings have been stored there from the moment of our birth. Our conscious mind has forgotten them . We do not suspect that they are there until some unhappy or unusual experience causes us to remember, or to dream dreams. Then suddenly we see the same thing and feel the same way we felt when we were little children. This discovery of Freud?s is very important if we wish to understand why people act as they do. For the unconscious forces inside us are at least as powerful as the conscious forces we know about. Sometimes we do things without knowing why. If we don ?t, the reasons may lie deep in our unconscious minds. When Freud was a child he cared about the sufferings of others, so it isn t surprising that he became a doctor when he grew up. He learned all about the way in which the human body works. But he became more and more curious about the human mind . He went to Paris to study with a famous French doctor, Charcot. At that time it seemed that no one knew very much about the mind. If a person went mad, or “out of his mind”, there was not much that could be done about it. People didn t understand at all what was happening to the madman. Had he been possessed by a devil or evil spirit? Was God punishing him for wrong ?doing? Often such people were shutaway from the ordinary people as if they had done some terrible crime. This is still true today in many places. Doctors prefer to experiment on those parts of a man which they can see and examine. If you cut a man ?s head open you can seehis brain. But you can ? see his thoughts or t ideas or dreams. In Freud?s day few doctors were interested in these subjects. Freud wanted to know how our minds work. He learned a lot from Charcot. He returned to Vienna in 1886and began work as a doctor in nerve diseases. He got married and began to receive more and more patients at home. Most of the patients who came to see him were women. They were over ?excited and anxious, sickin mind rather than in body. Medicine did not help them. Freud was full of sympathy but he could do little to make them better. Then one day a friend, Dr Josef Breuer, came to see him. He told Freud about a girl he was looking after.
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The girl seemed to get better when she was allowed to talk about herself. She told Dr Breuer everything that came into her mind. And each time she talked to him she remembered more about her life as a little child. Freud was excited when he heard this. He began to try to cure his patients in the same way. He asked about the events of their early childhood. He urged them to talk about their own experiences and relationships. He himself said very little. Often, as he listened, his patients relived moments from their past life. They trembled with anger and fear, hate and love. They acted as though Freud was their father or mother or lover. The doctor did not make any attempt to stop them. He quietly accepted whatever they told him , the good things and the bad. Also one young woman who came to him couldn’t drink anything, although she was very thirsty. Something prevented her from drinking. Freud discovered the reason for this. One day, as they were talking, the girl remembered having seen a dog drink from her nurse s glass. She hadn t told the nurse, whom she disliked. She had forgotten the whole experience. But suddenly this childhood memory returned to mind. When she had told it all to Dr Freud — the nurse, the dog, the glass of water — the girl was able to drink again. Freud called this treatment the “talking cure”. Later it was called psychoanalysis When patients talked freely about the things that were troubling them they often felt better. The things that patients told him sometimes gave Freud a shock. He discovered that the feelings of very young children are not so different from those of their parents. A small boy may love his mother so much that he wants to kill his father. At the same time he loves his father and is deeply ashamed of this wish. It is difficult to live with such mixed feelings, so they fade away into the unconscious mind and only return in troubled dreams. It was hard to believe that people could become blind, or lose the power of speech, because of what had happened to them when they were children. Freud was attacked from all sides for what he discovered. But he also found firm friends. Many people believed that he had at last found a way to unlock the secrets of the human mind, and to help people who were very miserable. He had found the answer to many of life s great questions. He became famous all over the world and taught others to use the talking cure. His influence on modern art, literature and science cannot be measured. People who wrote books and plays, people who painted pictures and people who worked in schools, hospitals and prisons all learned something from the great man who discovered a way into the unconscious mind. Not all of Freuds ideas are accepted today. But others have followed where he led and have helped us to understand ourselves better. Because of him, and them, there is more hope today than there has ever been before for people who were once just called “crazy”. 1. So far, Freud is the only one who can . A) study human ?s thoughts, ideas and dreams B) provide us the most satisfying reply to where dreams come from C) tell us the reason why we will dream at night D) offer us some help in mental problems 2. Freud . A) spent most of his life in Vienna as well as London B) ended his life after World War II C) spend most of his life in Vienna, Austria D) passed away in Austria before the World War Ⅱ 3. When Freud was a grown ?up, . A) he was more interested in human mind than the way the human body works B) he focused his study on the human mind instead of human body C) he shifted his attention to the study of psychology D) he was most interested in the study of how human body works 4. In Freud ?s day, .
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A) a number of doctors concentrated on the human ?s dreams B) a lot of students admired Freud ?s study very much C) no doctor would like to work with Freud together D) no doctors were interested in human ?s ideas, thoughts or dreams 5. According to the passage, Dr Josef Breuer . A) gave Freud some help in Freud ?s study B) was one of the workmates of Freud C) was a doctor who specialized in the study of human body D) offered some advice in Freud ?s study 6. According to the passage, psychoanalysis was a process . A) in which patients would not participate B) in which patients must say something great they encountered before C) in which patients could do what they like to do D) in which patients could speak out his bad fortune freely in order to make themselves reassured 7. Freud found with a shock that . A) young children and their parents couldn ?t stay together for a long time B) young children were always obedient to their parents C) young children were not so different from their parents in feelings D) young children and his parents differed largely in feelings 8. Although much attack pointed to Freud, it was also thought by many people that Freud had a way to uncover the secrets of and to help miserable people. 9. According to the passage, it is hardly to measure Freud ?s influence on modern art, . 10. According to the passage, at present Freud ?s study brings a lot ofhope to people once called “ ”. Section B Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on Answer Sheet 2. Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage. Many workers who worked in the World Trade Center after the September eleventh attacks became sick. They breathed a mix of dust, smoke and chemicals in the ruins of the Twin Towers and a third building that fell. Some went clays without good protection for their lungs. Five years later, many of the thousands who worked at Ground Zero in the early days after the attacks still have health problems. Doctors at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City have announced the results of the largest study of these workers. The study confirmed high rates of breathing problems in members of the building trades, firefighters, police officers and other workers . Almost seventy percent of the workers in the study had a new or worsened breathing problem. These problems developed during or after their time working in the mountain of wreckage. About sixty percent still had breathing problems at the time of their examination. The researchers say they decided to study the effects on breathing first because other disorders might be slower to appear. Mount Sinai says it tested almost twelve thousand people between two thousand two and two thousand four. Eight out of ten of them agreed to have their results used in the report . The new results added strength to a Mount Sinai study released in two thousand
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four. That study was based on only about one thousand workers. Some lawmakers have sharply criticized city and state officials for letting workers labor at Ground Zero without satisfactory equipment. Officials have also been criticized for saying the air was relatively safe. State and federal officials have promised more than fifty million dollars to pay for treatment of the workers. Doctor Robin Herbert is one of the directors of the Mount Sinai testing program. She says people are still coming to the hospital for treatment of problems that were caused by the dust at Ground Zero. In her words: “My worry is that money will be gone in a year, and what happens then?” 11. What contributed to problems of the workers in World Trade Center after the attacks? 12. Who had the most serious breathing problems according to the latest study? 13. The researchers decided to carry on some study on the effects on breathing first because might appear in a later period of time. 14. are sharply criticized by some lawmakers because they let workers labor at Ground Zero with out satisfactory equipment. 15. What measures have the officials promised to take to deal with the health problem? Section C Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage. Acting is such an over ?crowded profession that th only advice that should be given to a young person e thinking of going on the stage is “Don ?t!”. But it is useless to try to discourage someone who feels that he must act, though the chances of his becoming famous are slim. The normal way to begin is to go to a drama school. Usually only students who show promise and talent are accepted, and the course lasts two years. Then the young actor or actress takes up work with a repertory company, usually as an assistant stage manager. This means doing everything that there is to do in the theatre: painting scenery, looking after the furniture, taking care of the costumes, and even acting in very small parts. It is very hard work indeed. The hours are long and the salary is tiny. But young actors with the stage in their blood are happy, waiting for the chances of working with a better company, or perhaps in films or television. Of course, some people have unusual chances which lead to fame and success without this long and dull training. Connie Pratt, for example, was just an ordinary girl working in a bicycle factory. A film producer happened to catch sight of her one morning waiting at a bus stop, as he drove past in his big car. He told the driver to stop, and he got out to speak to the girl. He asked her if she would like to go to the film studio to do a test, and at first she thought he was joking. Then she got angry and said she would call the police. It took the producer twenty minutes to tell Connie that he was serious. Then an appointment was made for her to go to the studio the next day. The test was successful. They gave her some necessary lessons and within a few weeks she was playing the leading part opposite one of the most famous actors of the day. Of course, she was given a more dramatic name, which is now world-famous. But chances like this happen once in a blue moon! 16. According to the passage, the main reason why young people should be discouraged from becoming actors is . A) actors are very unusual people B) the course at the drama school lasts two years C) acting is really a hard job D) there are already too many actors
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17. An assistant stage manager ?s job is difficult because he has to . A) do all kinds of stage work B) work for long hours C) wait for a better company D) act well 18. According to the context, the sentence “But young actors with the stage in their blood are happy” at the end of the first paragraph means . A) they don ?t careif their job is hard B) they like the stage naturally C) they are born happy D) they are easily satisfied 19. Connie Pratt soon became a famous actress after . A) learning some lessons about the art of speaking B) playing her part in the “Blue Colored Moon” C) successfully matching the most famous actors D) acting a leading part with a most famous actor at that time 20. The phrase “once in a blue moon” in last line refers to . A) all at once B) once for a long time C) once in a while D) once and for all Passage Two Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. The home service industry in Beijing is expected to become more attractive both asa job and as an industry. Sources at the Beijing People ?sPolitical Consultative Conference said resistance to home service work is melting away from minds of the city ?s laid ?off workers. The Conference suggested the establishment of municipal centers which supervise property management, household mending and installation, and house keeping services. Modern city life is creating a need for industrialization home services. This will create job opportunities for laid ?off workers, said Vice director of the Social Judicial Committee of the Conference. Beijing residents have long desired a home service industry. The demand is expected to drive new economic growth. There are few high quality home help services in Beijing and customers are always complaining. In the past, few laid off workers in Beijing desired to work as home helpers, jobs largely taken by young women from the countryside. At the same time, some city residents have not felt safe trusting rural girls with modern household machines or with their small children. Many people would pay more for reliable house keepers who are more familiar with city life, but they have had no way of getting one, even though the city is home to thousands of laid off workers. By the end of June this year, there were 30,600 jobless workers in the city. Most of them are women in their 40 s, who are not blessed with particular skills and who have had their work ethics shaped by the planned economy. Many of them were at a loss when they first realized they had lost their jobs and a way of life they had got used to for decades. They never imagined being laid off by state owned enterprises; they never considered other kinds of
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employment. For them, the private sector meant taking risks; housekeeping implied lower social status. Gao yunfang, 44, is a pioneer who is breaking the ice. She sells the Beijing Morning Post in the morning, and works at two households in the afternoon. She earns 1,000 yuan per month. So she no longer worries about her daughter ?s tuition at a university in Shanghai. 21. What is talked about in the passage? A) Home service. B) Modern city life. C) Laid off worker. D) Social status. 22. What does the word “laid off” in the passage mean? A) Heavily burdened. B) Old. C) Inexperienced. D) Jobless. 23. Why were many laid off workers at a loss? A) Because they didn t get used to the new way of life. B) Because they are too old to find a new job. C) Because they dislike being laid off. D) Because they think they lost their social status. 24. Why didn t the laid off workers like to do home services in the past? A) Low salary. B) Lower social status. C) Dirty working condition. D) Too much extra work. 25. In which ways is home service industry good for our society? A) It meets the needs of modern life. B) It provides work opportunities for the laid off worker. C) It is a new industry. D) A and B. Section C Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45) The first and last 。 paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now. 26 Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. That kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.

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27 Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know noting. 28 There were also crablike creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet. 29 Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important.They have a shell composed of many chambers , each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast. 30 About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out .The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings. [A] The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known. [B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils, from them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate. [C] The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer is formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air. [D] The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animals evolved rapidly and spread over large over large areas of the world. [E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and among these are the sea?lilies relations of the star?fishes which had , , long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks. [F] When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved. [G] Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.

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Directions : For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled On Punctuality.You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below: 1.我们经常会看到一些不守时的现象; 2.不守时的危害; 3.如何避免不守时。 When you are waiting in front of a theatre or at the train terminal, you will realize how important punctuality is. Punctuality is really a virtue, especially in a modern life. Perhaps if everybody was punctual, there would be less suffering and sorrow. Punctuality is the main constituent of good character. A person who is on time for his appointment shows his real consideration for others. On the other hand, a person who is always late shows his selfishness and thoughtlessness and he is not the person that is worthy to be friends with. To be or not to be punctual is a habit. So when we are young, we should try to be punctual every time and never be late, for it is much more easily acquired in youth than when we are older. 2013 清华保送模拟一 Part 1 Reading Comprehension 原文精译 弗洛伊德关于“人类心理”的研究 (1)大部分人晚上经常做梦。早上醒来时,他们自言自语,“多奇怪的梦啊!我怎么做这样的梦”。 有时候,梦很恐怖;有时候,在梦中愿望可以成真。还有时候,我们因奇怪的梦而困扰,在梦中世界似 乎颠倒了,任何东西都没有意义。 (2)梦中我们所做的事情,在清醒时肯定不会做;我们所想所说的,清醒时从不敢想、不敢说。 梦为什么这么奇怪和陌生?梦从何处来? (3) 【1】没有人的答案比西格蒙德· 弗洛伊德给出的更让人满意。他认为,梦源于人的心灵,人没 有办法认识或控制它。他把这个称作“无意识心理”。 (4) 【2】西格蒙德· 弗洛伊德出生在一百多年前,他一生中大部分的时间生活在奥地利的维也纳, 但二战后不久,在伦敦终老。弗洛伊德探索了一个新的世界——人类内心世界。无意识心理就像一口深 井,充满了记忆和情感。从我们出生的那一刻起就储存在那里。我们的“有意识心理”把它们给遗忘了。 直到不愉快、不平凡的经历使我们去回忆,或做梦的时候,我们才意识到它们就在那里。突然之间,我 们看到了童年时看到的东西,拥有了和童年 时代一样的感受。 (5)要想探究人们某种行为的原因,弗洛伊德的发现非常重要。我们内心深处无意识的力量,和 我们知道的意识的力量,至少要一样强大。有时候,我们不知道为什么就做了某事。 而不知道的原因可能就深埋在无意识心理当中。 (6)弗洛伊德小时候,很关注他人经历的痛苦;因此长大后他成为医生毫不奇怪。 【3】了解了人 体的运行机制,但是,他越来越关注的是人类心理。他前赴巴黎留学,师从法国著名医生沙尔科。那个 时代似乎没有人了解心理。如果一个人疯了,或“发狂了”,基本上无法可治。人们不理解发生在他们身 上的事情。他们是不是被恶魔或邪恶的灵魂附了体?是不是做错了事,上帝在惩罚他们?这样的人往往 被与普通人隔离开来,仿佛他们犯了大罪。 (7)很多地方直到今天仍然是这样。医生更喜欢研究他们能看到、能实验的人体部位。 【4】打开 一个人的头颅,你可以看到他的脑子,但看不到他的想法、意见或梦境。 (8) 【4】在弗洛伊德那个时代,基本没有医生对这些话题感兴趣。弗洛伊德想知道人的心理是如 何活动的。他从沙尔科那里学成后,1886 年回到维也纳,成为一名神经科医生。他结了婚,在家里治 疗越来越多的病人。大部分病人是女士。她们过于激动或焦虑,心理方面而非身体上患有疾病,吃药是
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不管用的。弗洛伊德很同情他们,却爱莫能助。 (9) 【5】有一天,弗洛伊德的朋友约瑟夫· 布鲁尔医生来看他,并和他讲到了自己照顾的一个小姑 娘。每次当他允许小姑娘讨论自己的事情时,她看起来就会好一点。她告诉约瑟夫· 布鲁尔医生映入脑海 的所有事情。每谈一次,她就能记起更多小时候的事。听到此,弗洛伊德很激动。他开始用同样的方法 治疗自己的病人。 他询问病人孩提时代的事情, 鼓励病人讲述自己的经历和人际关系。 他自己说的很少。 在他倾听时,病人经常会重现过去的生活瞬间。他们会因愤怒害怕,或爱恨情仇而颤抖。他们仿佛把弗 洛伊德当成自己的父亲、母亲或情人。弗洛伊德从不试图阻止他们,他安静地接受病人所讲的一切,不 管是好事还是坏事。来看病的有一位年轻女士,她尽管很渴却无法喝水。是某些原因阻止了她喝水的能 力。弗洛伊德发现了其中的原因。一天,他们交流时,这位女士记起,她看到一只狗从护士的杯子里喝 水,她并没告诉这个她不喜欢的护士。后来她完全忘记了这个经历。突然,儿时的记忆重回脑海。当她 把整个故事——护士、狗、那杯水——讲给弗洛伊德听时, 这位女士又可以喝水了。 (10) 【6】弗洛伊德把这种治疗方法叫做“谈心疗法”,后来称作心理分析。当病人畅所欲言让他们 困扰的事情时,他们通常会感觉好一些。 (11) 【10】有时候,病人讲的故事会让弗洛伊德大吃一惊。他发现,小孩的感情和父母的感情没 有多少不一样。一个小男孩可能很爱自己的母亲,以至于想杀掉父亲;同时他也爱自己的父亲,并为自 己的这个念头感到羞愧。带着如此复杂的感情生活是很困难的,所以这些情感都隐退到无意识的心理状 态,只在困扰的梦境中才重现。很难相信,由于儿时的经历,人们可能会变瞎,或失去语言能力。 (12)弗洛伊德因自己的发现而受到各方的攻击,但也找到了真正的朋友。 【8】很多人相信,至少 他找到了打开人类心理的一把钥匙, 来帮助痛苦中的人们。 他找到了很多人生难题的答案。 他举世闻名, 给他人传授“谈心疗法”。 【9】他对现代艺术、文学和科学的影响也是无法估量的。作家、剧作家、画家, 在学校、医院、监狱工作的人们,都从这个伟人身上学到了一些东西,是他发现了进入人们无意识心理 的方法。现在,并不是所有弗洛伊德的观点都被接受。但是,有些人跟随他的方向,来帮助人们更好的 了解自我。 【10】对于那些曾被叫做“疯子”的人们来讲,因为有了弗洛伊德以及这些继承者,如今便有 了前所未有的希望。 1.【答案】B 【解析】根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第三段。段首讲,关于解梦,没有人比弗洛伊德给出的答案 让人更满意。 2.【答案】C 【解析】根据选项的内容,考生可锁定文章的第四段。第四段一开始就讲到弗洛伊德的生平。选项 B 是个干扰项,文中只说到 end his days(终老) ,并没有说 end his life(自杀) 。 3.【答案】A 【解析】根据题干,考生可关注文章的第六段。第六段中讲:他了解人身体如何运行,却越来越关 注人类心理。从中可以判断,他对人类心理更感兴趣。 4.【答案】D 【解析】根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第八段。段首讲,那个年代,基本上没有医生对这个话题感 兴趣。考生可回到第七段,确定“这个话题”指代的是“想法、意见和梦境”。 5.【答案】A 【解析】根据题干中的人名 Dr Josef Breuer ,考生可锁定文章的第九段。 约瑟夫· 布鲁尔医生 给 弗洛伊德讲了自己一个病人的故事,这给弗洛伊德带来了灵感。由此可以判断,在弗洛伊德学说中,约 瑟夫· 布鲁尔医生提供了一些帮助。 6.【答案】D 【解析】根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第十段。此段主要讲了什么是心理分析,也就是所 谓的“谈心疗法”,即病人可以自由地讨论自己遇到的困扰。 7.【答案】C 【解析】 根据题干, 考生可锁定文章的第十一段。 段中的原话为, discovered that thefeelings of very He young children are not so different from those of their parents,而选项 C 是其同义句。
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8.【答案】the human mind 【解析】根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第十二段。很多人肯定,弗洛伊德找到了打开人心理的一把 钥匙。 9.【答案】literature and science 【解析】根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第十二段。弗洛伊德在很多方面都带来了深刻的影响,如现 代艺术,文学和科学等。 10.【答案】crazy 【解析】根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第十二段。此段的最后一句话讲到,那些人曾被叫做“crazy”。 Part ⅣReading Comprehension(Reading in Depth) Section A 原文精译 9· 事件之后, 11 在世贸中心工作的许多工人都生病了。 在双子塔以及倒塌的第三幢楼的废墟中, 47】 【 他们呼吸着灰尘、烟、化学物质的混合气体。有些人没有好好保护他们的肺,撒手而去。五年后,当时 恐怖袭击后不久在“爆心投影点”(位于华盛顿)工作的成千上万的员工中,很多人的健康都仍有问题。 纽约市西奈山医疗中心的医生宣布了对这些工人的研究结果。 【48】这项研究确认,商贸中心成员、消 防队员、警察和其他工人中,呼吸出现问题的比率很高。研究中大概 70%的工人有了新的呼吸问题,或 原有的呼吸问题加重。他们在如山般的残骸中工作,期间或随后出现了这些问题。在调查研究期间,大 概 60%的人依然有呼吸问题。 【49】研究人员说,其他的紊乱 可能出现得比较晚,他们决定先研究对呼吸的影响。西奈山说,2002 至 2004 年间,测试了将近 12,000 人,其中 80%的人同意把结果写在报告里。新的结果支持 2004 年西奈山发表的 研究结果,而那时的研究只测试了 1,000 人。 【50】市以及州政府官员让工人在没有令人满意的设 备的“爆心投影点”工作,一些立法者尖锐地批评了这一点;政府官员声称空气相对来说安全,这也受到 了批判。 【51】州及联邦政府许诺,5 亿多美元将用来支付工人的治疗费用。罗宾· 赫伯特医生是西奈山 测试项目的负责人之一,她说,因“爆心投影点”的烟尘所引起的问题,还有很多人来医院治疗,“我担 心一年之后钱花完了,怎么办?” 11.【答案】A harmful mix of dust,smoke and chemicals in the ruins. 【解析】根据问题可将答案定位在文章的第一段。工人呼吸了某一种混合物,才导致健康问题。考 生要注意首字母要大写。 12.【答案】The building trades,firefighters,police officers and other workers.【解析】根据问题,考 生可将答案定位在文章的第二段。研究表明,在商贸中心成员、消防队员、警察和其他工人中,呼吸出 现问题的比率很高。考生要注意首字母要大写。 13.【答案】other disorders 【解析】根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第二段。在填写过程中,不可忘记名词复数形式。 14.【答案】City and state officials 【解析】根据题干,考生可将答案定位在文章的第三段。需要特别注意的是,空白处是主 语,所以首字母要大写。 15.【答案】To pay more than fifty million dollars for treatment of the workers. 【解析】根据问题,考生可锁定文章的第三段。考生要对原句做细微的调整,用 to do 不定式的结 构来表示措施。 Section C Passage One 原文精译 【52】表演界人数众多,因此,给想登上舞台的年轻人唯一的忠告是:别走这条路!但对那些感觉 自己必须表演的人,哪怕成名的机会很渺茫,劝说也是没有用的。一般来讲,踏上表演这条路的第一步 是去戏剧学校。通常这些学校只接收有前途、有天赋的学生,课程一般持续两年。 【53】年轻演员一般 在轮演剧团工作,职位一般为舞台总监助理。这意味着,他要做
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剧院里所有的工作:刷背景,照看家具,管理戏服,甚至出演小角色。这实际上是非常辛苦的,工 作时间长,工资又低。 【54】但是,天生爱表演的年轻演员却非常高兴,他们期待着能 和更好的公司合作,或者拍电影,或者演电视剧。当然,有些人运气超好,没有经过这个漫长枯燥 的过程便成名了。比如康妮· 普拉特,她起初只是个在自行车厂工作的普通女孩。一天早晨她在公交站等 车,一个电影制片人的豪华轿车恰巧路过,制片人看到了她,便让司机停车,他前去和这个女孩交谈, 问她是否愿意到电影制片厂试镜。刚开始,女孩以为他在开玩笑。随后她生气了,并说要报警。制片人 花了 20 分钟告诉康妮他是严肃的,然后约定让她第二天到制片厂去。试镜很成功。随后她接受了一些 必要的训练。几周后, 【55】她便担当了主角。和当时的知名演员演对手戏。当然,她也有了现在闻名 世界的艺名。 【56】但这样的机会千载难逢! 16.【答案】D 【解析】本题是个细节判断题。根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第一段。段首讲,表演界人数众多, 所以不鼓励年轻人从事表演事业。从此判断 D 为正确选项。 17.【答案】A 【解析】本题是个细节判断题。根据题干中的 an assistant stage manager,考生可锁定文章的第一段。 原文中讲,年轻演员一般在轮演剧团工作,职位一般为舞台总监助理。这意味着,要做剧院里所有的工 作。选项 B 是个干扰项,这只是其中一个因素而已。 18.【答案】B 【解析】本题是个建立在细节上的同义辨析题。根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第一段。段末讲,天 生爱表演的年轻演员非常高兴。这表明他们生来喜欢舞台。 19.【答案】D 【解析】本题是个细节题。第二段后半部分讲,女孩随后接受了一些必要的训练,几周后便担当了 主角,和当时的知名演员演对手戏,然后便世界闻名了。因此 D 正确。选项 A 是个干扰项,文中说女 孩接受了一些训练,但没有提到接受的训练是“the art of speaking”。 20.【答案】B 【解析】本题是个同义转换题。根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第二段,段末出现了这个短语。第二 段讲述了一个非常罕见的例子,所以作者在这里强调这种机会并不常见。选项 A 意为“同时,突然”;选 项 C 意为“偶尔,有时”;选项 D 意为“彻底地”。 Passage Two 原文精译 【57】无论是作为一项工作还是一个产业,北京的家政服务业都将变得更具吸引力。来自北京人民 政治协商会议的消息称,城市下岗工人抵制家政服务工作的观念正在消失。会议建议加强市政中心的作 用,由它们来监督物业管理,负责家具维修和安装以及家务服务。现代城市生活催生了产业化的家政服 务业。大会社会公平委员会的副会长认为, 【61】这将为 那些失业工人创造工作机会。北京市民早就期望能有家政服务业,这种需求有望带动新一轮的经济 增长。 【61】目前,消费者一直抱怨北京缺乏高质量的家政服务。过去,很少有下岗工人愿意做家政服 务方面的工作,这样的工作大部分由来自农村的年轻妇女来做。同时,一些城市居民对农村女孩不太放 心,总感觉由她们来使用现代化的家庭电器或者照顾孩子不安全。很多人更愿意多付钱找一个对城市生 活熟悉的、可靠的家政服务人 员, 【58】但是在这个有数以千计的下岗工人的城市,他们却找不到一个想要的人。 【58】本年六月 底,市失业人口已达 30600 人,其中大部分是四十多岁的妇女。他们没有特 别的技能,却有计划经济培养出来的工作道德。 【60】当他们第一次意识到自己失业了,告别了已 过了几十年的生活方式的时候,他们感到很茫然。他们从来没想到会从国有企业下岗,也从未考虑过其 他的职业。 【59】对他们来讲,私企意味着冒险;家政服务暗示较低的社会地位。现年四十四岁的高云 芳是第一个吃螃蟹的人,她早晨卖《北京早报》 ;下午在两家做家务,每月可以挣到 1000 元。这样她不 必再担心正在上海 上大学的女儿的学费问题了。
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21.【答案】A 【解析】本题是个主旨题。本篇文章一开始,就提及文章主题,那就是家政服务。 22.【答案】D 【解析】本题是个同义转换题。考生可能对此词非常熟悉,laid ?off 和 jobless 同义,意为“失业”。 如果不熟悉,可锁定文章的第四段和第五段,第四段段末用到 laid ?off ,而第五段段首用 jobless,由此 可以判断两词是同义词。 23.【答案】A 【解析】本题是个细节题。根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第五段。下岗职工感到茫然的原因是,他 们第一次意识到要和原来的生活方式分开,过一种全新的生活。 24.【答案】B 【解析】本题是个细节题。根据题干,考生可锁定文章的第六段。他们从未考虑过其他职业,家政 服务暗示较低的社会地位。由此判断 B 为正确选项。 25.【答案】D 【解析】本题是个建立在细节上的主旨题。文章的第二段和第三段讲到了家政业给中国经济带来的 好处,一是提供了很多就业机会;二是满足了现代城市生活的需求。 答案详解 26.「解析」[B]从试题前后的语义逻辑关系来看,试题前面的一段话表明的信息是 Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now(尽管这些动物是某些活到现在的物种的祖先,但有的动物却灭绝了,也就是说它们现在已经 没有子孙后代活在这个世界上)。试题的后面的句子表明的信息是 Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin,so that,apart from color,we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago(有时候这些石头可以将它们的外表展现出来,这样,除了颜色我们就可以对 那些数百年前死掉的生物形成一个比较准确的印象)。从语义关系里看,前文中说动物灭绝了,暗含的 意思是我们不可能得到这些动物的任何信息,而后面的句子说我们可以对这些动物形成准确的印象,因 此,前后文形成了明显的对比关系,四个选项中能够表达这种关系的,只有选项[B]. 本题还可以采用词汇的复现来确定正确答案,从试题后面的句子 Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin 来看,rocks 的前面使用了定冠词 the 修饰,这表明 rocks 在前文中一定出现过,但我 们考察第一段时发现,第一段中并没有出现关于 rocks 的内容,因此可以确定,关于 rocks 的内容一定 出现在要填入的试题中。选项[B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate 中出现了动物的骨骼被保存在 the rocks 中,变成化石的论述,由 此可以判断选项[B]是正确答案。 27. 解析」 「 [F]本题出现在一个段落的首句, 从答题策略来看, 应当重点看后文的叙述, 后文中 water 重复了两遍,说明这一信息是本段落的重点信息。同时这一信息很可能会在下上文中,即我们要填入的 信息中出现复现词或同现词。对比选项,选项[F]中出现了 lake,stream,river,sea 等同类词汇,因此可 以判断这一选项为正确答案。本题最大的干扰项为[G],因为[G]项一开始就有 how fossils ate preserved 与下文 Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks…所表达的内容从形式上来看似乎是 吻合的;但是[G]项后面讲的是动物遗体上的有机组织(organism)可能转达化成几种形式而本题空白处 后面的内容则告诉人们 Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action (岩石中几乎所有的化石都是由于水作用而被保存下来),语义上主要说明泥沙对于化石保存下来所起 的作用,因此两者在语义的衔接上是不连贯的。

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28.「解析」[E]本题选择的特征词是“also”。“also”表并列关系,语义上对前文进行补充和说明,这 就证明本题前面的句子中应当与 also 后的 crab?like creatures 类似螃蟹的生物)相并列的内容,或者出 ( 现了有关“类似螃蟹的生物”的描述的信息。 比较选项可以发现, 选项[E]中出现的信息 Later forms are more complex, and among these are the sea?l lies, relations of the star?fish i es, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks 描述了一些生物具有“类似螃蟹的信息”: had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rock(有长腕且通过长柄附着于海床或岩石上)。 因此,选项 [E]是正确答案。 29.「解析」[A] 下文一开始就出现了指示代词 these,这说明试题前面的句子表明了一类事物,也 就是说, 试题部分应该有“some, several, many”或类似的词, 对比答案只能是选项[A] The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known.里面出现了 many different kinds of,这个短语 和后面的指示代词 these 形成了对应关系。 30.「解析」[C]从文章的整体结构看,这里需要一个内容的“高潮”:前面几段讲的都是动物不断的 进化过程, 而下文中表示时间的短语“About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over” 很可能向我 们传达了这样一个信息:文章对地球上动物进化过程的描写很有可能是按照时间顺序的,因此本题所在 的段落和下面的段落很可能存在时间上的延续关系,即本题所在的段落很可能会提到比 75 million years ago 更早的时间。 通过对比选项可知选项[C]中的两个表示时间的短语 375 million years 和 150 million years 和下一个段落中提到的时间状语具有了延续性,是正确答案。 此外,还可以采用词汇复现法解答本题。试题后面一句话 About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out 中的 reptile 在本题前的文章中从没有提到,在下文中又 没有作为新信息,因而作为正确答案的选项中一定有这个词,只有[C]项中有“The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the sea ,and in the air”。所以正确答案只能是[C].

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