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现在分词作状语 (book 4 unit 4 )


Revision: Finish the sentences. 主语 Seeing 1. _______ is believing. 眼见为实。 sitting 2. In the summer we enjoy _______(坐) under 宾语 the big tree. taking care of the babies 3. Her job is _________

________________(照顾 婴儿)。 表语(动名词) interesting 表语(现在分词) 4. The story is ___________(有趣的)。 5. How can you keep her waiting _______(等待) in the rain. 宾语补足语 6. The man standing over there (站在那里) ___________________ 定语 is my father.

现在分词作状语(adverbial)
?现在分词和现在分词短语可以在句子中作状语 来修饰谓语动词或整个句子,表示动作发生的 时间、原因、条件、结果、让步或伴随状况。 ? 基本句型:
1. 现在分词(分词短语),主语+谓语+其他 句子成份。 2. 主语+谓语+其他句子成份, 现在分词(分词 短语) 。

?

When meeting guests, he often felt uneasy.

表时间
?

?

Not knowing her telephone number, I didn’t phone her. 表原因 Turning to the left, you’ll see a school.

表条件
?

The child fell off the tree, hitting his head against the ground. 表结果

可以表示时间, 原因, 结果, 条件, 行 为方式或伴随动作等。 1).Using your head, you’ll find a good way. 条件状语
If you use your head

Working hard, you’ll surely
succeed.
If you work hard

Because he was poor

2). Being poor, he couldn’t afford a

TV set. (原因)
As we don’t know her address

Not knowing her address, we
can’t get in touch with her.

3). Walking in the street, I saw a tailor’s shop. 时间
When I was walking in the street.

4). His father died, leaving the family even worse off. 结果
and this left the family even worse off

5) Four people entered the room looking around
in a curious way. 伴随状语 = Four people entered the room and looked

around in a curious way.

6) He came running back to tell me the
news. 方式

V -ing形式作状语时, 它的逻辑主语必须与主句 的主语一致。

句型转换:现在分词的逻辑主语分别是什么? 1. When he heard the news, he jumped with joy.

Hearing _________ the news, he jumped with joy.
时间状语
2. As she was ill, she went home.

________ ill, she went home. 原因状语 Being
3. The girl came in and she smiled.

smiling The girl came in ___________. 方式状语
4. She sat at the desk and read a newspaper.

reading She sat at the desk _________ a newspaper.
表伴随状况

1. When the Night came on ,they started for home. 1.The Night coming on ,they started for home. 2. As the last bus had gone, he had to walk home. 2.The last bus having gone, he had to walk home. 3.If time permits, we are going to climb the mountain tomorrow. 3.Time permitting, we are going to climb the mountain tomorrow.

Note: 在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必
须与句子的主语一致, 如不一致则要加上它自己逻辑上 4.They are talking with the teacher,and 的主语, 这种结构称为:

their children played outside. 4.They are talking with the teacher, their children playing outside. 5.Since it rained, I went to work with an umbrella. 5.It raining, I went to work with an umbrella.

Note: 在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必
须与句子的主语一致, 如不一致则要加上它自己逻辑上 的主语, 这种结构称为: 独 立主格 结 构
I.名词普通格(代词主格)+现在分词

1.The Night coming on ,they started for home. 2.The last bus having gone, he had to walk home. 3.Time permitting, we are going to climb the mountain tomorrow. 4.They are talking with the teacher, their children playing outside.

5.It raining, I went to work with an umbrella.

Rewrite the following sentences. 1. When he approached Ms Smith, he touched her shoulder and kissed her. = When approaching Ms Smith, he ______ ___________ touched her shoulder and kissed her. 2. The person who is translating the songs can speak seven languages. = The person _________ ___ ______can translating the songs speak seven languages.

3. The boy standing there is reading a book about body language. The boy ____ __ ________ there is who is standing reading a book about body language.

4. Because he comes from Jordan, he moves close to ask you a question. _______ from Coming _____ Jordan, he moves close to ask you a question.

5. She sat at the desk and did her homework. = She sat at the desk ______ ____ doing her __________. homework

注意: 1. 为了使V-ing形式作状语所表达 的意思更为明确。可在V-ing 前加适当 的连词(when ;while; if ; though; unless 等) While he was waiting for a bus, he met Mary. =Waiting for the bus, he met Mary.

=While waiting for the bus, he met Mary.

2.现在分词作状语时,有时可以在分词前加

once, although, though, until, if 等连词。
?

Once ________(一旦) remembering the word, you
tired, he went on

will never forget it.
? Although ________ (虽然)being

doing the work.
?

until She didn’t recognize Tony, ______(直到)
______(如果) turning left, you will find a If

being greeted by him.
?

supermarket.

3. 现在分词作状语时,根据需要可以在分词

前加after, before等介词。 After taking a bath, he went to bed.
=Having taken a bath, he went to bed. Before having supper, he did his homework.

4. 当表示分词的动作一发生,主句的动作随之也 发生时,可以使用“on+动名词”的结构,翻译 成“一……就……”, 能够用于这种用法的动词都 是瞬间动词;如look, hear, see, open, close等。 Hearing the news, they couldn’t help jumping. = On hearing the news, they couldn’t help jumping. On opening the case, I saw the bird fly out of it. ___ ________ 一打开这个盒子,我看到有只鸟飞出来。

需要注意的事项
现在分词作状语的几种形式 1. 一般形式:doing 现在分词的动作和谓语动词的动作同时发 生用 Hearing the sad news, she burst into tears. 2.否定形式: not doing Not knowing his address, I couldn’t go

to see him yesterday.

3. 完成式:having done 当分词的动作先于谓语动词的动作发生用分词的 完成式 Having finished the class, she went home. 4.完成被动式:having been done Having been praised for his job, Tom worked harder. 完成否定式: Not having received the reply, he decided to write another one.

5. 进行被动式:being done Being criticised by the teacher, the boy hung his head.

?

Not getting ___ early _____ _______ up _______, he missed the Being _____ to _______ ____ _______, ______ asked ___answer the question he

first bus. 没有早起,他错过了第一趟公共汽车。)
?

stood up.

由于被要求回答这个问题,他站了起来。 ?Having finished ____ __________, he stopped _______ _______ his homework to have a rest. 已经完成了作业,他停下来休息。
?

Not _______ _____ _____ ______, she didn’t ___ having talked with John
没有与约翰谈过,她不知道他想要什么。

know what he wanted.

注意:

1. 现在分词作状语时,其逻辑主语必修与 主句中主语一致。它们之间是主动关系。 被动则用V-ed. 但是短语 generally speaking; judging from/by; compared with; supposing; to tell you the truth等是固定搭配。不 受主语影响。 Judging from his face, he was very angry.

2. 作状语的V-ing形式和句子之间通常有一 个逗号隔开,不能用并列连词。 Studying hard, and you will pass the entrance examination to college. F Studying hard, you will pass the entrance examination to college. T Study hard, and you will pass the entrance examination to college.

T

单句改错
1. Having not seen the film, I can’t tell you what I think of it. Not having 2. The men worked for extra hours got an extra pay. working 3. Seen from the top of the hill, we find the city more beautiful. Seeing 4. Generally speak, facial expressions are helpful communications, too. speaking

5. “Can’t you read?” the man said, angrily pointed to the notice on the wall. pointing
6. Knocking at the door before entering, please. Knock 7. European football is played in 80 countries, made it the most popular sport in the world. making

Choose the best answer.
1. The stranger said something in a
_______ voice and the little girl was very much _______. A. frightening, frightened B. frightened, frightening C. frightening, frightening D. frightened, frightened

2. ________the piano, someone suddenly knocked at the door.

A. Playing
B. When I was playing

C. Repairing
D. Examining

3. Mother caught the boy ______ in the

corner.
A. smoke

B. to smoke
C. being smoked D. smoking

4. ______ the programme, they have to stay there for another 2 weeks.

A. Not completing
B. Not completed

C. Not having completed
D. Having not completed

5. “We can’t go out in this weather”, said Bob, ____ out of the window. A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looked
6. Though _____ money, his parents managed to send him to university. A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in

7. The bell _______ the end of the period
rang, ______ our heated discussion. A. indicating; interrupting

B. indicated; interrupting
C. indicating; interrupted

D. indicated; interrupted

8. _______ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer

D. Suffered

9. He looked around and caught a man ______ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. A. put B. to be putting C. to put

D. putting

10. Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage _____ the girl and took her away, ____ into the woods. A. seizing; disappeared

B. seized; disappeared
C. seizing; disappearing

D. seized; disappearing

11. ______in the queue for half an hour. Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited 12. The picture _____ on the wall is painted by my nephew. A. Having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung

13. Generally speaking, ______ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. A. when taking

B. when taken
C. when to take

D. when to be taken

1. I was told that there were about 50 foreign students _____ Chinese in the school, most _____ were from Germany. (2006年 辽宁卷) A. study; of whom B. study; of them C. studying; of them D. studying; of whom

2. Don’t sit there ________ nothing. Come and help me with this table. (2006年 湖北卷 A. do B. to do C. doing D. and doing

3. —Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work ____ my mind, I almost break down. (2007年 福建卷) A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled

4. —Can I smoke here?
—Sorry. We don’t allow ______ here. (2007年 江苏卷)

A. people smoking
B. people smoke

C. to smoke
D. smoking


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现在分词作状语 | 过去分词作状语 | 分词作状语 | 现在分词作伴随状语 | 分词短语作状语 | 分词做状语 | 现在分词做状语 | 过去分词做状语 |