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Unit 2 Language Learning语言学习


Unit 2
Language Learning
Teaching Objectives


1. Match the people with the languages they speak. 2. Help the students to pronounce correctly the vowels and consonan

ts in Sound Recognition. 3. Enable the students to speak appropriately in terms of expressing likes and agreements. 4. Get the students to understand the dialogue in Listening and Speaking. 5. Get the students to master some key words, expressions and structures in the text and to get the main idea of the text. 6. Introduce the basic knowledge about Nouns and get the students to put the grammatical knowledge into use. 7. Get the students to understand the main idea of a passage. 8. Study the further reading passage and finish the exercise (for advanced students).

Key Points
1. Sound Recognition
Correct pronunciation of the following sounds: [e], [? ], [?], [??],[k], [g] [f], [v]

2. Listening & Speaking
1) Talking about language learning 2) Asking for and giving advice

3. Reading
A. Vocabularies

Words
communication estimate native community widespread percent population important describe global

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nowadays

conduct

scientific culture exciting

Expressions
less than B. Structures

lie in

be described as

more than any other

It is estimated that...

4. Grammar
Nouns (1) A. Classification of Nouns B. Regular Changes of Plural Nouns

5. Writing
Write a paragraph with detailed reasons or examples.

Teaching Procedures
I. Lead-in II. Sound Recognition III. Listening & Speaking Getting into the Topic Testing Your Ears Script of the Dialogue IV. Reading Warming Up Background Information Detailed Study of the Text Further Practice V. Grammar VI. Writing and Assignments
I. Lead-in
1.

2.

Write down the languages under each person. From left to right: Japanese, Russian, Arabian, Spanish. Encourage students to talk about their favorite language and reasons. For example: I want to learn Japanese because I read a lot of Japanese comic books.

II. Sound Recognition

1. Play the recording and ask the students to listen carefully.
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2. Ask some students to give their choices. 3. Check the answers and explain the differences between the sounds: [e], [? ]; [?], [??]; [k], [g]; [f], [v] Notes:发音要领 [e] 1.舌端靠近下齿;2.舌前部抬高,但略低干[I]的舌位;3.牙床介干半合半开之 间,比[I]的牙床略大;4.唇形扁平。 [? ] 1.舌端靠近下 2.舌前部抬高,但其舌位是四个前元音中最低的;3.开口 比[e] 大,是四个前元音中开口最大的音,介于半开和开之间;4.唇形扁平自然。 [?] 1.舌端离下齿,舌后抬高,略高于后元音[a:]; 2.双唇自然成圆形,略小于后元音 [a:]; 3.牙床近于开,但略小于后元音[a:]。 [??] 1.舌端离下齿,舌后抬高,明显高于后元音[?]; 2.唇形较圆,比后元音[?] 更圆; 3.牙床半开,较后元音[?]的开口程度小。 [k g]两者是一对清浊辅音,发音时舌后抬高,与软腭形成阻碍,气流冲破舌后与软 腭的阻碍,由口腔爆破而出。发[k]时,声带不振动,[k]是清辅音;发[g] 时,声带 振动,[g]是浊辅音。 [f v]两者是一对清浊辅音, 发音时下唇轻轻接近上齿, 气流经唇齿间空隙形成摩擦, 由口腔而出。发[f]时声带不振动,[f]是清辅音;发[v]时,声带振动, [v]是浊辅音。 4. Play the recording again and ask the students to repeat sentence by sentence.

?

III. Listening & Speaking

? Getting into the Topic
1. Brainstorm with the students some words, expressions or sentence patterns about language learning. 2. Present to the students the following expressions: be useful/helpful be hard/difficult to learn practise . . . with be interested in speak ... well be good at

3. Ask the students to make up sentences of their own by using these expressions. 4. Present to the students some basic formulas about likes and agreements.

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Talking about likes: Asking about likes Do you like/love ...? Are you keen on ...? Would you like ...? Expressing likes I love ... I am crazy about ... I am fond of ... Talking about agreements: Asking about agreements

Could I ask if …? Don’t you think so? How do you think about it?

Expressing agreements

I agree (with that). I am for it. I think so.

5. Ask the students to role-play Dialogue 1 and Dialogue 2.

? Testing Your Ears
1. Play the recording for the first time and ask the students to finish Activity C. Key: √ Talking with a Classmate Note: It can be inferred from the man’s words “Well,I do my homework and go to class just as you do.” that the two speakers are classmates. 2 Play the recording again and ask the students to finish Activity D. Key: √ talking to foreigners √ reading English newspapers √ working hard √ going to the English corner Notes: The answers can be inferred from the following lines in the dialogue: W: Maybe i t ’ s because I started learning it earlier than you. But also,I really work hard at it. W: Well, you might try reading some English newspapers. And always talk to foreigners when you get a chance. If I were you, I’d go to the English corner every week. 3. Play the recording for the third time and ask the students to finish Activity E. Key: 1 . T 2 . T 3 F 4. F 5 T Notes: Draw the students’ attention to the following expressions and sentences: work hard at You might try doing ... make progress What else do you think would help?
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What if ,,.? in that case in another way I get it. It must be very embarrassing if... 4. Check the students’ answers and explain the key points.

? Script of the Dialogue
M: I t ’ s a little hard for me to learn English. Why is it so easy for you? W: Maybe it’s because I started learning it earlier than you. But also, I really work hard at it. M: Well, I do my homework and go to class just as you do. But I make little progress. What else do you think would help? W: Well, you might try reading some English newspapers. And always talk to foreigners when you get a chance. If I were you, I ’d go to the English corner every week. M: What do people usually talk about in the English Corner? W: Whatever interests them, such as study, music, books, movies, and travelling. M: What if I can’ understand others’ questions? W: You can ask them to repeat the question. M: It must be very embarrassing if I still can’t understand. W: Don’t worry. In that case, they will try to explain the question to you in another way. M: OK, I get it. Thank you very much. W: My pleasure.

IV. Reading

? Warming Up
1. Ask the students to check the items in Warming Up and ask a few students to give their choices and reasons. 2. Ask the students to scan the text and fill in the table in Warming Up, and discuss what else they know about English. 3. The teacher may ask the students the ways to learn English well ,and make a list of them.

? Background Information
The Importance of English English is one of the most important languages in the world. It can even be

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said to be the single most important language. Yes , other languages are important too,but not for the same reasons as English is important. English is important because it is, maybe,the only language that truly links the whole world together. If not for English, the whole world may not be as united as it is today. The other languages may be important for their local values and culture. There are various reasons for the importance of English language. They are listed below. Travel: When a person travels to another part of the world either for the sake of business or even as a tourist,the languages may differ. In these conditions, English is the language that helps people to deal with the situation. It is like a universal language. Education/Studies: The presence of English as a universal language assumes importance in the fact that more and more people leave their countries not only for the sake of business and pleasure, but also for studying. Education has increased the role of English. People who go to another country to study can only have English as their medium of study. This is because the individual will not be able to learn a subject in the local language of the country. This again reinforces the fact that English language is very important. Correspondence: All correspondence between offices in different countries and also between political leaders of various countries is in English. This linking factor also tells of the importance of English language. The Internet: In spite of the growth of the Internet in various languages, English is the mainstay of the Internet users. This is the language in which most of the information and websites are available. It is very difficult to translate each and every relevant webpage into the language of various countries. With the Internet becoming very important in E-commerce and also in education, English language is bound to grow. Thus the importance of English as a language is emphasized.

? Detailed Study of the Text

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Text proper

For teachers9 reference 1. Why is it so important to learn

Para.1
Why is it so important to learn English? The answer is: because it is the single most important language in the world for communication. It is estimated that there are 300 million native speakers of English in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, the Republic of Ireland, South Africa, and New Zealand. There are another 300 million who use English as a second language and a further 100 million use it as a foreign language. Of those nations where English is spoken as a second language, India has the most such speakers. India now has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world.

English?

Because it is the most important language for communication.
2. How many speakers of English are there in the world?

There are altogether 700 million speakers of English, 300 million native speakers, 300 million second language speakers, and 100 million foreign language speakers.
3. What do “such speakers” (underlined) refer to here?

They refer to people who speak English as a second language.
Main idea

English is an important language to learn which has speaker around the world.

1. The answer is: because it is the single most important language in the world for communication. The answer is: because it is the only most important language in the world for people to share their ideas and feelings with each other. communication: n. act of sharing ideas and feelings with other people or giving information 交流, 交际,沟通

e.g. Teachers must have good communication skills.
教师必须具备良好的交际能力 。

Speaking and writing are the most important methods of communication for human beings.
说与写是人类最重要的交流方式。

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2. It is estimated that there are 300 million native speakers of English in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, the Republic of Ireland, South Africa, and New Zealand. An approximate calculation has been made that there are 300 million people who speak English as their first language in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, the Republic of Ireland, South Africa, and New Zealand.

estimate: v. form an idea of the cost, size, value etc. of sth.估计,估算,估价 e.g. We estimate that about 100 people have lost their lives in the flood.
我们 估 计大约有一百人在这次洪灾中丧生 。

It is estimated that it will take another 1 years to complete the project.
估计还要再经过十年的时间才能完成这个项目 。

They are estimating the number of visitors.
他们正在估筧参观者人数。

native: a. connected with the place where you were born 出生地的,本国的 native speaker: a person who speaks a language as his or her first language 说本族 语的人,母语使用者 e.g. Have you decided when to pay a visit to your native country?
你决定什么时候重返故里了吗?

It is really hard to figure out whether he is native English speaker or not.
他究竟是不是英语本族语者可真难说。
3. There are another 300 million who use English as a second language and a further 100 million use it as a foreign language. The difference between English as a second language and as a foreign language depends on the country where you are learning another language.

English as a second language: In a country such as the USA, where English is the native language, if a Chinese is learning English, it’s generally believed that he or she is learning a second language. English as a foreign language: If you, a Chinese, are learning English in China, its generally believed that you are learning English as a foreign language.
1. In terms of the number of English is not the most widely spoken language in the world, though, in terms of the number of native speakers. There are many more Chinese speakers than native English speakers,but Chinese is native speakers, is English the most widely spoken language in the world? Why?

Para. 2

No, because there are many more native Chinese speakers than those of English.

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spoken little outside of Chinese communities; so English is the most widespread language in the world. However, the number of 2. How many people are using English?

Less

speakers does not really show how Main idea important English is as a world

than 15% of the world population.

Although English is language, because less than fifteen not the language with the most native speakers, it iS the most widespread per cent of the world population language in the world. uses English.
4. There are many more Chinese speakers than native English speakers, but Chinese is spoken little outside of Chinese communities; so English is the most widespread language in the world. Although there are many more native Chinese speakers than native English speakers, outside the places where Chinese live together speakers of Chinese are few. Therefore, English is the most widely used language in terms of the number of non-native speakers.

community: n. all the people who live in a place or country 社区,团体 e.g. Hi father has become an important leader in that community.
他父亲成为了那个社区的一位重要领导者。

The entire community is engaging in an election.
整个社区正在进行一场选举。

widespread: a. happening over a large area or among many people 分布广的,普 遍的,广泛的 e.g. This use of the word is not very widespread.
这个词的这种用法不是非常普遍。

Widespread flooding has affected large areas of Fujian province.
洪灾泛滥,影响到了福建省的大部分区域。
5. However, the number of speakers does not really show how important English is as a world language, because less than fifteen percent of the world population uses English. The number of English speakers is smaller than fifteen per cent of the world population; however, this doesn’t mean that English is not an important language. On the contrary, it is rather important. less than: used before a number to say that the actual number is smaller than that 少于,不到

e.g. Less than half a year, he paid off all the debt.

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不到半年的时间,他还淸了所有的债务。

I bought the skirt for less than ten dollars.
这条裙子花了我不到十美元。 percent: n. one part in every hundred 百分之 ...

e.g. Poor families spend about 80 to 90 percent of their income on food.
贫困家庭大约花费收入的 80%到 90%购买食物。

It is estimated that we use only10 percent of our brain.
椐估算我们只利用了大脑的 10% 。 population: n. all the people who live in an area,city or country; the total
number of people who live there (地区、城市、国家的)人口,人口数量

e.g. The population of Scotland is nearly two million.
苏格兰的人口近两百万。

China has a population of more than 13 million now.
中国现在有超过 13 亿的人口。

Parr 3

1. What does the importance of English lie in?

The importance of English lies in what it is used for. English is often described as the first global language since it is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is spoken extensively in other countries where it has no official status. Nowadays, half of all business deals are conducted in English; two thirds of all scientific papers are written in English; and over seventy per cent of all mail is written and addressed in English. Very importantly for young people, English is also the tool to understand American popular culture and those exciting Hollywood movies. Therefore, the importance of English language can never be overestimated.

The importance of English lies in what it is used for.
2. Why is English described as the first global language?

Because it is the language of many fields and it is widely used in many countries.
3. What’s an important use of English for young people?

It is the tool to understand American pop culture and Hollywood movies.
Main idea

English is a language of great importance because it is extensively used in many fields and in many countries.

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6. The importance of English lies in what it is used for. The importance of English can be found in its uses. importance: being important 重要十生,重要,重大

e.g. Never mind who told me, that’s of no importance. It is a matter of great importance to me.
这对我来说是最重要的事。
lie in: exit or be found 存在,在于

别管是谁告诉我的,这不重要。

e.g. Her difficulty lies in getting it into people’s heads that she is over 16.
她的困难在于怎样使人相信她已经 16 岁了。

The problem lies in how to carry out the plan.
问题在于怎样实施计划。
7. English is often described as the first global language since it is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. English is often said to be the first world language since it is the language widely used in science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. describe: v. say what sb. or sth. is like 描述

e.g. The police asked me to describe how exactly it happened
警察让我描述一下事情是怎么发生的。

Words cannot describe the beauty of my home town.
语言无法描述我家乡的美。

describe ... as 把 ................... 描述为 ........ eg. The man was described as tall and dark, and aged about 20. 据描述,这个男人高个子,深色皮肤,年龄在 20 岁左右。

global: a. of the whole world 全球的,全世界的 e.g. We must now view agriculture in terms of its global impact.
现在我们必须从农业的全球影响来看待农业。
8. Nowadays, half of all business deals are conducted in English; two thirds of all scientific papers are written in English; and over seventy percent of all mail is written and addressed in English. Now half of all business deals are carried out in English; two thirds of all papers about science are written in English; and over seventy percent of all mail is written and addressed in English.

nowadays: ad. now, not the past 现在,目前 e.g. Nowadays the computer becomes more and more important in communication.
现在电脑在人们交流中变得越来越重要。 如今看到男人做家务活是很帄常的亊。

Nowadays it is common to see man do housework.

conduct: v. organize or do a task 处理,管理,执行 e.g. You should learn how to conduct an experiment.
你应该学会怎样做实验。

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英语综合教程 1 .教师用书

You’d better conduct the survey as soon as possible.
你最好尽早进行调查。

scientific: a. of science,about science 科学(上)的,关于科学 的 e.g. Astronomy is the scientific study of the sun, moon End other stars.
天文学是研究太阳,月亮和其它天体的科学。

There is no scientific evidence to support the idea.
没有科学证据支持这一想法 。
9. English is also the tool to understand American popular culture and those exciting Hollywood movies. English is also the tool to understand the way of life,and beliefs of American young people and those exciting Hollywood movies.

culture: n. the beliefs, art, way of life and social organization of a country or group 文化,文明 eg. It is difficult for people from different cultures to understand each other.
不同文化背景的人很难能够彼此理解。

Chinese culture has already become widely known in Europe.
中国的文化已经在欧洲闻名。

exciting: a. making one very happy 使人兴奋的,令人激动的 eg. That was the most exciting film of the year.
那是那年最激动人心的电影。

He thought that something exciting was going to happen.
他觉得激动人心的事情即将发生。

? Further Practice

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O 少十 15%

less than fifteen per cent less than one hundred people two thirds of scientific papers two thirds of books lie in its uses lie in the weather be described as the global language be described as No.1 in terms of the number in terms of English study the importance of honesty the importance of friends taller than any other student bigger than any other animal

少于 100 人
0 三分之二的科研论文

三分之二的书
O 在于它的使用

在干天气
o 被描述成世界语言

被列为第一名
0 就数量而言

就英语学习而言 ?诚实的重要性 朋友的重要性
o 比其他学生都高

比其他动物都大

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V. Grammar

1.Present the following words and ask the students which noun class each word belongs to. Japan, America, tree, chair, table, oil, wood, decision, success, team, family 2.Introduce to the students the classification of nouns. 3.Present the following groups of words and ask the students to give their plural forms and try to find the rules underlying the form changes. Group 1:party, lady, sky, toy, boy, day, Mary, Germany Group 2:map, book, boat, bird, dog, king, name Group 3:gas, class, box, church, bus Group 4:radio, zoo, potato, hero Group 5:leaf, half, wolf, knife, life 4.Introduce to the students the rules of changing singular nouns to plural nouns. 5. Finish the exercises in the textbook.
VI. Assignments
1. 2. 3.

Review the text in Unit 2. Finish all the exercises in Unit 2. Preview the text in Unit 3.

Key to the Exercises
Part I Lead-in

From left to right: Japanese, Russian, Arabian, Spanish. Part II Sound Recognition A. 1. pen 2. man 3. cock 4. port 5. coat 6. gap 7. fan 8. vast B. 1. pat 2. red 3. abroad 4. mopping 5. bag 6. Pick 7. halves 8. fish
Part III Listening & Speaking

Listen and Practise Dialogue 1 Sample 1 W: What’s your favourite subject, English, Chinese, or mathematics? M: English is my favourite subject. Sample 2 W: Which subject do you prefer, English, Chinese, or mathematics?
B.

M: I prefer English to other subjects. Dialogue 2 Sample 1 M: It’s hard to learn English.

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W: That’s just what I want to say. M: Hopefully, I can learn it well. Sample 2 M: Learning English is very hard. W: I can’t help thinking the same. M: I wish I could learn it well. C. √Talking with a Classmate D. √talking to foreigners √reading English newspapers √working hard √going to the English corner E. 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T
Part IV Reading B. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F C. 1. speak 2. wide 3. globally

speech width globalization

speakers widely global

D. 1. official 2. native 3. global 4. importance 5. further 6. widespread 7. overestimate 8. conducted E. 1. It is estimated that there are 5 million cars on the road of Beijing everyday. 2. You don’t earn much in terms of the importance of your work. 3. Failure is the mother of success, while success lies in hard work. 4. Paris is described as the city of fashion. 5. The Great Wall of China is listed as one of the world wonders. 6. Three fifths of the students in his class are from the countryside. 7. Their car is bigger and therefore more comfortable. Part V Grammar A. 1. lives 2. signals 3. senses 4. buses; cars 5. habit B. 1.day-days 2.leave-leaves 3.times-time; homeworks-homework 4.have-has; habit-habits 5.are-i C. 1. apple trees 2. a knife 3. fast cars 4. a green bag 5. (potato) 6. (potatoes)

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Part VI Writing A. Some people say that Leonardo da Vinci was the smartest person who ever lived, but I think they’re wrong. I believe that William James Sidis was the smartest person. He was an American man who lived from 1898-1944. He learned to read when he was only 18 months old. He learned how to speak Latin when he was two years old, and Greek when he was three. By his eighth birthday, he was already the author of four books and could speak eight languages. A famous scientist said that Sadis’s IQ was between 250 and 300. That’s much higher than the average score of 100. Most people don’t know about him, but I think he was the smartest person in history.

Translation of the Text 为什么学习英语很重要? 为什么学习英语如此重要?答案是:因为它是世界上用来交流的唯一一门 最为重要的语言。据估计,在美国、英国、加拿大、澳大利亚、爱尔兰共和国、 南非及新西兰,大约有三亿人母语为英语。还有三亿人把英语作为第二语言使 用, 此外还有一亿人把英语当作外语使用。在这些英语被用作第二语言的国 家中, 印度的人数最多。 印度说英语或懂英语的人比世界上其他任何国家都多。 就母语的人数而言,英语不是世界上使用最广泛的语言。说汉语的人比以 英语为母语的人要多得多,但在华人社会以外,汉语使用得很少。因此,英语 是世界上分布最广泛的语言。然而,说英语的人数并不能真正说明英语作为世 界语言 的重要性,因为使用英语的人数占世界总人口的比例不到 15% 。 英语的重要性在于它的用途。英语经常被描述为第一世界通用语,因为它 是用于科学、航空、信息处理、外交和旅游等领域的语言。它被 45 个以上的 国家列为官方语言或并列的官方语言, 在英语未被列入官方语言的国家英语也 被广泛使用。目前,一半的商业交易是用英语进行的;三分之二的科学论文是 用英语撰写的;超过 70%的邮件和地址是用英文书写的。对于年轻人来说很重 要的是, 英语还是了解美国流行文化以及激动人心的好莱坞电影的工具。 因此, 英语这门语言的重要性永远不会言过其实。

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