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大众-VW01106-1(EN2009 08)


Group Standard

VW 01106-1
Issue 2009-08

Class. No.: Descriptors:

04817 welding, gas-shielded arc welding, steel, MIG welding, MAG welding, TIG welding, s

heet steel, steel sheet joint, sheet

Gas-Shielded Arc Welding, Sheet Steel Joints Design, Type, Quality Assurance
Previous issues VW 01106-1: 1997-01, 2003-05, 2004-07 Changes The following changes have been made as compared to VW 01106-1: 2004-07: – References to standards updated – Standard updated and extended – Application of quality levels specified in detail – Requirements for lap welds defined – Section 5.3: penetration width changed Contents 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 Scope ............................................................................................................................. 2 Abbreviations and definitions ......................................................................................... 4 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 4 Definitions ...................................................................................................................... 4 Welded joint ................................................................................................................... 4 Materials of the same type ............................................................................................. 5 Different types of material .............................................................................................. 5 Process description for gas-shielded arc welding .......................................................... 5 Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) ................................................................................... 5 Gas metal arc welding (MIG/MAG) ................................................................................ 5 General requirements .................................................................................................... 6 Materials ........................................................................................................................ 6 Filler material ................................................................................................................. 7 Page 1 of 34
Page

Check standard for current issue prior to usage. This electronically generated standard is authentic and valid without signature. The English translation is believed to be accurate. In case of discrepancies the German version shall govern. Numerical notation acc. to ISO practice.

Technical responsibility GQL-LM GQL-L Dr. Knud N?renberg Dr. Stephan Eisenberg Tel.: +49-5361-9-73623

Standards Department EKDV/4 Uwe Fischer Tel.: +49-5361-9-27995 EKDV Manfred Terlinden

Confidential. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be transmitted or reproduced without prior permission of a Standards Department of the Volkswagen Group. Parties to a contract can only obtain this standard via the B2B supplier platform www.vwgroupsupply.com.

? Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft

VWNORM-2008-12g

QUELLE: NOLIS

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4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 5.4.7 5.4.8 5.4.9 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.7 5.8 6 7 8 1

Design ............................................................................................................................ 7 Joint types ...................................................................................................................... 7 Weld types ..................................................................................................................... 8 Weld dimensions .......................................................................................................... 11 Throat thickness ........................................................................................................... 11 Weld length .................................................................................................................. 12 Requirements for welds and quality assurance of welds ............................................. 13 Weld quality ................................................................................................................. 13 Penetration depths ....................................................................................................... 17 Penetration width ......................................................................................................... 17 Weld geometry ............................................................................................................. 19 Square butt weld on butt joint, welded through ............................................................ 19 Square butt weld on butt joint, not welded through ...................................................... 19 Front weld .................................................................................................................... 20 Lap weld ....................................................................................................................... 21 Fillet weld with deep penetration .................................................................................. 22 Fillet weld on bevel joint ............................................................................................... 23 Multiple joint ................................................................................................................. 23 Corner joint .................................................................................................................. 24 Plug weld ..................................................................................................................... 25 Special weld types ....................................................................................................... 26 Fillet weld on multiple lap joint ..................................................................................... 26 Multiple front weld ........................................................................................................ 27 Fillet welds on components with round cross sections ................................................ 29 Square butt seam on flanged joint ............................................................................... 30 Other imperfections ...................................................................................................... 30 Weld spatter ................................................................................................................. 30 General imperfections .................................................................................................. 30 Loss of melting material at edges, edge fusing ............................................................ 30 Metallographic microsections ....................................................................................... 32 Requirement for test reports ........................................................................................ 32 Rework ......................................................................................................................... 33 Drawing specifications ................................................................................................. 33 Referenced documents ................................................................................................ 33 Scope

This standard applies to the design, layout and quality assurance of arc-welded joints on steel ma‐ terials. As regards aluminum alloys, please refer to VW 01106-3. The evaluation of joints of other nonferrous materials such as nickel, titanium or copper alloys, should be based on this standard as a first approximation. It includes the processes in Table 1 acc. to DIN EN ISO 4063: Table 1 – Processes covered in this standard Code number 131 135 141 Process Metal inert gas welding Metal active gas welding Tungsten inert gas welding Code MIG MAG TIG

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Weld types: Material: Quality:

Butt welds, fillet and lap welds, plug and auxiliary welds and special weld types Bright, uncoated and coated steel sheets as well as highalloyed steels and stainless steels, workpiece thickness 0,5 mm to 6 mm Test characteristics of quality levels B, C and D (de‐ pending on requirement) acc. to DIN EN ISO 5817. If the quality level is not explicitly specified, quality level B ap‐ plies.

All fusion-welded joints to which this scope is not applicable require clarification with the responsible engineering departments. Special measures made necessary because of the component, e.g. change to the quality level for specific imperfections, are permissible and must be entered in the drawing (in the data record).

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2 2.1 a z b B f1,2 fL fSt Fi h k l L s s1,2 sN t1 t2 WAZ Σt ? 2.2

Abbreviations and definitions Abbreviations Calculational weld thickness, mm Calculational side length, mm Penetration width, mm Oblong hole width, mm Penetration on sheet 1 or 2, mm Penetration length, mm Penetration on face surface, mm or % (of the face surface) Joining plane Size of an imperfection, e.g. gap size, mm Edge projection, mm Weld length, mm Length, mm Weld thickness, mm Throat thickness with respect to sheets 1 and 2, mm Smallest common throat thickness, mm Thickness of sheet 1, mm Thickness of sheet 2, mm Heat-affected zone Total sum of sheet thicknesses, mm Diameter, mm Definitions

The following definitions apply to the application of this standard. 2.2.1 Welded joint

Joint created by fusion welding (Figure 1). It comprises the weld, fusion line, heat-affected zone and the unaffected base material.

Figure 1 – Fusion-welded joint Legend 1 2 3 4 Weld Heat-affected zone Fusion line, fusion zone Unaffected base material

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2.2.1.1

Weld

The molten area of the welded joint where the workpiece(s) is/are joined at the weld joint. The weld comprises the mixed base material and/or the filler material. 2.2.1.2 Fusion line

Borderline or zone between the base material and/or filler material melted during welding and the unmelted base material. 2.2.1.3 Weld material

Material that solidified after welding, comprising either the base material or filler material and base material. Some elements in the weld material may also come from coatings and/or accessory mate‐ rials (for further terms refer to DIN 1910-100). 2.2.1.4 Heat-affected zone HAZ

Area of the base material that remained solid, but, due to the energy applied during welding, expe‐ rienced microstructural changes related to temperature. 2.2.1.5 Unaffected base material

Area of the base material that experienced no evident microstructural changes as a result of the energy applied during welding. 2.2.2 Materials of the same type

Materials which do not differ significantly in terms of their chemical composition and their welding suitability. 2.2.3 Different types of material

Materials which differ significantly in terms of their chemical composition and their welding suitability. 3 Process description for gas-shielded arc welding

Gas-shielded arc welding is a form of fusion welding. An electrical arc is used as the heat source. It burns between the electrode and the workpiece. In this process, the arc and the weld pool are pro‐ tected from the atmosphere by a shield of protective gas. The classification into the following procedures depends on the electrode type used: 3.1 Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG)

In this procedure, an arc is ignited between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the workpiece. Argon, helium and mixtures of both, sometimes mixed additionally with active gases, are used to form the protective atmosphere. The filler material is (as in the case of gas welding) fed from the side. 3.2 Gas metal arc welding (MIG/MAG)

In this procedure, an arc is ignited between the melting end of the wire electrode (filler material) and the workpiece. The welding current flows via the current contact nozzle in the welding gun to the wire electrode.

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When inert gases (low-activity gases, e.g. noble gases such as argon, helium or mixtures of both) are used as protective gases, this is called metal inert gas welding (MIG). When active gases are used (e.g. CO2, or mixed gases containing CO2 or oxygen), this is called metal active gas welding (MAG). 4 General requirements

Deviations with respect to the specified weld geometries and weld layouts must be specified in the drawing, verified by testing, and described in Test Specifications (PV). Further requirements with respect to gas-shielded arc welding are contained in the following docu‐ ments: VW 01106-2 VW 01106-3 VW 01142 Gas-Shielded Arc Welding; Rework of Sheet Steel Joints Gas-Shielded Arc-Welding; Part 3: Al Welded Joints Welded Seam Repairs on Aluminum Structures; Product Evaluation and Notes on Procedure

When creating arc-welded joints, the greatest possible design strength in accordance with the design goal must be achieved while, at the same time, ensuring sufficient reliability and a favorable cost/ quality ratio. For this purpose, every welded joint must be "suitable for welding", i.e., the dimensions of the welding equipment as well as the accessibility of the weld according to DVS 0929 must be taken into consideration in the design. The "welding suitability" of a joint is given, if the component, on the basis of its design (Section Section 4.3) and with the material used (Section Section 4.1), remains functional (Figure 2) under the intended operating stresses (Section 4.4).

Figure 2 – Representation of welding suitability 4.1 Materials

Unalloyed or low-alloyed steel materials with a carbon content of up to 0,20 weight percent or with a carbon equivalent of up to 0,45 are generally well-suited for welding. The carbon equivalent for un‐ alloyed steel materials is determined using the following formula: CE = C + Mn/6 in % (1)

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Legend CE C Mn Carbon equivalent Carbon content in weight percent Manganese content in weight percent

This is a shortened version of the general formula used to determine the carbon equivalent, DIN EN 1011-2: CE = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15 in % Hardened spots in the HAZ are evaluated based on DIN EN 1043-1 und DIN EN 1043-2. The following maximum hardness values serve as reference values for hardened spots in the HAZ: Up to 380 HV 380 HV to 450 HV Exceeding 450 HV non-critical critical, a limit value should be specified in the drawing and verified by means of testing welding is to be avoided (2)

Moreover, a ratio of HAZ maximum hardness to base material hardness of ≥ 3,5 is considered critical. In such cases, a verified limit value should also be specified in the drawing. The welding suitability of unalloyed and low-alloyed steel materials is always impaired by zinc coat‐ ings. The following applies as a general reference value: zinc layers with a thickness of max. 10 ?m can be welded in a sufficiently process-reliable manner, i.e. up to "Z100" or "ZE75". DIN EN 10088-2 and DIN EN 1011-3 contain notes and recommendations regarding the welding suitability of different high-alloyed, corrosion-resistant steels 4.2 Filler material

If no particular filler material is specified in the drawing, filler materials acc. to DIN EN ISO 14341 (MAG) or DIN EN ISO 636 (WIG), such as e.g. ISO 14341-A-G3Si1, are permissible. If low-alloyed or high-alloyed filler materials are required in order to ensure component function, these must be indicated in the drawing. The same applies to filler materials specifically adapted to the base materials used. Examples: Filler materials for stainless steels acc. to DIN EN ISO 14343; filler materials for nickel alloys acc. to DIN EN ISO 18274. 4.3 Design

The following specifications and the notes on design as set forth in the DVS 0929 specification are used as the basis for the production-friendly design of arc-welded sheet steel joints. 4.3.1 Joint types

The weld joint is the area in which the parts are joined by welding. The respective type of joint is determined by the arrangement of the parts with respect to each other (extension, reinforcement, branching). For definitions of the different joint types, please refer to DIN EN ISO 17659.

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4.3.2 – – – –

Weld types

The weld type is determined by the following: Type of weld joint Type and scope of preparation, e.g. gap optimization (see DIN EN ISO 5817 and DIN EN ISO 9692-1) Material Welding method Fillet weld

4.3.2.1

The parts lie in two planes with respect to one another, form a fillet joint and are joined by welding. The seam edges are generally arranged at right angles with respect to each other. In the case of bevel joints (Figure 6), they are arranged at an angle between > 30° and < 150°. It is possible to differentiate between a – – – fillet weld (Figure 3 and Figure 4) - double fillet weld (Figure 5) with and without gap preparation fillet weld on lap joint; in contrast to the lap weld, the front side of the top sheet is not completely molten in this weld type. This causes the weld edges to be located at right angles with respect to each other. This type of weld is predominantly used in cases where the top sheet is significantly thicker than the bottom one.

Figure 3 – Fillet weld on lap joint

Figure 4 – Fillet weld on T-joint

Figure 5 – Double fillet weld on T-joint

Figure 6 – Fillet weld on bevel joint without gap preparation

4.3.2.2

Square butt weld on butt joint

The parts lie in one plane, form a gap and are joined by welding, Figure 7 to Figure 10.

Figure 7 – Square butt weld completely welded through

Figure 8 – Square butt weld not completely welded through

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Figure 9 – Square butt weld on offset butt joint (weld pool backing) completely welded through

Figure 10 – Square butt weld on offset butt joint not completely welded through

For square butt welds that are not completely welded through, the required minimum weld thickness smin must be specified in the drawing. 4.3.2.3 Lap weld

The term lap weld refers to welds, in which the individual parts to be joined overlap in a parallel manner, with the front sides of both being welded together (Figure 11). In case of deviating wall thicknesses, the design objective should be to arrange the individual parts in such a way that the thinner one is located at the top and that it is thus welded to the thicker one.

Figure 11 – Lap weld 4.3.2.4 . Front weld

See Figure 12

Figure 12 – Front weld

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4.3.2.5

Plug weld

The term plug weld refers to welds in which the individual parts to be joined overlap in a parallel manner, but are welded together through an opening in the top sheet, see Figure 13 and Figure 14. A distinction is made between the following types of plug welds: Type A Weld material completely fills the oblong oval, slot-shaped or round hole, both lateral edges of the hole are covered with weld material in one pass, this type is used for minor top sheet thicknesses of up to approx. 2,0 mm.

Figure 13 – Plug weld, type A Type B Weld material does not completely fills the oblong oval, slot-shaped or round hole, each welding pass only covers one lateral edge of the hole, it is possible to weld one side only or both sides.

Figure 14 – Plug weld, type B Type B is comparable with a lap weld. In case of welding on both sides (type B), both welds can be carried out as one continuous ring-shaped weld. For round holes, this leads to a complete circular weld. 4.3.2.6 Auxiliary weld

The term auxiliary weld refers to welded joints used exclusively for the temporary fastening of parts e.g. to hold threaded parts or spacer bushings in place until assembly or to hold components in place as a preparatory step prior to soldering or bonding. On principle, auxiliary welds are not intended to take up loads occurring during operation. In order to specify that a weld is an auxiliary weld, a respective note must be added in the drawing or in a referenced document such as a Test Specification, a weld documentation document or a workshop sketch (WSK). The term "auxiliary seam" is permissible as well.

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4.4 4.4.1

Weld dimensions Throat thickness

The calculated throat thickness a is required for the calculation of the forces acting on a welded joint. For example, the following applies to the design of a fillet weld: a ≤ 0,7 tmin. (3)

In production, the actually measured throat thickness s must always be greater than or the identical with the calculated throat thickness a. If the throat thickness s (Figure 15) cannot be determined directly, the smallest common throat thick‐ ness sN (Figure 16) can be used as an alternative criterion. The smallest common throat thickness sN is the shortest distance between the section of component edge/weld material and the surface of the weld (see also Figure 17 and Figure 18). It can also be defined as the smallest load-bearing cross section along the flow of forces in the welded joint. On principle, excess weld material must not be taken into consideration for all types of arched welds (see Figure 15 and Figure 18). Corner joints form the only exception in this context.

Figure 15 – Fillet weld

Figure 16 – Fillet weld with deep penetration

Figure 17 – Concave weld

Figure 18 – Convex weld

The shortest (common) distance between both components of the welded joint must always be mea‐ sured in order to determine the shortest common throat thickness sN.

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4.4.2

Weld length

The calculated weld length l1 is the weld length defined by the design engineer for the specific design, Figure 19. Both the starting and end areas (end crater) are used to determine the weld length as a first approximation. In all cases in which the weld bead is longer than the actual load-bearing length of the connection, the length of the connection will be considered the weld length, Figure 19.

Figure 19 – Weld length Legend l1 l2 Weld length of the connection Actual length of the weld bead

In order to improve the dynamic load capacity, the weld length can exceed the component length (Figure 20).

Figure 20 – Increased weld length Legend l1 l2 Calculated weld length, e.g. component length Actual length of the weld bead

Proof of sufficient strength is provided by component-specific strength tests.

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5

Requirements for welds and quality assurance of welds

In general, the welding quality requirements according to DIN EN ISO 3834-1 must be taken into consideration together with the comprehensive quality requirements as set forth in DIN EN ISO 3834-2. The design of a weld must be described clearly by indicating the weld’s length, thickness and quality. These requirements are part of the drawing specifications (see Section 7). Unless otherwise specified in the drawing, the requirements of Section 5.1 to Section 5.5 apply. 5.1 Weld quality

The requirements set forth in DIN EN ISO 5817, quality level B, "high", apply, if no application-related Test Specification has been specified and if no deviating specification is provided in the drawing. The requirements set forth in said standard apply to square butt welds and fillet welds on the T-joint as described in this standard, unless deviating specifications have been made in Table 2. Analogous requirements have been derived for lap welds, Table 3. The limit values for imperfections apply anal‐ ogously to other types of welds (e.g. flanged weld, bevel joint, corner weld). With the exception of the characteristic "edge fusing" (see Section 5.6.3), the requirements of quality level D apply to auxiliary welds (see Section 4.3.2.6). Auxiliary welds must not impair the function of the component. Deviating from or as a supplement to DIN EN ISO 5817, the specifications of Table 2 apply to butt welds, fillet and lap welds, irrespective of wall thickness.

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Table 2 – Deviations from and supplements to DIN EN ISO 5817 No. Refer‐ ence number 502 503 517 601 Imperfection Remarks Quality level D Quality level C Quality level B

Butt welds, fillet and lap welds 1.9 1.10 1.19 1.22 4 Too much excess weld material Imperfection on weld start Arc strike Multiple imperfec‐ tions Fillet welds 1.21 1.16 5214 512 Fillet seam throat too large Asymmetrical fillet weld (non-equalsided) Penetratio n depth may be 20% be‐ low re‐ quired value one one side No evaluation Permissi‐ ble, if throat thickness and penetratio n width are OK Permissi‐ ble, if throat thickness and penetratio n width are OK No evaluation

The following limit values for imperfections, as specified in DIN EN ISO 5817, apply to lap welds, Table 1: Crack, end crater crack, surface pore, open end crater void, lack of fusion, micro lack of fusion, burn through, root porosity, weld spatter, microcrack, pore, porosity, clustered porosity, linear porosity, wormhole, void, end crater void, inclusions (reference no. 300 to 3042). NOTE 1 As regards the limit values for porosities, voids and inclusion, the specifications valid for butt welds apply to lap welds, i.e. the limit value is determined using the actual throat thickness s, if required. For all other characteristic, limit values are to be obtained from Table 3:

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Table 3 – Quality levels for lap welds, derived from DIN EN ISO 5817, valid for wall thick‐ nesses from 0,5 mm to 6,0 mm
No. 1.7 Reference number 5011 5012 Undercut Soft transition required. h ≤ 0,2 x t h ≤ 0,1 x t impermissible, for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 0,05 x t for t < 3 mm: for t < 3 mm: on max. 25% of on max. 25% of weld length weld length Shrinkage groove Soft transition required. h ≤ 0,2 mm + 0,1 x t for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 0,2 x t on max. 25% of weld length 1.11 504 Excess penetration Soft transition required. h ≤ 1 mm + 0,6 x b’ for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 1 mm + 1,0 x b’ max. 5 mm 1.12 505 Incorrect weld toe Angle of weld toe Overlap α ≥ 90° h ≤ 0,1 x t for t < 3 mm: on max. 25% of weld length Imperfection Remarks Quality level D Quality level C Quality level B

1.8

5013

impermissible, for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 0,05 x t

h ≤ 1 mm + 0,3 x h ≤ 1 mm + 0,1 b’ x b’ for t > 3 mm: for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 1 mm + 0,6 x h ≤ 1 mm + 0,2 b’ x b’ max. 4 mm max. 3 mm α ≥ 100° α ≥ 110°

1.13

506

h ≤ 0,2 x b’

Not permissible

Not permissible

1.14

509 511

Sagging Soft transition required Incompletely filled groove Contraction of wall thickness on weld edge Root concavity Insufficient throat thickness s See shrinkage groove

h ≤ 0,25 x t on max. 25% of weld length

h ≤ 0,1 x t on max. 25% of weld length

impermissible for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 0,05 x t

1.17 1.20

515 5213

Evaluation analogous to shrinkage groove on max. 25% of weld length: h ≤ 0,2 mm + 0,07 x t for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 0,3 mm + 0,07 x t on max. 25% of weld length: h ≤ 0,3 x t on max. 25% of weld length: h ≤ 0,2 mm for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 0,3 mm + 0,07 x t Not permissible Not permissible

2.12

4011

Lack of side wall fusion

Not permissible

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No. 2.12

Reference number 4013

Imperfection Lack of root fu‐ sion

Remarks

Quality level D on max. 25% of weld length: h ≤ 0,3 x t

Quality level C Not permissible

Quality level B Not permissible

4012

Lack of inter-run fusion (for multi-run weld or rework)

2.13

402

Incomplete penetration

on max. 25% of weld length: h ≤ 0,15 x t

Not permissible

Not permissible

3.2

617

Gap size

The gap size at the root point applies

h ≤ 0,5 mm + 0,07 x t for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 1 mm + 0,2 xt

h ≤ 0,3 mm + 0,07 x t for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 0,5 mm + 0,15 x t

h ≤ 0,2 mm + 0,07 x t for t > 3 mm: h ≤ 0,5 mm + 0,07 x t

In case of connections in which adhesives are used in the vicinity of the weld, the gap size is deter‐ mined by the bonded joint.

Table 4 provides a reference for determining the quality level required for specific loads: Table 4 Quality level B C D Load Connection which is predominantly subject to dynamic loads and which is de‐ signed to provide structural durability Connection subject to minor dynamic loads and predominantly subject to static loads Connection subject to minor loads

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5.2

Penetration depths

The welded joint is considered sufficient once a crystalline joint that is continuous along the penetration width and which exhibits a measurable penetration depth of f ≥ 0,2 mm is created between the sheets involved. The penetration depth may be measured at the location of the deepest penetration. For sheets with a thickness of t ≤ 1,0 mm, the penetration depth must be ≥ 0,1 mm. Specific test equipment is required for this purpose. For certain weld types – e.g. lap welds or flanged welds – the penetration depth f cannot be determined if 100% of the face surfaces is included in the weld. Smaller penetration depths must be indicated in the drawing or specified in an application-related Test Specification. Proof must be furnished that both a dynamic strength test and a microscopic examination ensuring a crystalline joint have been carried out. NOTE 2 Due to the smaller "welding window" the test intervals for f < 0,2 mm (e.g. using microsec‐ tions) must be conducted at shorter time intervals or on smaller batch sizes. The processes are to be coordinated with all the departments involved (Design, Quality Assurance, Operator). 5.3 Penetration width

The term penetration width b refers to the width of that weld area located along the respective joining plane in which a crystalline and thus load-bearing connection exists. As far as geometry is concerned, the requirements for weld width are derived from the throat thickness.

Figure 21 Generally, the following applies: a = 0,7 x z z a (This value results from rounding of √2) with Calculated side length Calculated throat thickness

The actual throat thickness s must be ≥ a. In accordance with Figure 22, the following requirement is derived for the actual penetration width b on fillet welds on T-joint and lap welds: b1, 2 ≥ t1, 2

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Figure 22 – Penetration width b1, 2 Legend bi ti Penetration width in sheet i Respective sheet thickness

In accordance with Figure 23, the following applies accordingly to fillet welds on lap joints: b1,2 ≥ t2 This only applies if no increased throat thickness s is required due to the design.

Figure 23 – Penetration width b1, 2, fillet weld on lap joint If the thinner sheet exhibits a significantly higher strength than the thicker sheet, a minimum throat thickness of more than 0,7 tmin may be required. In these cases, b1,2 must be determined using the following formula (4): b1,2 ≥ 1,4 smin (4)

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5.4 5.4.1

Weld geometry Square butt weld on butt joint, welded through

See Figure 24. The face surfaces (fSt) must be 100% melted.

Figure 24 – Square butt weld on butt joint Legend s fSt 5.4.2 Throat thickness Penetration s fSt ≥ tmin ≥ 100%

Square butt weld on butt joint, not welded through

See Figure 25.

Figure 25 s ≥ smin smin – Minimum weld depth or minimum throat thickness acc. to drawing Carried out as flanged weld, see Figure 26.

Figure 26 – Flanged weld Legend sN sN ≥ tmin The face surfaces (fSt) must be 100% melted. Smallest common throat thickness

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5.4.3

Front weld

See Figure 27.

Figure 27 – Front weld Legend sN fL2 f1,2 Smallest common throat thickness Penetration length Penetration depth sN fL2 f1,2 ≥ tmin ≥ t1 ≥ 0,2 mm

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5.4.4

Lap weld

See Figure 28.

Figure 28 – Lap weld Legend s1,2 sN a f2 fst b Throat thickness Smallest common throat thickness Calculated throat thickness Side wall penetration on component t2 Face surface coverage ≥ 100% Penetration width s1,2 sN a f2 h b2 ≥ 0,7 tmin ≥ s1,2 and sN ≥ 0,7 tmin ≤ 0,7 tmin (design recommendation) ≥ 0,2 mm Gap size ≥ t2

The face surface of the upper sheet must be 100% melted. In case of an irregular gap (upper sheet beveled), the gap size h must be determined on the root point (see Table 3, no. 3.2). NOTE 3 If the throat thicknesses s1,2 cannot be determined directly, the smallest common throat thickness sN may be chosen as an alternative criterion.

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5.4.5

Fillet weld with deep penetration

See Figure 29.

Figure 29 – Fillet weld with deep penetration Legend s1,2 sN a f1,2 h b1,2 Throat thickness (with deep penetration) Smallest common throat thickness Calculated throat thickness (see Figure 21) Side wall penetration on component t1,2 Gap size Penetration width s1,2 sN a f1,2 h b2 1 ≥ 0,7 tmin ≥ s1,2 and sN ≥ 0,7 tmin ≤ 0,7 tmin (design recommendation) ≥ 0,2 mm Gap size ≥ t2 Theoretical root point

In case of an irregular gap (upper sheet beveled), the gap size h must be determined on the root point (see Table 3, no. 3.2). NOTE 4 If the throat thicknesses s1,2 cannot be determined directly on the microsection, the smallest common throat thickness sN may be determined as an alternative criterion.

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5.4.6

Fillet weld on bevel joint

See Figure 30.

Figure 30 – Fillet weld on bevel joint Legend sN f2 Throat thickness Penetration sN f2 ≥ tmin ≥ 0,2 mm

The face surface of the upper sheet must be 100% melted. 5.4.7 Multiple joint

See Figure 31.

Figure 31 – Triple joint Legend f1,2,3 fSt1,2 fSt3 Penetration Penetration on front surface of t1,2 Penetration on front surface of t3 f1,2,3 fSt1,2 fSt3 > 0,2 mm ≥ Insertion depth l Melted 100%

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5.4.8

Corner joint

A differentiation is made between types A, B and C, see Figure 32 to Figure 34. Since it is generally not required to exactly determine excessive groove filling, sN is measured up to the weld surface in the case of corner joints

Figure 32 – Type A corner joint The face surfaces of both sheets must be 100% melted for type A. The following applies to all types: smallest common throat thickness sN ≥ t.

Figure 33 – Type B corner joint

Figure 34 – Type C corner joint

Page 25 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

5.4.9

Plug weld

See Figure 35 for type A plug weld. The values in Table 5 serve as reference values for the ratio of the sheet thickness to the hole diameter. Table 5 – Hole diameter and sheet thickness Thickness of sheet used t1 (mm) Up to 1,00 > 1,00 to 1,25 > 1,25 to 1,50 > 1,50 to 2,00 > 2,00 to 3,00 > 3,00 to 3,50 Hole diameter ? or L (mm) ≥6 ≥7 ≥8 ≥9 ≥ 10 ≥ 14 Optionally, oblong holes for narrow flanges W x L (mm) 6 x 10 6 x 12 8 x 12 -

Both the lateral edges of the hole and its ground surface must be 100% melted.

Figure 35 – Type A plug weld Legend fL f2 Penetration length, width and/or di‐ ameter Penetration depth fL f2 ≥ ? and/or L or W ≥ 0,2 mm

The face surfaces of the hole must be 100% melted around the entire circumference. The requirements for lap welds apply to type B plug welds, see Section 4.3.2.5.

Page 26 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

5.5

Special weld types

Adequate evaluation criteria must be used to evaluate any special weld types that are not listed here. 5.5.1 Fillet weld on multiple lap joint

Figure 36 serves as an example for a multiple lap weld.

Figure 36 – 3-sheet lap weld The cross sections t1 and t2 of the top sheets must be 100% melted and the throat thickness a of t1 and t2 must be complied with. If no specifications are made in the drawing, the following applies as a reference value: a = 0,7 tmin 2,3 . The penetration depth f3 in sheet t3 must be f3 ≥ 0,2 mm.

Page 27 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

5.5.2

Multiple front weld

Figure 37 – Four-fold front weld Legend Fi *1) Joining plane i (with i = 1,2,3) If it is clear that one sheet arrangement in a multiple-sheet arrangement is to be consid‐ ered as a single sheet, then this sheet must not be included in the overall evaluation when determining the throat thickness sN.

In the case of multiple-sheet joints, the smallest common throat thickness sN of the relevant joining planes is used to determine the throat thickness s, as is the case for a multiple lap joint. Here, the following applies: In the relevant joining plane (in Figure 37, four-fold front weld with the joining planes F1, F2 and F3), the throat thickness sN must be ≥ Σ of the sheet thicknesses on the right or Σ of the sheet thicknesses on the left of the joining plane. The following applies to Figure 37 as an example: sN1 ≥ t1 sN2 ≥ ∑ t(3+4) sN3 ≥ ∑ t4 fSt = Front surfaces t1 < (t2 + t3 + t4 ) t3 + t4 < (t1 + t2) t4 < (t1 + t2 + t3 ) fSt1,2,3,4 = 100% melted.

Page 28 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

Figure 38 – Multiple front weld For multiple front welds in exhaust systems (e.g., sheet layers on the exhaust pipe, Figure 38) the factor 0,7 applies in the determination of the smallest common throat thickness sN: sN1 ≥ 0,7 t1 sN2 ≥ 0,7 (t1 + t2) sN3 ≥ 0,7 (t1 + t2 + t3) sN4 ≥ 0,7 ttube or sN2 ≥ 0,7 (t3 + t4) or sN3 ≥ 0,7 t4

Page 29 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

5.5.3

Fillet welds on components with round cross sections

Figure 39 – Fillet weld

Figure 40 – Fillet weld with deep penetration

Figure 41 – Concave fillet weld The approximation method represented in Figure 39 and Figure 41 serves to determine the throat thickness s. On workpieces with different geometrical shapes, the shortest distance of the angle bisector between the two workpieces must be determined as the dimension s. s = Throat thickness s ≥ 0,7 tmin For fillet welds on components with a round cross section, it is recommended to determine the small‐ est common throat thickness sN as shown in Figure 40. sN = Smallest common throat thickness sN ≥ a. NOTE 5 Imperfections such as undercuts must be evaluated in accordance with the required quality level as described in DIN EN ISO 5817.

Page 30 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

5.5.4

Square butt seam on flanged joint

Figure 42 – Fillet weld on shaped workpieces Legend sN f1,2 b1,2 5.6 5.6.1 Smallest common throat thickness Penetration depth Penetration width Other imperfections Weld spatter sN f1,2 b1,2 ≥ tmin. (see Figure 42) ≥ 0,2 mm ≥ t1,2

Weld spatter must be avoided as far as possible. Any welding beads or welding residues that remain stuck to the parts and which could lead to an impairment of function are not permitted. Spatter-free areas must be defined in the drawing or in a Test Specification. 5.6.2 General imperfections

Unless otherwise indicated in the drawing, imperfections such as cracks, pores, lack of fusion, gap sizes are to be evaluated according to DIN EN ISO 5817, quality level B ?high“. The requirements for quality level D apply to auxiliary welds, see Section 4.3.2.6. For exhaust systems, the gap size must not exceed 1,0 mm. 5.6.3 Loss of melting material at edges, edge fusing

For fillet or lap welds located close to a component edge, loss of melting material at edges (see Figure 43) is impermissible. Edge fusing (see Figure 44) is – – impermissible for welds with quality requirements acc. to quality level B, permissible for welds with quality requirements acc. to quality level C on max. 25% of the weld length (sharp burrs are impermissible),

Page 31 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

– –

permissible for welds with quality requirements acc. to quality level D (sharp burrs are imper‐ missible) and impermissible for auxiliary welds.

Figure 43 – Loss of melting material edges

Figure 44 – Edge fusing

In order to avoid both loss of melting material at edges and edge fusing, an edge projection k matched to the respective throat thickness must be provided by the design, see Figure 45. The following applies as a reference value: – – with k a, s Edge projection Minimum throat thickness as required by drawing or 0,7 x tmin

k ≥ (a + 1,0 mm) / 0,7 + 1,0 mm, but min. 4,0 mm or k ≥ (s + 1,0 mm) / 0,7 + 1,0 mm, but min. 4,0 mm

Figure 45 – Edge projection for fillet and lap welds

Page 32 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

5.7

Metallographic microsections

Weld geometry, internal characteristics as well as structure/hardness are generally tested using transverse microsections. In case of longer welds, multiple microsections, evenly distributed across the length, must be prepared acc. to Table 6. The following always applies to the preparation of microsections: no microsection must be taken from the first and last 5 mm of a weld. For welds forming a closed contour in which weld start and end crater overlap, the quality require‐ ments also apply to the overlap area. However, this does not apply in cases where a drawing note caused the overlap area to be placed specifically in an area subject to minor loads. Table 6 – Number of microsections required for different weld lengths Weld length, from … to (mm) 0 to 50 over 50 to 100 over 100 to 200 over 200 to 500 No. of transverse microsections 1 2 3 5

In individual cases, e.g. when welds are highly susceptible to porosities, it may prove necessary to prepare both longitudinal and flat microsections in order to evaluate individual characteristics prop‐ erly. If necessary, the procedure must be agreed upon with the engineering departments involved. 5.8 Requirement for test reports

Unless otherwise specified, weld test reports for production sample tests (refer to VW 99000-4) in tabular form must contain the following specifications for all welds described in the drawing except auxiliary welds: Seam length Throat thickness Penetration depths or face surface cover‐ age Imperfections acc. to Section 5 Metallographic sections Comparison of desired/actual values Comparison of desired/actual values Comparison of desired/actual values Existence, actual values and evaluation In an amplification and resolution suitable for detecting imperfections

Suitable means, e.g. measuring lines in microsections, must be used to show how the actual values were determined. If the filler material is specified in the drawing, respective material documentation is to be provided for the filler material. In individual cases and depending on requirements, deviating specifications may be established be‐ tween manufacturer, Design Engineering and Quality Assurance.

Page 33 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

6

Rework

The requirements set forth in VW 01106-2 apply to rework on welds. Supplementary rework guide‐ lines for individual cases are permissible and must be specified in the drawing, if necessary. Grinding of welds, e.g. in order to remove burrs, weld spatter or excess weld material, is also con‐ sidered as rework. 7 Drawing specifications

The graphical representation (for example see Figure 46), dimensioning and symbols for the welding procedures listed in Section 1 must be carried out according to DIN EN 22553.

Figure 46 – Example of application for interrupted fillet weld with reduced quality requirements that is located at a distance from the component edge; symbolic representation Legend s8 a6 n l e v Desired throat thickness (with deep penetration) 8 mm Desired throat thickness (without deep penetration) 6 mm Number of welds Minimum weld length; tolerance +5 mm, unless otherwise specified Distance between welds Edge distance

Explanation: Welds produced by metal inert gas welding (code no. 131 acc. to DIN EN ISO 4063); evaluation acc. to VW 01106-1; quality requirements acc. to quality level C instead of quality level B (lower quality requirements) as described in DIN EN ISO 5817. 8 Referenced documents

The following documents cited in this standard are necessary for application. In this Section terminological inconsistencies may occur as the original titles are used. Standards with the titles given in German are either only available in German or may be procured in other languages from the institution issuing the standard.

Page 34 VW 01106-1: 2009-08

VW 01106-1 VW 01106-2 VW 01106-3 VW 99000-4 DIN 1910-100 DIN EN 10088-2 DIN EN 1011-2 DIN EN 1011-3 DIN EN 1043-1 DIN EN 1043-2 DIN EN 22553 DIN EN ISO 14341 DIN EN ISO 14343 DIN EN ISO 17659 DIN EN ISO 18274 DIN EN ISO 3834-1 DIN EN ISO 3834-2 DIN EN ISO 4063 DIN EN ISO 5817 DIN EN ISO 636 DIN EN ISO 9692-1

Gas-Shielded Arc Welding; Sheet Steel Joints; Design, Type, Quality As‐ surance Gas-Shielded Arc Welding; Rework of Sheet Steel Joints Gas-shielded Arc Welding; Part 3 : Al Welded Joint Overall Requirements for Service Provision within the Framework of Com‐ ponent Development; Part 4: Technical engineering approval Welding and allied processes - Vocabulary - Part 100: Metal welding pro‐ cesses with additions to DIN EN 14610:2005 Stainless steels - Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for sheet/plate and strip of corrosion resisting steels for general purposes Welding - Recommendation for welding of metallic materials - Part 2: Arc welding of ferritic steels Welding - Recommendations for welding of metallic materials - Part 3: Arc welding of stainless steels Destructive test on welds in metallic materials - Hardness testing - Part 1: Hardness test on arc welded joints Destructive test on welds in metallic materials - Hardness test - Part 2: Micro hardness testing on welded joints Welded, brazed and soldered joints - Symbolic representation on drawings Welding consumables - Wire electrodes and deposits for gas shielded metal arc welding of non alloy and fine grain steels - Classification Welding consumables - Wire electrodes, strip electrodes, wires and rods for fusion welding of stainless and heat resisting steels - Classification Welding - Multilingual terms for welded joints with illustrations Welding consumables - Wire and strip electrodes, wires and rods for fusion welding of nickel and nickel alloys - Classification Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials - Part 1: Cri‐ teria for the selection of the appropriate level of quality requirements Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials - Part 2: Com‐ prehensive quality requirements Welding and allied processes - Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers Welding - Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) - Quality levels for imperfections Welding consumables - Rods, wires and deposits for tungsten inert gas welding of non-alloy and fine-grain steels - Classification Welding and allied processes - Recommendations for joint preparation Part 1: Manual metal-arc welding, gas-shielded metal-arc welding, gas welding, TIG welding and beam welding of steels Konstruktionshinweise für das MIG-/MAG-Schwei?en mit Industrier‐ obotern

DVS 0929


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