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跨文化交际实用教程unit4课件


Unit 4
Verbal Communication

Objectives
? Learn the culturally loaded words ? Learn the cultural reflections on

proverbs ? Learn taboos ? Learn the differences

in cultural thought patterns

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CONTENTS
I. Warm-up cases II. Detailed Study:
? culturally loaded words ? cultural reflections on proverbs

? taboos
? differences in cultural thought

patterns

III. Summary IV. Assignments
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I. Warm-up cases
Case 1. Shoes for Street Walking Question : Why did the Italian shop owner
make such a blunder?

Shoes for street walking. Come in and have a fit.

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Interpretation a street walker----- a prostitute to have a fit--------to become suddenly and violently angry or upset

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II. Detailed Study 1.Culturally Loaded Words What is loaded words? Loaded words and phrases are those which have strong emotional overtones (n. 暗示,弦外音,寓意) or connotations (n. 涵义,言外之意), and which evoke strongly positive or negative reactions beyond their literal meaning.
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Animals in English and Chinese
Dragon--- in Chinese culture, it is a totem with many royal associations, such as 龙颜,龙床, 龙袍, 龙体,龙榻,龙心大喜, 龙颜大怒。And all the Chinese people call themselves to be the offspring of the dragon。 In the English culture, dragon refers to a giant horrible animal like the lizard, meaning being terrible or disgusting. Therefore, in the west a person like a dragon usually implies that he is horrible, vicious and disgusting.

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Animals in English and Chinese Phoenix--- In China, it refer to an auspicious bird, implying that peace reign in the world. Also it refers to the queen or the holy person, such as 凤 冠, 风辇。In English it refer to a kind of bird which has been burnt to death, regenerating from the ashes. Therefore, phoenix means reviving or regenerating in the western country.

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Animals in English and Chinese

Dogs– In the west, dogs are the faithful friends for the mankind and the lovable pets in the family. Therefore the idiom related to dogs usually have the positive meaning, such as a lucky dog 幸运儿; an old dog 老手; Every dog has its day. 凡人皆 有得意日。He works like a dog. 他工作很努力。 Love me, love my dog. 爱屋及乌。 In China, dogs are insulting languages, meaning being despicable and hateful, so the idioms related to dogs usually has negative meanings, such as 走狗,丧家犬,看门狗,狗急跳墙,狗 仗人势,狼心狗肺,鸡鸣狗盗,蝇营狗苟。
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Animals in English and Chinese
Owl– In China it has something to do with death, implying being unlucky; in the west, owl relates to cleverness, wiseness, in English a person like an owl suggests that he is as clever as an owl. Peacock– In Chinese it is an auspicious bird, so when the peacock spreads it tail, it represents auspiciousness, prosperity and peace. However, in English, peacock usually means being pleased with oneself or showing off oneself, therefore, a person like a peacock suggests that he is as proud as a peacock
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? Owl

? In English: as wise as an owl 象猫头鹰一样

聪明 In Chinese: 猫头鹰进宅, 好事不来 ? bear ? In English: He is a bear at maths (他是个数 学天才) ? In Chinese: ―瞧他那个熊样儿”、“真熊”

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? fish ? In Chinese:

?

年年有余(鱼)

? In English:
? a poor fish ? a loose fish ? fish in the air

可怜虫 生活放荡的女人 水中捞月
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Please choose the proper animal words for each phrase.
? hare horse snail mouse bee mule

bee as busy as a ______ snail as slow as a ______ mule as stubborn as a ______ hare as timid as a _____ horse as strong as a _____ mouse as poor as a church _____
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? A dog’s life ? 争吵不休,过着不安宁的日子 ? Go to the dogs ? 每况愈下 ? Dog-eat-dog ? 狗咬狗的,损人利己的 ? Dog in the manger ? 站着茅坑不拉屎 ? Dog days ? 大热天 ? Doggy bag ? 餐馆里的打包袋
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? Better be the

head of a dog than the tail of a lion.
? drink like a fish ? tread upon

? 宁为鸡头,不为凤

尾。

? 牛饮 ? 如履薄冰

eggs

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? Chinese:

? English: ? as timid as a

? 胆小如鼠
? 狐假虎威 ? 瓮中之鳖

rabbit/chickenhearted ? an ass in a lion‘s skin ? like a rat in a hole

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? Chinese: ? 落汤鸡
? 母老虎(比丈夫强的

? English: ? like a

妻子)

drenched chicken; like a drowned rat ? grey mare

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Can you find the equivalent words in English for these Chinese words?

干部----cadre 母马----female horse?/mare? 扁担---a carrying pole; a shoulder pole 一本书--- a book 知识分子----intellectual 社会科学-social science?/the humanities?

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知识分子
In CC, it refers to people including college teachers, college students, middle school teachers, and such people as medical doctors, engineers, interpreters. In EC, it refers to people of high academic status (college professors) –much smaller range of people. not always a complimentary term, sometimes used in derogatory sense.
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干部
----a small group of people who are specially chosen and trained for a particular purpose. 骨干队伍 ----a member of this kind of group.干部 In EC, many people don’t know what it means. (not a common word) Some other substitutes: official, functionary, administrator, etc. But none of these gets exact same meaning as Chinese word “干部”.
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社会科学
Social Sciences in Chinese covers all the fields except the ones in the natural science and applied sciences. Same as ―the humanities‖ in English. While in English, ―social sciences‖ cover a smaller area of learning. It includes political science, economics, history (often classified under the humanities) and sociology. ----the branches of learning that study human society, especially its organization and relationship of individual members to it.
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Birds and animals/ male or female
Generic term male female chicken cock/rooster hen duck drake duck goose gander goose horse stallion mare cattle/cow bull cow dog dog bitch sheep ram ewe deer stag doe pig boar sow
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the young chick duckling gosling foal calf puppy lamb fawn shoat

bull, cow, cock or hen, male, female, she
Not all animals or birds have specific names that denote different sex. bull, cow, cock or hen are frequently used to distinguish sex. bull seal , cock sparrow, hen sparrow

male, female , she also acceptable male leopard, female panda, she wolf
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副主席 vice-chairman 副教授 associate professor 副主任 deputy director 副秘书长 assistant secretary 副州长 lieutenant governor 副国务卿 undersecretary

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Colors in Chinese and English
Red--In Chinese, red usually has something to do with happiness, fortunes, fervency, auspiciousness. Such as, 红喜字,红盖头,红地 毯,红灯笼,红包,红利,满堂红。Also, red denotes the revolution. Such as 红旗,红领巾, 红军,红色根据地。 In English red has something to do with blood or infelicity, implying bleeding, danger or violence. For example, red in tooth and claw 血 淋淋;a red tag to the bull 令人生气的事情, be in the red 负债亏空;see red 大发脾气,red revenge 血腥复仇
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Colors in Chinese and English
Yellow– In Chinese, yellow has something with sovereign, harvest, and wealth. For example, 黄 袍,黄榜,黄道吉日。 Also it is related to something pornographic and scurrilous, such as 黄色电影,黄色小说,黄碟。 In English, yellow just refers to a color existing in our life, such as, yellow card 黄牌, a yellow alarm 黄色警报, yellow line 黄线,yellow light 黄灯, yellow page 黄页。

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Colors in Chinese and English
green– In Chinese, green is relevant to peace, safety, hope, environmental protection, such as 绿色食品,green food; 绿色产业 green industry; 绿色能源,green power,绿色产品,green products. Sometimes, it has something to do with the adultery between men and women, such as 绿帽子, 绿头巾. In English, green is the most valuable color in the nature, also, it means immature, such as green tomatoes 不成熟的人. As well green implies being envy with somebody such as green with envy.
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green
? a green hand(生手,易上当受骗的人), ? green goods(新鲜货),

? a green man(新来水手),
? a green old age(老当益壮)等等。 ? green-eyed―嫉妒”、“眼红”

? You are expecting too much of him. He is still

green, you know. ? (你对他要求过高,他还没经验嘛。) ? green back ―美钞” ? green power ―金钱的力量”或“财团”
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White:the color of snow
? Western country ? Fair,pure(in the ? China ? Unlucky(葬礼,白

wedding) ? Lucky (eg. a white day) ? Conservative ? Modern meaning:equal, from the film ―white‖

事) ? Crafty(奸诈的,eg. 白脸的曹操) ? Vain (eg.没效果, 白费力气) ? 不付出代价而享受 (eg.吃白食,小白 脸)

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White
? Snow White, white Christmas, a white

soul ? the White House ? He has white hands. ? white hand有“pure‖(纯洁)、或 “unstained‖(清白)之意。

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? white war指没有硝烟的战争,常指“经

济竞争”。 ? white elephant(昂贵却派不上用场的物 体或物主不需要但又无法处置之物) white goods
? 表示纯洁、美好、善意、合法、公平、幸福、

轻轻的、政治上反动等
? a white flag

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白色
? “白手”

“白手起家” ? start from scratch; build up from nothing ? 白眼 ? the tired look ? 白丁 ? very common people
? 表示清楚、明白、陈述、纯净、无代价的、

无效的、政治上反动的等
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“White” in Chinese
?白班day shift ?白鹭egret ?白内障cataract ?白痴 idiot

?白开水plain boiled water
?白血病 leukemia

?白眼 supercilious
?白手起家to start from scratch
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Black:the color of night or coal
? Western country
? Evil(e.g..black mail) ? Unlucky VS.white ? China

? Righteous(e.g..黑脸

meaning unluckiness in Chinese ? Hopeless (e.g..thing was beginning to look pretty black for us)

的包公铁面无私) ? The same as western country – evil(黑社会) ? Secret (e.g..黑话)

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black
? black money(黑钱) ? black market(黑市交易或黑市) ? a black letter day 不吉祥的日子,倒霉的

一天 ? black ox 不幸
? black figure,in the black都表示“盈

利”、“赚钱”
? 表示 “严重的,不受欢迎的,不吉利的、

罪恶的、不合适的、不合法的、愤怒的”
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“黑色”
? 黑心人 ? the very cruel people

? 黑帮
? the reactionary organizations

gathered secretly

? 多表示贬意如“阴暗的、非法的、秘密的、

坏的、狠毒的等

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Black in Chinese
? 黑眼镜sun glasses

? 黑货smuggled goods
? 黑心肠evil mind

? 黑话cant
? 黑体字boldface type ? 黑咕隆咚pitch-dark ? 黑死病the plague ? 黑更半夜in the dead of night ?
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Translation of black
? 1.black tea ? 红茶(而不译为黑茶)

? 汉语中的“红茶”译成英语是“black

tea‖,字面上意为“黑茶”,这是因为汉 语针对茶水的颜色而言,故称其为“红”, 而英语的着眼点则放在茶叶的颜色上,故 称其为“黑”。 ? 2.black and blue ? 青一块紫一块(而不是青一块黑一块)
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Blue: the color of sky
? Western country
? Sad (eg. get the blues;blues— ? China

? 表示天空和大海 a slow sad style of music that 的颜色。 came from the southern US) ? 京剧中的蓝脸表 ? Obscene(mentioned 示人物刚直勇猛、 above,blue book) 坚毅勇敢、桀骜 ? Noble,highly 不驯,有心计等 privileged(e.g.blue如窦尔敦,单雄 blooded=belonging to a royal 信,马武等。 or noble) ? Modern meaning: freedom(from the film ―blue‖)
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blue
? he is a real blue blood.(他是真正的贵

族。) ? blue-eyed boys ―受到管理当局宠爱和特别 照顾的职工”
? blue book (蓝皮书) ? blue-sky market(露天市场),

? blue-collar workers(从事体力劳动的工人)
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blue
? You look blue today. What?s wrong

with you? 你今天看起来闷闷不乐,出了什么事? ? “忧郁,伤感,沮丧” ? a blue Monday ? (倒霉的星期一) ? in a blue mood ? (情绪低沉) ? blue moon; once in a blue moon ? ―罕见之至,极不可能”"千载难逢
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Grey: the mixed color of black and white
? Western country

? China
? also the meaning –

? Experienced( e.g. grey

gloomy,depressed hand老手) (e.g. 灰心丧气,心 ? Boring (e.g. a grey 灰意懒) book) ? Cheap,unqualified( ? Gloomy(e.g. grey 灰色使消费者联想 prospects) 到廉价货,水货) ? Reliable,expensive(灰 色是西方消费者联想到 贵重的,质量可靠的商 品)
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Purple: the mixed color of red and blue
? Western country ? Royal(e.g..born to

? China
? Propitious(祥

the purple=born into a high social class) ? Flashy and without substance(华而不实 的,e.g..a purple passage)

瑞,e.g..紫气 冲天,紫气东 来)

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Pink: pale red
? Western country
? Healthy(e.g.. In

? China
? Related with the

the pink=in good color of peach shape) ? Romantic (e.g.桃 ? Mostly referred to 花运) female(e.g.. Pink ? The vague jobs:女性的职业) relationship between men and women (桃色新闻)
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Numbers in English and Chinese
In china, Three, six eight and nine are usually regarded the auspicious numbers, and these numbers or dates are usually used in our daily life. Also, nine is the largest one in the ten Arabic numbers with the partial tone with the Chinese character ―久‖ meaning forever. Therefore, most emperors in China admired this number which can be reflected in the architecture of the Palace Museum. Also there are some other idioms related nine in Chinese
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Numbers in English and Chinese
such as ―九流, 九泉,九族,九品,九连 环,九牛二虎,九九重阳,九九艳阳天. However, four and five have the partial tone with the Chinese character ―死” “无” . Therefore, these numbers are regarded unlucky. In the west, thirteen is regarded as the unlucky number which is related with the story of the Jesus death. If it is 13th on Friday, it is called the Black Friday, meaning the most unfortunate day.
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Summary
?A term in one language does not

necessarily have a counterpart in the other language;(扁担)
?Words or terms in both language

appear to refer to the same object or concept only on the surface, but actually refer to quite different things;(龙)
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? Things or concepts are represented

by one or perhaps two terms in one language, but by many more terms in the other language, ie, finer distinctions exist in the other language;(社会科学) ? Terms have more or less the same primary meaning, but have secondary or additional meanings that may differ considerably from each other.(龙)
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2. Cultural Reflections on Proverbs
Proverbs may provide interesting glimpses or clues to a people’s geography, history, social organization, social views, etc.

A new broom sweeps clean. 新官上任三把火 Many hands make light work. 众人拾柴火焰高。 Don’t put off until tomorrow what you can do today. 今日事今日毕。 Kill two birds with one stone. 一箭双雕。 Haste makes waste. 欲速则不达。
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? Where there’s smoke there’s fire.

无风不起浪。
? The grass is always greener on the other

side of the fence.
这山望着那山高。
? Beauty is only skin deep.

好花不常开,好景不常在。
? Spare the rod and spoil the child.

玉不琢不成器
? Give a person a dose of his own medicine. ? 以其人之道还治其人之身。
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? Man proposes, God disposes.

尽人事,听天命。/ 谋事在人,成事在天。
? It is a sin to steal a pin.

勿以恶小而为之,勿以善小而不为。
? Revenge is a dish that could be eaten

cold.
君子报仇,十年不晚。
? Every dog has its day.

人人皆有得意日 。/十年风水轮流转 。
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The above expressions get similar /same meanings both in English and Chinese. But some others get dissimilarities: 良药苦口利于病,忠言逆耳利于行。 Frank advice is like good herbal medicine, had to take but ultimately beneficial. 瓜田不纳履,李下不整冠。 Neither adjust your shoes in the melon patch; nor your hat under a plum tree. 一人得道,鸡犬升天。 Even the dogs swaggers when its master wins favor.

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Hard to find equivalents
Absence makes the heart grow fonder. 越是不见越想见。 An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 一天一苹果,医生远离我。 Let sleeping dogs lie. 莫惹是非。 You can‘t teach an old dog new tricks. 年逾花甲不堪教。 You can‘t have your cake and eat it too. 鱼与熊掌不可兼得。
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? Lightening never strikes the same

place twice. 福无双至,祸不单行。 坏事不过二 。 祸无双至。同一灾害不会在同一场所重 复发生。 ? One swallow does not make a summer. 一叶知秋。 一燕不成夏。一花独放不是春。
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Surface similarities, but differences
It takes two to make a quarrel. 一个巴掌拍不响。 A miss is as good as a mile. 差之毫厘失之千里。 Gilding the lily. 锦上添花。 Life begins at forty. 三十如狼,四十如虎。
If you lie down with dogs, you will get up with fleas. 近朱者赤,近墨者黑。
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The Proverbs in English and Chinese Culture 趁热打铁。 Strike while the iron is hot. 不入虎穴焉得虎子。 Nothing ventured, nothing gained. 打铁还得自身硬。 Forging the iron needs a strong body. 行行出状元。 Every profession produces its own best. 亡羊补牢未为晚已。It‘s never too late to mend. 眼不见心不烦。Out of sight, out of mind. 物以类聚人以群分。 Birds of a feather flock together. 三思而后行. Look before your leap.
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The Proverbs in English and Chinese Culture Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者事竟成。 Works make the workman. 勤工出巧匠。 Constant dropping wears the stone. 水滴石穿。 Like Father, like son. 有其父必有其子。 Great mind think alike. 英雄所见略同。 Rome wasn‘t built in a day. 冰冻三尺非一日之寒。 Where there is a life, there is a hope. 留得青山在不愁没柴烧。 Spare the rod, spoil the child. 棒打出孝子,惯养忤逆儿。
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The Mottos in the Chinese and English Culture.

It takes ten years to grow trees, but a hundred to rear people. 十年树木百年树人。 Eat to live, but not live to eat. 吃饭为了活着,活着不是为了吃饭。 A friend in need is a friend in deed. 路遥知马力,日久见人心。 Speech is silver, but silence is gold. 言语是银,沉默是金。 Two dogs strive for a bone a third runs away with it. 鹬蚌相争,渔翁得利。
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The Mottos in the Chinese and English Culture. 山重水复疑无路,柳暗花明又一村。 Sometimes, things may seem to be pretty bad, but if you work hard, there will be a light at the end of the tunnel. 亦余心之所向兮,虽九死其犹未悔。 For the ideal that I hold dear to my heart, I‘d not regret a thousands times to die. 苟利国家生死以,岂因祸福避趋之。 I shall dedicate myself to the interests of the country in life and death irrespective of personal weal and woe.
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The Mottos in the Chinese and English Culture. 华山再高,顶有过路。 No matter how high the mountain is , one can always ascend to its top. 人或加讪,心无疵兮 My conscience stays untainted in spite of rumors and slanders from outside. 兄弟虽有小忿,不废懿亲。 Difference between brothers can not serve their ties. 不畏浮云遮望眼,只因身在最高层。 We have no fear of the clouds that may block our sight as we are already at the top of the height.
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The Idioms Related to the Chinese Culture
? 吃豆腐—— to eat the bean curd ? 放鸽子—— to stand sb up ? 泼冷水—— to throw the cold water on ? 敲竹杠—— to rob by a trick ? 走过场—— to do sth as a formality

? 打酱油—— to walk by or be not involved in
? 炒鱿鱼—— to be dismissed from the office ? 唱高调—— to have an empty talk ? 拉大旗作虎皮——deck oneself and frighten ? 挂羊头卖狗肉—— sail under the false color
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The Idioms Related to the Chinese Culture
? 丧家犬—— a person out of favor
? 冷板凳—— a cold reception ? 闭门羹—— refusal of entrance

? 笑面虎—— a friendly-looking villain
? 替罪羊—— a whipping guy ? 敲门砖—— a stepping stone to success ? 撒手锏—— the trump card or specialty ? 醋坛子—— a person to be jealous ? 此地无银三百两—— a very poor lie releasing

the truth ? 不见兔子不撒鹰—— to take the action at the appropriate moment
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The Two-part Allegorical Saying in Chinese
狗撵鸭子-呱呱叫—— to do sth very well 2. 吃了秤砣-铁了心—— to be determined to do sth. 3. 茶壶倒饺子— 有口道不出 be not good at expressing oneself 4. 老鼠跑进风箱里-两头受气 - suffer from both sides 5. 瞎子点灯—白费蜡——to do sth useless 6. 十五只水桶打水—七上八下---- to be upset 7. 擀面杖吹火— 一窍不通--- to know nothing about 8. 王婆卖瓜—自卖自夸— to boast oneself 9. 老牛拉破车— 慢慢吞吞—to make slow progress 10. 猪鼻子插根葱—冒充大象— to do sth pretendedly
1.
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The Two-part Allegorical Saying in Chinese

徐庶进曹营—一言不发—— Hold the tongue. 骑驴看唱本—走着瞧— Reading while riding. 孔夫子搬家— 净是输— Keep losing all the time. 三九的萝卜— 动了心。 A mid-winter turnip — the heart is frozen (moved). 阎王爷出告示— 鬼话连篇。 The king of the hell‘s announcement– a series of lies. 猫哭老鼠—假慈悲。 A cat crying the mouse‘s misfortune– sham mercy. 牛角抹油—又尖又滑— be cunning and treacherous 正月十五贴门神— 晚了半个月— It‘s too late to 64 do…

Some Expressions in the Internet culture

hold得住— be able to control a situation 卖萌— to pretend to be lovable 坑爹— to be cheated; 悲催— miserable or failing 打酱油—— to walk on or look on 杯具—— sad or unhappy 给力— to make sb cheer up 正能量— the positive factors 纠结— to be annoyed; 拍砖— to criticize on the net 潜水— to conceal oneself on the internet. 灌水— to make the meaningless comment
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Some Expressions in the Internet Culture GF— girl friend ; CY— see you Y—— why; PS ——Photoshop 俯卧撑— to be not one‘s own business 元芳,你怎么看?—— have no one‘s own opinion 躲猫猫— to remove oneself from the responsibility 至于你信不信,反正我信了—to show the doubtful attitude toward the truth of an incident 贾君鹏,你妈喊你吃饭呢!— to persuade the young men not to lose themselves into the net LJ— rubbish; FQ— the cynical young men BC— the idiot; 94— you are right 8147— Don‘t get angry; 555— feel sad and cry
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3.Taboos
---a cultural or religious custom that does not allow people to do, use or talk about a particular thing as people find it offensive or embarrassing
Excreta and acts of human excretion Sexual intercourse/certain parts of the body (four letters) Swear words (age, sex, occupation)

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Human Excretion
? go to the can/ go to the John ? go and see one’s aunt

? I’m going to pick some flowers.
? Can I add some powder?

? I would like to powder my nose.
? I wonder if I could go somewhere. ? heed /answer the call of nature ? May I be excused? Nature calls me.

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Sex/Body parts
? pee pee (penis) ? wee wee (urinate)

? down there (vagina)
? she is expecting a baby. ? she is in a family way. ? She is expecting. She is in a delicate

condition. ? She is well-along. ? She is about to have a blessed event.
69

Talking about sexual intercourse and certain parts of the body is taboo in English culture.

Eg. make love To have sex with

70

Four- letter words are still considered improper in most conversation, especially in mixed company. eg. Fuck tits, shit Jesus Christ Holy Mary Son of a bitch bitch Damn! Damn it! Hell!

71

委婉语的类别
1) 传统委婉语

生,老,病,死 性 裸 拉 撒
decease, expire, breathe one‘s last, fall asleep elderly, golden ager, mature in one‘s birthday suit

72

die
? Go ? depart

? depart from this world
? go to a better world ? go the ways of all flesh

? pass away
? late ? In Chinese, we also can find similar

euphemisms: ―去了”, ―离开了我们”, ―辞 世”, ―去见马克思了”, ―归西”,―升天”, ―上 路”
73

disease
? Abbreviations:

SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndromes) AIDS (Acquired Immure Deficiency Syndrome)

V.D (venereal disease) 性病 ? big C/ long disease/ terminal illness
(cancer)

74

Old Age
?senior citizens ?advanced in age ?golden years

75

Swear words
1. some words are more offensive some are less 2.age, sex, occupation 3. setting or environment

76

apple and pip

number one
See a man about a dog (horse )

Plant a sweet pea
pick a daisy

Pluck a rose
to spend a penny Wee-wee cis-cis sissy cissy sis-sis
77

Get some fresh air

May I please be excused? (American)
Powder one‘s nose Wash one‘s hands What is the geography of the house?

78

2.职业委婉语
eg. home help houseman meat technologist recycler beautician cosmetologist hairstylist vision engineer wardrobe engineer

mixologist 酒吧调酒员

79

? sanitation engineer ? 环卫师(婉指垃圾工人)

? vision engineer
? 视力工程师(婉指眼镜商)

? sleep engineer 睡眠工程师(婉指床具

制造商)

80

The Taboos in the Chinese Culture
? 入赘—— marry into and live with the bride

family. ? 怀春—— to fall in love with ? 有喜—— to be pregnant ? 临盆—— to have a birth ? 续弦—— to remarry after the wife died ? 失聪—— lose the hearing ? 发福—— become fat ? 苗条—— to be thin ? 不适—— to be ill ? 保洁员—— the cleaner
81

The Taboos in the Western Culture
? to wash hand—— 方便
? to go to bed with —— 同房,上床 ? To have a sex with—— 云雨,风月 ? The long illness—— 不治之症 ? To be unemployed —— 下岗,待业 ? To pass away ——过世,作古,归西 ? In the family way —— 行动不便 ? Physically challenged— 腿脚不灵,要做妈妈了

? Unmarried women——单身女士
? Mental problems—— 精神疾病 ? The senior citizen—— 银发族
82

A Joke about ―方便‖
两个字把老外搞疯: 吃饭时,一人说去方便一下,老外不解,旁人告诉他"方 便"就是:上厕所; 敬酒时,另一人对老外说,希望下次出国时能给予方便, 老外纳闷不敢问; 酒席上,电视台美女主持人提出,在她方便的时候会安排 老外做专访。老外愕然:怎么能在你方便的时候? 美女主持人说,那在你方便时,我请你吃饭。老外晕倒! 醒来后,美女主持人又对他说,要不你我都方便时,一起 坐坐?老外 又一次晕倒,再没有醒来。 大家方便的时候笑一笑吧!

83

4. Differences in Cultural Thought Patterns

English-speakers---linear and direct Semitic---combination of tangential and semi-direct Asian--- circular Romance---more consistently circuitous Russian---direct and circuitous

84

American---factual-inductive (ascertain facts, find similarities, and formulate conclusions) Russian--- combination of direct and circuitous approaches/axiomaticdeductive (move from general principle to particulars which can be easily deduced) Arab---intuitive-affective (facts are secondary to emotions)
85

Understanding and appreciation of differences among cultures in cognitive processing and problem solving is a major step toward successful intercultural communication.

86

III. Summary
■ Culturally loaded words ■ Cultural reflections on proverbs ■ Taboos

■ Differences in cultural thought patterns

87

Case 2. A Misunderstanding Caused by a Joke Comment: Hustle---- to force sb to make a decision

before they are ready or sure

-----to work as a prostitute / romance or sex is hinted

88

Case 3 Look out
Look out---- to stick your head outside of sth. (window/door) to take a look ----to be careful, especially when there is danger

89

IV. Assignments
1.Research Topic
Different colors have different associations in different languages. Please make a close study of the ―color‖ languages in Chinese and English.

2. Watch the video ―A Journey to India‖

90

1.Justice has long arms. 2.Tread upon eggs. 3.sanitation engineer 4.Industrial climate 5.To take things without permission 6.A man of doubtful taste 7.Gilding the lily 8.You can’t have the cake and eat it too. 9.Associate professor 10.ethnocentrism
91


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