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英语简单句的翻译训练


1. 你应当努力学习。 You should study hard. 2 她昨天回家很晚。 She went home very late yesterday evening. 3 那天早上我们谈了很多。 That morning we talked a great deal. 4 会议将持续两个小时。 The meeting will last two hours. 5 在过去

的十年里,我的家乡已经发生了巨大的变化。 Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years. 6 这种事情全世界各地每天都在发生 Things of that sort are happening all over the world every day. 7 1919 年,在北京爆发了“五.四”运动。 The May Fourth Movement broke out in Beijing in 1919. 8 每天八时开始上课。 Classes begin at eight every day. 9 这个盒子重五公斤。 This box weighs five kilos. 10 五年前我住在北京。 I lived in Beijing five years ago. 11 爱丽丝很会游泳。 Alice swims very well. 12 约翰的父亲昨晚去世了。 John’s father died last night. 13 秋天有些鸟飞到南方去。 In autumn, some birds fly to the south. 14 我的爷爷早晨起得很早。 My grandfather gets up early in the morning. 15 每天下午有许多学生到图书馆来借书 Every afternoon a lot of students come to the library to borrow books. 基本句型 汉译英练习 主系表结构 本结构是由主语+系动词+表语组成,主要用以说明主语的特征,类属,状态,身份等。 系动词有 (1)表示特征和存在状态的 be, seem, feel, appear, look, smell, taste, sound. (2)表示状态延续的 remain, stay, keep, continue, stand. (3)表示状态变化的 become, get, turn, go, run, fall, come, grow. 翻译练习: 1 我的兄弟都是大学生。My brothers are all college students. 2 冬季白天短,夜晚长。 In winter, the days are short and the nights are long. 3 布朗夫人看起来很健康。 Mrs Brown looks very healthy. 4 十五岁他就成为有名的钢琴家了。 At the age of fifteen he became a famous pianist. 5 孩子们,请保持安静。 Children, keep quiet please. 6 这本书是有关美国历史的书。 This b ook is about the history of the United States. 7 她的工作是在幼儿园里照看儿童。 Her job is to look after the children in the nursery. 8 他失业了。 He is out of work. 9 树叶已经变黄了。 The leaves have turned yellow. 10 这个报告听起来很有意思。 The report sounds interesting. 基本句型 汉译英练习 主谓宾结构(一) 此结构是由主语+谓语+宾语够成。其中的谓语动词须是及物的动词或及物的动词词组。 宾语须是名词或相当于名词的成分。

1 昨晚我写了一封信。 I wrote a letter last night. 2 今天下午我想同你谈谈。 .I want to talk with you this afternoon. 3 这本书他读过多次了。 He has read this book many times. 4 他们成功地完成了计划。 They have carried out the plan successfully. 5 你们必须在两周内看完这些书。You must finish reading these books in two weeks. 6 那位先生能流利地说三种语言 That gentlemen can speak three languages fluently. 7 我收到了笔友从澳大利亚寄来的信。 I received a letter from my pen friend in Australia. 8 Jim 还不会自己穿衣服。 Jim cannot dress himself. 9 我们大家都相信 Jack 是一个诚实男孩。 .All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. 10 他不知道说什麽好。 He did not know what to say. 11 他每天早晨洗冷水澡。 He takes a cold bath every morning. 12 我开窗户你在意吗? Do you mind my opening the window? 主谓宾结构(二) 此结构中的谓语动词常常是动词词组,分两种情况: 1.及物动词+副词,2.不及物动词+介词。 1.含有 away, out, forward, up 等副词的动词词组是可拆分的。如, They carried out the plan successfully.我们还可以说, They carried the plan out successfully. 但我们只能说 As the plan was practical, they carried it out successfully. 动副词组都可以这样用,如, point out (指出) , carry out (执行) , put forward (提 出), work out(做出,算出), find out(找出), give up(放弃), give away(赠送,分 发),pick up(拣起), put up(挂上), 等。 2. 而含有介词 at, for, from, into, of, with, to 等的动介词组是不可拆分的。如, look after (照顾) , look at (瞧) , look for (寻找) , belong to (属于) , refer to (参考, 提及) , think of (考虑, 评价) , send for (派人去请) , care for (喜欢) ,suffer from (受…之苦) , deal with(对 付,应付), object to(反对), pay for(付…的钱),等。即我们只能说 think of it,不能说 think it of. in 在动词词组中用作副词,表示 “ 在里面 ” , “ 往里进 ” , “ 在家 ” 等意思。如, get in( 收 割),hand in(提交,交进)。 用作介词,表示 “ 在 … 地点 ” , “ 在 … 范围 ” , “ 在 … 方面 ” 。 如, persist in( 坚持 ) , succeed in (在…成功)。 Off 在动词词组中 用作副词,表示“关闭”,“隔离,离开”,“去掉”,等意思。如,turn off (关掉) , switch off (关掉) , ring off (挂断电话) , keep off (远离) , take off(脱掉) , kick off (踢脱), carry off(运走), put off(推迟), pay off(付清),give off(放出). 用作介词,表示“从…下来”。如,get off(下车), fall off(从…掉下来). On 在动词词组中用作副词, 表示“开”, “走开”, “传递”, “穿戴”。 如, turn on(开),move on (走开), pass on(传递), put on(穿上), have on(穿着). 用作介词,表示“在…上”,“在…方面”。 如,work on(从事于…), operate on(在…上 动手术), agree on(同意)。 表示“上车,上船,上…”, 如,get on(上车,上船),ride on(骑上)。 表示“依靠”, “以…为基础”,“按照”,如, depend on (依靠) ,base on (以…为基础) , feed on (以…为食), live on(以…为生计).

Over 在动词词组中用作副词, 表示“翻转”, “翻倒”, 如, turn over (打翻, 翻倒) ,push over (推倒). 表示“过一遍”,“仔细”,“遍及”,如,think over(仔细考虑),look over(仔细查看,研 究). 用作介词,表示“从上越过”,如,fly over(从上飞过), jump over(从上跳过).go over(越 过,横过)。 表示“为了”,“由于”,如,quarrel over(为…争吵),cry over(因…哭泣). 表示“查看”,“复习”,“检查”,如,go over(检查,复习). 附:许多由及物动词+名词+介词构成的三词动词词组也要跟宾语,如: pay attention to (注意) , catch hold of (抓住, 握住) , catch sight of (看见, 发现) ,do harm to (对…有害), get rid of(排除,除去), make fun of(取笑,嘲笑),put (one’s) heart into (专心于 … ) , say hello to (打招呼) , sing praise for (赞扬,表扬) ,take care of (照 顾), take part in(参加), take pride in(以…自豪,骄傲)。 1 我不信任那个人。 I don’t believe in(介) that man. 2 他指出了我的作文中的错误。He pointed out (副) the mistakes in my composition. 3 圣诞节我们将去看望外籍教师。 On Christmas Day, we will call on our foreign teachers. 4 你们必须在课后把练习本交上来 You must hand in your exercise-books after class. 5 五分钟内我们是不可能解出这道题来的。 We cannot work out(副) the problem in five minutes. 6 他们高度赞扬了英雄的业迹。They sang high praise for the deeds of the hero. 7 这位护士会好好照顾你父亲的。The nurse will take good care of your father. 8 你在工作中可依靠他。 You can depend on him in your work. 9 沸腾的水散发水蒸汽。 Boiling water gives off steam. 10 写完作文后,我们必须把它从头到尾看一遍。 fter writing a composition, we must go over(介)it. 11 脱掉你的外套,走前再穿。 Take off your coat and put it on before you leave. 12 人们会把她找出来的。 People will find her out(副). 13 我们必须派人去请医生 We must send for(介) a doctor. 基本句型 汉译英练习 双宾语结构 此结构由主语+及物谓语动词+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语(事物)组成。如, He brings me cookies every day. She made me a beautiful dress. 但要先说出直接宾语(事物) ,后说间接宾语(人) ,则要借助于介词 to 或 for,如, He brings cookies to me every day. She made a beautiful dress for me. 用 to 侧重指动作的方向,表示朝着,向着,对着某人。 用 for 侧重指动作的受益者,表示为了某人,替某人。 常跟双宾语的动词有: (需借助 to 的)bring, give, lend, hand, offer, pass, pay, promise, return, send, show, teach, tell, write, ask,等。 (需借助 for 的) buy, call, cook, choose, draw, find, get, make, order,

sing, save, spare,等。 1. Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。Mr Johnson taught us German last year. 2. 奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。 Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 3. Mary 把钱包交给校长了。Mary handed the wallet to the schoolmaster. 4. 请把那本字典递给我好吗?Would you please pass me the dictionary? 5. 他把车票给列车员看。He showed the ticket to the conductor. 6. 这个学期我已经给父母写过三封信了。 This term I have written three letters to my parents. 7. 我父亲已经给我买了一辆新自行车。My father has bought me a new bike. 8. Robinson Crusoe 给自己做了一只小船。Robinson Crusoe made himself a boat. 9. 请你给我弄一本新的,好吗?Will you please get me a new copy? 10. 我替你叫辆出租汽车好吗?Shall I call you a taxi? 11. 新式机器将会为你节省许多劳动。The new machine will save you a lot of labour. 基本句型 汉译英练习 复合宾语结构 此结构由主语+及物的谓语动词+宾语+宾语补足语构成。宾语与宾语补足语有逻辑 的主谓关系,若无宾语补足语,则句意不完整。可以用做宾补的有,名词,形容词, 副词,介词短语,动词不定式,分词。如, The sun keeps us warm. I heard him singing. You must get your hair cut. 用 it 做形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语补足语的后面,是英语常用句型。 即 主语 + 谓语 + it + 宾补 + 真正宾语。如, I found it very pleasant to be with your family. 1 我们叫她 Alice. We call her Alice. 2 他的父母给他取名为 John. His parents named him John. 3 我们大家都认为他是诚实的。All of us considered him honest. 4 他们把门推开了。They pushed the door open. 5 他们把小偷释放了。They have set the thief free. 6 我们要使学校变得更美丽。 We will make our school more beautiful. 7 他请我们参加做游戏。He asked us to join in the game. 8 我要你把真相告诉我。I want you to tell me the truth. 9 卫兵命令我们立即离开。The guards ordered us to leave at once. 10 明天我要找人来修理机器。Tomorrow I’ll have someone repair the machine. 11 每天早晨我们都听到他大声朗读英语。 Every morning we hear him read English aloud. 12 痛苦使得他叫喊起来。 The pain made him cry out. 14 我们不会让她在晚上外出的。 We won’t let her go out at night. 15 他每个月理一次发。 He has his hair cut once a month. 16 我要请人把我的录音机修理一下。 I’ll get my recorder mended. 17 那可怕的声音把孩子们吓坏了 The terrible sound made the children frightened 18 她正在听人家讲故事。 She is listening to someone telling stories. 19 男孩子们都在看士兵们操练。 The boys were watching the soldiers drilling. 20 我从来没看见这个字这样用过。 I have never seen the word used that way before

21 他感到很难跟你交谈。 He felt it very difficult to talk with you. 22 我想乘船去那里更舒服些。 I think it more comfortable to go there by ship. 23 我认为有可能用另一种方法解题。 I consider it possible to work out the problem in another way. 24 学校定了一条规则,开始上课时学生要起立。 The school made it a rule that the students should stand up when class begins. 25 我认为与那个人谈话是无益的。 I thought it no use talking with that man. 基本句型 汉译英练习 There be 句型 此句型是由 there + be + 主语 + 状语 构成,用以表达存在有,一种无主语的有。 它其 实是倒装的一种情况, 主语位于谓语动词 be 之后, there 仅为引导词, 并无实际语。 Be 与 其后的主语在人称和数量上一致,有时态和情态变化。如, 现在有 there is/are … 过去有 there was/were… 将来有 there will be…/there is /are going to be... 现在已经有 there has/have been… 可能有 there might be... 肯定有 there must be …/there must have been... 过去一直有 there used to be … 似乎有 there seems/seem/seemed to be … 碰巧有 there happen/happens/happened to be … 此句型有时不用 be 动词,而用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive,等。 翻译练习: 1 这个村子过去只有一口井。 There was only a well in the village. 2 这个学校有一名音乐老师和一名美术老师。 There is (are) a teacher of music and a teacher of art in the school. 3 客人当中有两名美国人和两名法国人。 Among the guests there were two Americans and two Frenchmen. 4 天气预报说下午有大风。 The weatherman says there’ll be a strong wind in the afternoon. 5 灯亮着,办公室里肯定有人。 The light is on. There must be someone ion the office. 6 战前这儿一直有家电影院的。There used to be a cinema here before the war. 7 恰好那时房里没人。 There happened to be nobody in the room. 8 从前,在海边的一个村子里住着一位老渔夫。 Once, there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. 9 公共汽车来了。 There comes the bus. 10 就只剩下二十八美元了。 There remained just twenty-eight dollars. 11 在这个山洞前面长着一棵高大的松树。 In front of the cave, there stands(grows) a tall pine tree. 12 铃响了。 There goes the bell. 13 二月份有二十八天。There are twenty-eight days in February. 14 今晚没有会。 There isn’t going to be a meeting tonight.


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