当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

动词时态和语态


一、考点聚焦 1、动词时态考查要点简述 (1)一般现在时考点分析 ①表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制) The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. Water boils at 100oC. ②表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的动作,多用动作动词,且常与表频率的时间状语

连用。 Ice feels cold. We always care for each other and help each other. ③表示知觉、 态度、 感情、 某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时: see、 hear、 smell、 taste、 feel、 notice、 agree、 believe、 like、hate、want、think、belong seem 等。如: I know what you mean. Smith owns a car and a house. All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School. ④在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由 if 引导的条件状语从句中可以用 shall 或 will 表“意愿”, 但不表示时态。 If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased. 如果你愿意接受并参加我们的舞会, 我的家人会非常高兴。 ⑤少数用于表示起止的动词如 come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、start、begin、pen、close、end、stop 等常用一般现在 时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作。当 be 表示根据时间或事先安排,肯定会出现的状态,只用一般现在 时。 The shop closes at 11:00 p.m. every day. Tomorrow is Wednesday. (2)一般过去时的考点分析(考核重点)。 ①一般过去时的基本用法:表示过去的事情、动作或状态常与表示过去具体的时间状语连用(或有上下文语境暗示);用于表达过 去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希望的事通常用过去式。如: I met her in the street yesterday. I once saw the famous star here. They never drank wine. I thought the film would be interesting,but it isn ’t. ②如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语,尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生,但从句中的谓语动词连用过去式。如: He told me he read an interesting novel last night. ③表示两个紧接着发生的动作,常由以下词语连接,用一般过去时。如:but, and, when, as soon as, immediately, the moment, the minute。 The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her. He bought a watch but lost it. ④常用一般过去时的句型: Why didn’t you / I think of that?

I didn’t notice it. I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before. I didn’t recognize him. (3)一般将来时考点分析。 ①表示未来的动作或状态常用 will / shall + 动词(常与表示将来的时间状语边用如 tomorrow、next week 等)。 ②表示一种趋向或习惯动作。 We’ll die without air or water. ③表示趋向行为的动词如 come、go、start、begin、leave 等词常用进行时的形式表示将来时。 ④be going to 与 will / shall, be to do, be about to do 用法及区别: be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事,这种打算往往经过事先考虑,甚至已做了某种准备;shall / will do 表示未 事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。 be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而 will 则能,表意愿。如: If it is fine, we’ll go fishing.(正确) If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.( 错误) be to do sth.表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性等。 A meeting is to be held at 3:00 o’clock this afternoon. be about to do sth.表示“即可,就要”,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。 Autumn harvest is about to start. (4)现在进行时考点分析。 ①表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作;表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时;表近期特定的安排或计划;go、come 等起止动作可 用进行时代替将来时。如: It is raining now. He is teaching English and learning Chinese. I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight. We are leaving on Friday. At six I am bathing the baby.(I start bathing the bady before six.) The girl is always talking loud in public.( 与 always、often 等频度副词连用,表经常反复的行动或某种感情色彩) ②下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。(A)表示心理状态、情感的动作:like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。(B)表存在的状态的动词:appear, exist, lie, remain, seem belong to, depend on 。(C)表示 一时性动作的动词:allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete 。 (D)表示感官的动词:see, hear, notice, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。 (5)过去完成时考点分析(考核重点)。 ①常用过去完成时的几种情况:(A)在 by、by the end、by the time、until、before、since 后接表示过去某一时间的短语或 从句以前发生的动作。如:By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. (B)表示曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用 had hoped / planned / meant / intended/ though / wanted / expected 等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示即:hoped / planned ? + to have done。(C)“时 间名词 + before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时;“时间名词 + ago”在句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。如: He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago. (D)表示“一??就” 的几个句型:Hardly / No sooner / Scarcely had + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / before + 一般过去时。如:We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started.

②在 before 或 after 引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时态代替过去完成时。 After he (had)left the room, the boss came in. We arrived home before it snowed. (6)过去将来时考点分析。 参照一般将来时对比:用 would do、was / were going to do sth.表过去将来;come、go、leave 等过去进行时表过去将来时; was / were to do sth.和 was / were about to do sth.表过去将来。 (7)过去进行时考点分析。 ①过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。 ②某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生,其中一个在由 when 或 while 引导的时间状语从句中。 (8)现在完成时考点分析。 ①现在完成时除可以和 for、 since 引导的状语连用外, 还可以和下面的介词短语连用: during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks)、in recent years 等。 ②下列句型中常用现在完成时 It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since 从句 This(That / It)is the first(second?)time that + 完成时 This(That / It)is the only ? + that + 完成时 This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting ? + that 从句 + 完成时 ③在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替一般将来时。如: I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it. If you have done the experiment, you will realize the theory better. Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. (9)注意几组时态的区别: ①一般过去时与现在完成时:时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用过去时态,不能用完成时态,如含有 ago、last year、just now、 the other day 等。 结果上有差异: 现在完成时强调的是对 “现在” 的影响和结果, 动作到现在刚完成或还在继续; 一般过去时强调的是动作发生在 “过 去”,和现在毫无关系。 ②过去完成时与一般过去时:过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去”;如出现同一主语连续几个动作(“连谓”)形式则只用一般过 去时即可。 2、被动语态考查要点简述 被动语态的构成方式:be + 过去分词,口语只也有用 get / become + 过去分词表示。被动语态的基本用法:不知道或没必要提 到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。强调或突出动作的承受者常用被动语态(by 短语有时可以省略)。 (1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。 ①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。 My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday. I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday. ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变);(作补语的)不定式前需加 to。 The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day long(by the boss) ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。

The children were taken good care of (by her). Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. ④情态动词和 be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better 等结构变被动语态,只需将它们后面的动词原 形变为 be +过去分词。 ⑤当句子的谓语为 say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report 等时,被动语态有两种形式:(A)谓语动词 用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。(B)用 it 作形式主语,真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如: People say he is a smart boy. It is said that he is a smart boy. He is said to be a smart boy. People know paper was made in China first. It is known that paper was made in China first. Paper was known to be made in China first. 类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that ? (2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。 ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。 ②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to 等。 ③表示归属的动词,如 have、own、belong to 等。 ④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate 等。 ⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。 ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。 ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有 sell、write、wash、open、lock 等。 (3)主动形式表被动意义。 ①当 feel、look、smell、taste、sound 等后面接形容词时;当 cut、read、sell、wear、write 等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表 示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。 This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。 These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。 My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。 The door won’t lock.门锁不上。 The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。 ②当 break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out 等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定”等意思时。 The plan worked out successfully. The lamps on the wall turn off. ③want, require, need 后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 ④be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义。 ⑤在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The girl isn’t easy to get along with. 另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 (4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。

①be seated 坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。 ②be hidden 躲藏 He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.) 他藏在门后。 ③be lost 迷路 ④be drunk 喝醉 ⑤be dressed 穿着 The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. (5)被动语态与系表结构的区别 被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如: The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态) The book is well sold.(系表结构) 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. Visitors ________not to touch the exhibits.(NMET A.will request C.are requesting B.are requested D.request 2001)

解析:答案为 B。此题的时态是不难判断的,因为说的是一条规定,所以用一般现在时,而 visitor 与 request 之间是动宾关系, 即 request visitors not to touch the exhibits,究竟是谁要求他们这样做呢?不清楚,也不必知道,因此需要用被动语态。分 析 visitors 与 request 之间的关系是此题的解题关键。 2. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology __________ so rapidly.(NMET A.is changing C.will have changed B.has changed D.will change 2001)

解析:答案为 A。此题考查现在进行时态的用法。句意为“选择一部移动电话不是一件容易的事,因为科技发展得十分迅速。”本 句的主句一般现在时表达的是目前的情况,而“科技发展迅速”也是现阶段正存在的一种状态,不是在过去,也不是在将来,因此 只能用现在进行时表达。 3. All the preparations for the task ___________, and we’re ready to start.(2000 年春季高考) A.completed C.had been completed B.complete D.have been completed

解析:答案为 D。现在完成时表示过去年做的事对现在的影响。从 and we’re ready to start 句意可知,一切准备工作已经就绪, 可以开始工作了。complete 是及物动词,与句子的主语是被动关系,所以需要用被动语态表达。注意①分清 complete 与主语之间 的关系;②结合语境选择正确时态。

I.用所给动词的适当形式填空: 1.Sorry,I (not think)you (speak)to me. (come)only from practice.

2.It was not until then that I came to know that knowledge 3.Robert is said

(study)abroad,but I don't know what country he studied in. (ask)that question.

4.People often want to know what my job is.Often I

5.“You have left the light on.” “Oh,so I have.I 6.Nothing could be done to save the patient and he

(go)and turn it off.” (die)fast. (be)another test

7.“Is this the last exam we have to take this term?” “Yes,but there three months away. 8.“John took a photograph of you just now. ” “Really? What a pity! I 9.“What time you

(not look)”

(meet)Tom tomorrow?” “At ten tomorrow morning.” (come)today.”

10.“Why didn't you meet me at the airport this morning? ” “I didn't know you 11.“Did you go to Dalian for your holidays last summer?” “I at the last minute.” 12. “How long we met last.” you

(plan)to go,but I got sick

(not see)each other?”“Well,it ______ (be)nearly two years since

13.By the time I see you again,I

(graduate)from that university. (happen)to see him this afternoon please?

14.Would you give him this ticket if you 15.The watch

(lie)unnoticed for several days before I found it. (leave).

16.After the class,the students went out of the classroom one by one,but only Mary 17.The teacher told the students that they 18.The students here

(expect)to be useful men to the country.

(keep)busy doing all kinds of exercises everyday in the past few weeks. (see)around here for a long time.

19.“What happened to the postman?” “I don't know.He 20.Don't get that ink on your shirt,for it 21.E-mail as well as telephone, 22.Your cough ought

(not wash)out.

(play)an important part in daily communication.

(see)to before it gets worse. (make)at the conference as John hasn't reported to me yet. (make)to reduce pollution.

23.I didn't know what decisions

24.It is highly desirable that every effort 25.It

(hope)that he would make greater progress in his study of English. (do)!” “I'm sorry.I should have been more careful. ” (arrive)here at 10:30 p.m.So I think it

26.“Look what you

27.According to the time ? table,the No.42 train (come)soon. 28.“Are you about to have dinner?” “Yes,it 29.“Why didn't you come to the meeting?” “I 30.“Why was he fined?” “He happened to

(serve)in the dinning hall. (tell)anything about it.” (see)to pick several flowers in

II.选择填空: 1.—Nancy is not coming tonight. —But she A.promises 2.Shirley A.has written . B.promised C.will promise D.had promised

a book about China last year but I don't know whether she has finished it. B.wrote C.had written D.was writing

3.—How are you today? —Oh,I A.didn't feel as ill as I do now for a very long time. B.wasn't feeling C.don't feel D.haven't felt so rapidly.

4.Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology A.is changing 5.I B.has changed C.will have changed D.will change

ping ? pong quite well,but I haven't had time to play since the new year. C.played D.play

A.will play B.have played 6.—I —What

here three days ago. these days?

A.got; did you do B.have got; have you C.had got; will you do . D.got; have you been doing

7.By the end of next July this building A.will be finished B.will have finished C.will have been finished D.has been finished 8.It was the second time he A.was B.were C.had been

out with her alone. D.should be ?

9.Would you please give him the message the moment he A.arrives B.arrived 10.The price A.went down C.is arriving D.will arrive

,but I doubt whether it will remain so. B.will go down C.has gone down D.was going down

11.As I A.left

the next day,I went to bed early that evening. B.am leaving C.was to leave D.had left

12.—Is this raincoat yours? —No,mine A.is hanging there behind the door. B.has hung C.hangs D.hung supper. C.had had well. C.won't be sold smooth enough. D.hasn't felt D.were not sold D.had

13.when I arrived,the Browns A.was having B.have had

14.These kinds of shoes A.don't sell

B.are not sold

15.The surface of the table

A.isn't felt B.isn't feeling C.doesn't feel 16.What he had said at the meeting A.proves B.is proved C.proved true. D.was proved

17.I found the sentence A.didn't read

smoothly. D.hadn't read

B.has been reading C.wasn't reading 1,000.

18.The number of the students in our school A.have added up to B.adds up to

C.has been added up to

D.is added up to long.

19.I have to make a phone call.Can you wait a few minutes? It A.won't be taking 20.I B.isn't taking C.doesn't take

D.won't take

he had finished his work. B.think C.have thought D.thought

A.am thinking

21.—The American teacher will be here tomorrow. —Oh,I thought that she A.was coming B.is coming today. C.will come early but he D.comes .

22.He promised us that he A.arrived; didn't turn up B.has arrived; hadn't turned up

C.had arrived; wouldn't turn up D.would arrive; hasn't turned up 23.I in Beijing for six years by this October. B.was living C.will be living D.shall have lived

A.have lived

24.—Miss Wang is tired out. —So she is.She A.is doing the housework all day. C.was doing D.has been doing

B.has done

25.Many years ago,Mr.Turner A.had lived 26.Now that you A.have returned 27.It excited.

in Paris with his friend for a long period of time. C.lived D.has lived

B.had been living

from abroad,what are you going to do? B.are returning C.return D.returned about the good news,but she still seemed very

nearly two months since she

A.is; was told

B.had been; had told

C.has been; told

D.was; had been told

28.—Has Tom finished his composition yet? —I have no idea; he A.wrote it this morning. D.was writing

B.had written C.has written

29.—Are we about to have dinner? —Yes,it A.is serving 30.— in the dining ? room. B.is being served C.was served D.serves

Mr.White

this week?

—No,he's on holiday. A.Has; worked B.Does; work C.Is; working D.Did; work

31.I must be off now.I A.meet 32.—Where —I B.meet with

a manager from Japan at 8 pm. C.am meeting D.met

the dictionary? I can't see it anywhere. it right on your desk but now it's gone.

A.have you put; put

B.did you put; have put C.were you putting; put

一般 进行 完成

过去 did was/were doing had done

现在 do am/is/are doing have/has done

将来 will/shall do will/shall be doing will/shall have done

过去将来 should/would do / should/would have done 用于虚 拟语气 /

完成进行

had been doing

have/has been doing

/

D.had you put; have put 33.—I'm sorry.I — . know it you.

A.don't; was; All right B.didn't; was; That's all right C.don't; is; Not at all D.didn't; is; Never mind


相关文章:
动词时态与语态
动词时态与语态一、动词时态(一)一般现在时:do/does/am/is/are 1、 一般现在时表示现在经常发生或习惯性的行为或状态, 常与 usually, always, every day, ...
2011-2013动词时态和语态高考题 详细答案
乐思教育 2013动词时态和语态高考题 1.【2013 陕西 17】 Jim___ a late night film at home when, right in the middle of a thrilling scene, the televi...
英语时态和语态一览表
英语时态和语态一览表_其它_高等教育_教育专区。英语十六种主动态的名称、 英语...(注:延续性动词的已完成或未完成用法) has 7、现在 现在完成进行时 been ...
-动词时态和语态
C.will be held D.is being held 答案 A 解析 考查动词时态与语态。根据“some workers were busily setting the table” 判断,聚会还没举行,应用将来时态,...
英语语法 动词时态和语态 详解
英语语法 动词时态和语态 详解_英语_高中教育_教育专区。动词时态和语态 第12 章 动词时态和语态 【基础知识·归纳】一、动词的时态动词主要表示动作,其次表示状态...
高中英语动词时态语态讲解及练习
高中英语动词时态语态复习讲解 1、一般现在时 主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点;表示经常或习惯性的动作, 句子中常有 often, always, from time to time 等...
高考英语动词时态语态复习
高考英语动词时态语态复习。高考英语动词时态语态复习 (一) 动词的时态 时态动词是谓语动所表示的动作或情况发生时间的各种形式。英语动词有 16 种 时态,但是常用的...
英语动词时态及语态
英语动词时态及语态 动词的种类 动词是指表示动作和状态的词。动词可分五种类型:及物动词、不及物动词、 系动词、助动词和情态动词。 1.及物动词及物动词是指...
动词的基本时态和语态
动词的基本时态和语态_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高中主动 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 do 或 does did 1. will\shall+do 2. be(am\is\are)+going to...
动词的时态和语态(简单)
动词时态和语态(简单)_高二英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。很好动词时态和语态一) 一般现在时(表日常行为、习惯、客观情况或按计划安排好的行为等) ;常见的时...
更多相关标签:
动词的时态和语态 | 动词时态 | 动词时态和语态练习 | 英语语法 | 动词时态和语态ppt | 高中动词时态和语态 | 动词时态与语态 | 初中动词时态和语态 |