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初中英语基础知识大全


中考辅导

JUNIOR BOOK I
一.知识网络

【重点内容概要】

1.元音字母在重读开音节、闭音节中的读音。

2.常用的日常交际用语。

3.人称代词,物主代词、指示代词及基数词。

4.动词 be(am,is,,are)的用法及人称代词,

名词的数的一致性,

5.一些表示方位、地点介词的用法.

6.名词所有格。My father’s watch

the pic of Billy billy’s pictures

7,冠词 a,an,the 的基本用法。

8.以 What、Where、Who、Whose、Which、How 等引导的疑问句和一般疑问句以及它们的 回答.

9.能灵活运用人称代词的主格和宾格.

10.掌握可数名词和不可数名词的用法,以及与其搭配使用的相关修饰词

11.There be 句型以及与 have(has)的运用及区别。

12.动词的现在进行时和一般现在时的运用。

13.祈使句的肯定、否定形式.

14.常用的句型及交际用语。

15.人称代词主格和宾格的使用。

16.可数名词和不可数名词的运用.

17.常用的句型。

18.现在进行时和一般现在时的使用。

【句型、词组精讲】

Words and Expressions

1. Excuse, me. / I’m sorry.

这两个句子是会话时常用客套语。

1)Excuse me. 表示“劳驾”,“请问”,“请原谅”,“对不起”,“打扰一下”等 意思,多用于句首,主要用于在请求别人帮忙时用。如:

Excuse me, is this watch yours?

Excuse me. How can I get to the station?

2)I’m sorry. 或 Sorry. 一般用于听到别人的不幸或做了对不起别人的事情表示遗憾 或向其道歉,或不能够给对方提供信息或帮助时的场合。如: I’m sorry I’m late.

I’m sorry to hear your mother is ill.

Sorry, I can’t go with you.

Sorry, I won’t do that again.

2. it’s / its

1)it’s 是 it is 的缩写形式,意思是“那是”。

2) its 是 it 的物主代词,具有形容词的性质,作定语,意思是“它的”。如:This is a bird. Its name is Polly. 这是一只鸟,它的名字叫波莉。It’s a cat. Can you spell its name? 那是一只猫,你能拼出它的名字吗?

3. listen/ hear

1)listen 意为“听”,强调听的动作,当后接听的对象时要加 to。如:Listen! Who is talking? 听!谁在讲话?We’re listening to the teacher. 我们正在听老师讲课。

2) hear 意为“听到”, 强调听的结果。 如: I’m listening to the teacher, but I can’t hear him. 我正在听老师讲课,但我听不见他讲的话。

4. not?at all/ Not at all

1) not?at all 意为“根本不??,一点也不??”,not 放在助动词之后。如:He doesn’t study hard at all. 他学习一点也不认真。

2) Not at all. 意为“不用谢”、 “没关系”, 回答对方的感谢、 道歉时用语。 如: “Thank you very much.” “Not at all.” “非常感谢。”“不用谢。”

5. speak/ say / tell/ talk

这四个词都有“说”之意。

1)speak 强调说话的能力和方式,后常接说的某种语言。如:Do you speak English? 你 讲英语?

2)say 强调说的内容。如:What is he saying? 他在说什么?

3)tell 意为“告诉”,后常接双宾语或复合宾语。如:Let me tell you a story. 让

我给你们讲个故事吧。 The teacher often tells us to study hard. 老师经常叫我们 努力学习。

4)talk 为不及物动词,构成短语 talk with, talk to, talk about 等。如:What are they talking about? 他们正在谈论什么?

6. old/ age

old(指年龄),表示“??岁的”意思,常和 how 一起构成疑问句。如:How old are you? 你多大?

age 是“年龄”的意思,通常和 what 一起构成特殊疑问句。如:What age is he? 或 What’s his age? 他多大了?

Old people

aged people

介词+名词归纳

1. in+语言: 表示用什么语言或用什么语言说 (或写) 。 如: What’s this in English? is writing a letter to his father in Chinese.

He

2.in pairs 意为“成双地”,“成对地”,“两人一组”。如:Please ask and answer in pairs.

3.in the wall 表示在墙里面。如:There is a hole in the wall. 如果表示在墙的 表面或墙上,用 on the wall。如:She put a map of China on the wall.

4.at work 意为“在工作”,work 前不加 the。类似这样的词组还有 at home(在家), at school(上学),at table(就餐)等。

5.by+交通工具:表示“乘??”。如:

by bike= on the bike

by train= on the train, by boat= on the boat

by plane / air = on the plane, by ship/sea= on the ship

by car = in the car, by bus =in the bus 等。

但:步行则用 on foot 来表达。

6.on one’s way?表示“在去??的途中”。如:

He found a dog walking in the street on his way home.

on one’s way to school 在某人上学的途中

on one’s way back 在某人返回的途中

7.on duty 表示“值日”。如:Who’s on duty today? 今天谁值日?I am on duty. 我 值日。

动词+介词&副词结构

1.动词+介词结构。

这类词组无论其宾语是名词还是代词,都要放在介词之后。如:

look after= take care of 照看,照料

look like 看上去像

look at? 忧

看??

be

worried about?

对??担

come from? =be from ?

来自??

get to? 到达??

work on?

从事,操作??

turn on(off)打开,(关掉)

come into?

进入??

2.动词+副词结构

这类词组后接宾语时,宾语如果是名词既可放在动词与副词之间,也可放在副词之后; 如果是人称代词,多放在动词和副词之间。如:

hand up 举起手来

put on 穿上;挂上(贴上)

take off 脱掉

put

away? 把??放好;把??收起来

There be 和 to have 句型

这两个句型都表示“有”的意思。There be 表示“存在”的关系,to have 侧重“所属 关系”。如:

There are forty students in our class.

We have a happy family.

使用 There be 和 to have 句型时还应注意以下几点:

1.There be 句型中的就近一致原则。即 be 的形式与靠近它的主语一致。如:

There is a table and two chairs in the room.

There are four chairs and a table in the room.

2.就 There be 句型中的主语提问时,往往把 there 这个引导词省掉。如:

There is a book on the desk. (就划线部分提问)

What’s on the desk?

3.当表示某物属于另一物中不可分割的一部分时,往往用 to have 句型。如:桌子有四 条腿。The table has four legs.

4.美国英语常用 have got 表示“有”。如:They have got an English-Chinese

dictionary.

二.考试热点

1.人称代词和物主代词的运用.

2.疑问词的正确运用。

3.be 与主语的数的一致性.

4.介词的常见用法.

5.人称代词的主格和宾格.

6.现在进行时和一般现在时。主要题型有用所给词的适当形式填空、交际运用。

7.交际运用

三.重、难点突破

1.代词的正确运用,疑问词的运用及 be 的使用。在运用代词时,我们应从所替代名词 的数、性别着手,并根据它在句中的位置来确定是主格还是宾格,是用名词性物主代词 还是形容词性物主代词.具体来说,在主语的位置用主格;在动词、介词或副词后作宾 语时,要用宾格.而形容词性物主代词后面要带名词.

2.疑问词的使用则要根据疑问词能作什么成分,是问时间、地点,颜色,人还是物等以 及其答语来做出选择.

3.be 的使用要看主语是单数名词、不可数名词、还是复数名词来确定。主要题型有用 所给词的适当形式填空、交际运用。

4.正确区分可数名词和不可数名词十分重要。不可数名词作主语时,谓语要用单数,而 可数名词又有单复数之分。一般地,many、a few/few 只修饰可数名词,much、a little /little 只修饰不可数名词,而 some、any、a lot of、lots“两者均可修饰。

5.现在进行时的使用关键在于其构成和依其常用的时态标志词,如 look、listen,now 等来判断.一般现在时的难点在其疑问、否定的变化和当主语为单数第三人称时其谓语 动词的变化。现在以 work 为例来看看一般现在时的句式变化规律。

He works every day.

He doesn't work every day.

Does he work every day?

即一般变化规律(注意:谓语动词为行为动词或连系动词时;be 型不在此例)

主语+谓语十其他

否定,主语+don't/doesn't+谓语动词原形+其他

疑问:Do/Does 主语+谓语动词原形+其他?

总之,这两种时态的正确使用关键在于用法和常用时间状语。

四.典型例题

【考题导析】

例 1 语音题:选出划线部分的读音与其他三个划线部分读音不同的单词。

(1)A. lake

B. cat

C. take

D. cake

(2)A. bed (3)A.fish B.fine

B. desk C.nice

C. she D.time

D. let

(4)A. box

B. hot

C. shop

D. home

分析:此题考查元音字母在重读开音节、闭音节中的读音。关键之处是学生对重读开音 节、闭音节要了解。(1)小题的 A、B、C、D 中只有 B 是闭音节,a 发 音,其余都是开音

节,a 发[ei]音。(2)小题 C 为开音节,e 发[i:]音,其余都是闭音节,e 发[e]音。(3) 小题 A 为闭音节,i 发[i]音,其余都是开音节,i 发[ai]音。(4)小题 D 为开音节,o 发 音,其余都是闭音节,。发 音。

例 2 选择填空

A. ______ pencil-box is this, Patrick?

B. It’s _______.

A. Whose, mine

B. Who’s, mine

C. Whose, my

D. Who’s my

分析: 此题考查疑问词的正确使用及两种物主代词的用法。 首先要分清 Whose 与 Who’s 的读音相同, 但含义不同。 Whose“谁的”Who“是谁”“谁是??”根据题意, 询问“铅 笔盒是谁的?”那么答案从 A 和 C 中选择。而形容词性的物主代词要用于名词之前,名 词性物主代词相当于一个形容词性的物主代词和名词,故此题答案为 A。

例3

I found the bottle in _______ room.

A. Sara and Kate

B. Sara’s and Kate's

C. Sara's and Kate

D. Sara and Kate's

分析:此题考查名词所有格。英语中表示所属,在人名后加上’s,但两人共有一物,只 在最后一人名后加’s。故此题答案为 D。

例4

Jack and Tom are ________.

A. good friends friend D. good a friend

B .good friend

C. a good

分析:此题考查名词的数与 be 动词的一致性。Jack 和 Tom 是两人,谓语是 are, 故朋友

“friend”一词应加 s,所以答案为 A。

例5

1)—Who’s that?

—______..

A. I'm Tom speaking

B. My name is Tom

C. Tom speak

D. This is Tom speaking

2)—________?

—This is Mr. Smith speaking now.

A. Who are you

B. Who's that

C. Who are you calling

D. What do you want to say

分析: 此两题考查英语打电话的交际用语。 打电话中问对方是谁, 要说“Who’s that?”, 不能说“Who are you?”。而回答“我是??”要说 This is?, 不能说 I am?。故答 案为 1) D 2) B。

例 6 —Lily, it's Linda's birthday tomorrow. birthday cake.

—Oh yes. I will buy ______ a big

A. him

B. you

C. her

D. it

分析:此题考查人称代词的正确使用。根据语境分析,准备给 Linda 买蛋糕,由于 Linda 是女孩的名字,故要用“她”一词来代替,而用于动词后的人称代词要用宾格,所以正 确答案为 C。

例7

Is this cake for______?

A. I

B. my

C. me

D. mine

分析:此题同样考查人称代词用于介词之后应用宾格这一用法,所以 C 答案为正确的。

例 8 Listen! Someone______ in the next room.

A. cry

B. is crying

C. are crying

D. crying

分析: 此题有一关键词 listen, 提示此处应用现在进行时态填空。 而 Someone 作主语时, 谓语用单数形式,故答案为 B。

例 9 How many ______ do you want?

A. glasses of milk milks D. milks

B. glass of milks

C. glasses of

分析:此题有两处应该注意:一是不可数名词无复数形式;二是 How many 与可数名词的 复数形式搭配。所以此题正确答案为 A。

例 10 There ______ pencil-box, two books and some flowers on the desk.

A. is a

B. are some

C. has a

D. have some

分析:英语中“有”可以用 there be 结构和 have/has,但两者用法不同。there be 表 示存在有,即“某地有??”;而 have/ has 表示所有,即“某人(物)有??”。此题 的 on the desk 表明某地有,C、D 则不能选。而根据 there be 句型中主谓一致、就近 的原则,pencil-box 没有用复数形式。故答案选 A。

[例 11]

That’s——coat. It's——

A. yours,Tom's

B. your, Tom,x

C your,Tom

D. yours,Tom

分析:此题考查代词和名词所有格的用法。名词性物主代词相当于一个形容词性物主代 词加上一个名词,故由第一空可排除 A、D 两项,又由句竟“它是汤姆的上衣”知,应选 B.

解后反思

根据句意和所处位置来确定代词是解题的关键。

[例 12]

一 This is a photo of

when they were young. 一 OK,

how happy they both looked

A.my father and mother

B. my mother and father's

C.my mother's and father's

D. my father's and my mother

分析:此题考查名词的所有格,A、D 不合所有格用法,故可以排除。又由题意可知这张 相片是共有的,故选 B.

解后反思

英语中名词表示所属,在人名后加’s,如两人共有一物,则在最后一人名

后加’s,若为两人各自所有的,则在两人名后分别加’s

[例 13]

---- Where my money?I can't find it.

—Look!

some

money under your chair

A. There has

B. There are

C There is

D lt's

分析: 此题显然考查 there be 句型。there be 句型中 be 的数要采取就近原则,即 be 的效由离它最近的主语来决定,本题主语 some money 是不可数名词,故谓语要用单数, 所以选 C,

解后反思

在 there be 句型中不会出现 have 的各种形式。

[例 14]

"Can I get you a drink?"

"That's very nice of you. I've already

got_______."

A. it

B. one

C. that

D. this

分析: 此题考查这四个指示代词的用法。 当被替代的名词前有修饰语时, 要用 one 或 ones。 当替代不可数名词时不能用 one,只用 that。而 it 替代同类事物中的同一件事物。this

是近指,往往替代即将要说的,且 that,this,it 前均不带修饰语,故此题选 B。

[例 15]

I'm thirsty.I want to buy

A. two bottles of oranges

B. two bottles of orange

C. two bottle of oranges

D.two bottle of orange

分析:此题考查不可敷名词的计量表达法。oranges 是橘子之意,显然与 thirsty 不符, 故 A、C 可排除,D 也不行,选 B。

解后反思

orange 是多义词,当“橘汁”讲时,是不可数名词,当“橘子”讲是可数

名词.不可数名词的量化常用“数词+量词+of+不可数名词”结构,当数量超过一时,量 词应用复数,如本题 B.

[例 16]

Look! The boys

happily in the river.

A. swim

B. swam

C. will swim

D. are swimming

分析:此题考查谓语的时态。由 look 这一关键词可知,此处应用现在进行时,故答案为 D.

解后反思

谓语动词的时态是由时间状语、 暗示词或上下文来确定的, 它的数由主语决

定。所以,做这种题,要纵观全局。

[例 17]

Kate has lost

keys,so she asks

for help

A. her,mine

B. hers,me

C。hers,I

D. her,me

分析:此题考查代词的用法。由前空所处位置知该空应填形容词性物主代词,而后句意 为“她向??寻求帮助”即 asks sb. for help。故后空应填代词宾格。故选 D,

解后反思

作宾语的代词要用宾格,而作定语的代词要用形容词性物主代词。

【正误例析】

1.那个男孩是谁?

误:Whose that boy?

正:Who’s that boy?

析: whose 和 who’s 虽然发音一样, 但在句子中的功能却大不相同。 前者表示“谁的”, 作定语用,后者表示“是谁”,是系表结构。(有时 who’s 也可作主谓结构)。如:

Whose book is this?

Who’s that girl over there?

Who’s talking in the next room?

2.这条裤子是我的。

误:This trouser is mine.

正:This pair of trousers is mine. & The trousers are mine.

析:某物如果是由两个对称的部分组成的,该物应用复数形式。如 shoes, glasses, compasses (圆规) 等。 如果表示“一条??, 一双??, 一副??”等时, 往往用 a(this, that)pair of+该物。这一结构作主语时谓语动词用单数。如果前面与物主代词或名词所 有格连用作主语时,谓语动词用复数。如:

That pair of glasses is hers.

My shoes are black.

3.请把你的自行车借给我。

误:Please borrow your bike to me.

— —人教版初中 阶段中考基础 知识整合与测 评

正:Please lend your bike to me. & Please lend me your bike.

析:lend sth. to sb. / lend sb. sth.意为“把某物借给某人”,即从物主那儿借 出去。borrow sth. from sb.意为“从某人那儿借来某物”。 五.强化训练

I.单词拼写

A)按要求写出下列单词的适当形式。

1. family(复数) ___________

2. my(名词性物主代词)__________

3. swim(现在分词)__________

4. meet(同音词)___________

5. short(反义词)___________

6. study(第三人称单数)________

7. friend (形容词) ______________

8. question(同义词)___________

9. they(宾格)_____________

10. boys(所有格形式)____________

B)根据句意及首字母提示,补全单词

11. The bottle is e______. I want a full one.

12. In the classroom there are many pictures on the t ______desk.

13. —May I borrow your dictionary?

—Of c______. Here you are.

14. He likes t______ by train, because it’s cheap and safe.

15. Tom is at the door of the classroom. But it is l_______. He can’t open it.

C)用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空。

16. Li Ning can speak________(English).

17. There are three _______ (knife) on the table.

18. We’re doing ______ (we) homework at home.

19. The school gate is _______ (close) now.

20. You can eat_______ (difference) kinds of food in that restaurant.

II.选择填空

21. ____ girl has ______ apple. _____ apple is big and red.

A. An, an, The

B. The, an, The

C. A, a, An

D. The, an, An

22. These are ______ cups. _______ are over there.

A. our, Yours

B. yours, Mine

C. his, Our

D. Their, Your

23. —I often go to school_____. What about you?

—I often _____ to school.

A. by bus, ride a bike

B. by a bus, ride a bike

C. by a bus, by a bike

D. by bus, ride bike

24. This is Lucy’s pen. Please ________.

A. give her to it

B. give her it

C. give it to her

D. give it her

25. —______ that?

—I think _______ Han Mei.

A. Who’s, it’s

B. Whose, its

C. Who’s, its

D. Whose, it’s

26. I have two pens. One is blue, ____ is black.

A. other

B. others

C. the other

D. another

27. —Your English is very good.

—______.

A. Yes, you’re right

B. Thank you

C. That’s right

D. No, it’s not good

28. Your coat is here. Please ________.

A. put on them

B. put them on

C. put on it

D. put it on

29. —_____ do you like about Beijing?

—The people, and the food.

A. How

B. Where

C. Which

D. What

30. _____ she ______ a computer?

A. Is, have

B. Is, has

C. Does, has

D. Does, have

31. Let’s go and _______.

A. play football

B. play the football

C. play a football

D. to play football

32. —Nice to meet you.

—________.

A. Nice to see you.

B. Hello, how are you?

C. Nice to meet you, too.

D. Thank you very much.

33. —What’s wrong ________ your bike?

—It’s broken.

A. with

B. on

C. for

D. about

34. It’s seven o’clock. Kate ______ supper now.

A. have

B. has

C. are having

D. is having

35. —Who is the woman in the car?

—She is ______ mother.

A. Kate’s and Mary’s

B. Kate and Mary’s

C. Kate and Mary

D. Kate’s and Mary

36. You like _________ basketball. Would you like _______ a new one?

A. play, buying

B. to play, buy

C. to play, buying D. playing, to buy

37. —____ ? —I’d like a pair of shoes. Please show me the white pair.

A. Can I help you

B. What do you do

C. What are you doing

D. Will you please help me

38. Very nice _______ to you.

A. talk

B. talking

C. talks

D. to talk

39. What does he ______ at the meeting?

A. say

B. tell

C. talk

D. speak

40. —______? —It’s five o’clock.

A. What day is it, please

B. What’s the name, please

C. What’s the time, please

D. What’s this, please

III.动词应用

41. My father _____ (get) up at 5:30 every morning.

42. It’s time______ (have) classes. Let’s go.

43. _______ (not be) late for school again.

44. Would you like something ________(eat)?

45. I can help you ________ (carry) the heavy box.

46. Look! They _____ (play) games over there.

47. —What ______ Wang Fang _____ (do)?

—She is a teacher.

48. What about _______ (watch) TV now?

49. There _______ (be) an English book and two Chinese books on the desk.

50. How long _________ it ________ (take) you to get to your home?

IV.句型转换。

51. She does her homework in the evening. (改为一般疑问句)

_________ she ________ her homework in the evening?

52. There is some milk in the bottle. (改为否定句)

There ______ _______ milk in the bottle.

53. Do they work in a factory? (改为现在进行时)

_______ they ______ in a factory?

54. She often goes to school by bike. (对划线部分提问)

________ _______ she often go to school?

55. You can’t take off your coat. (改为祈使句)

________ ______ your coat off.

56. What’s your father, Lucy? (改为同义句)

What ______ your father ______, Lucy?

57. The girl behind the house is my sister. (对划线部分提问)

________ _______ the girl behind the house?

58. I’d like an apple.(用 an orange 改为选择疑问句)

_______ you like an apple _____ an orange?

59. There are some trees near the school. (对划线部分提问)

______ _____ near the school?

60. Why don’t you get up at six in the morning? (改为同义句)

_________ _______ get up at six in the morning?

V.补全对话

A: What are you doing? B: I’m looking for my pen. But I __61__ find it.

A: You can borrow mine. B: Thanks a lot. But I must ____62____ one in the shop.

A: _____63__ shop? B: The one over there. Could you go with____64____?

A: Certainly. B: ____65___ can I do for you?

A: I want a pen, please. B: OK. ____66_____ you ____67_____.

A: Thank you. ____68___ ____69____ is it? B: It’s four yuan. Is that___70____?

A: Yes. Thank you. Good-bye! B: Bye.

VI.完形填空。

Mike and Jack are monks(和尚). Mike is short and fat. Jack is tall and thin. They ___71___ brothers but they live ____72___ same room. Every morning they go out ___73____ food.

One day, they go out for food very ___74__ . They are on a road to a village. There aren’t any men on the road. They are walking __75___. Suddenly(突然)they stop. There is a comb(梳子)on the road___76___ them. Both of them are running up to it. “I find it first. It’s ___77___ comb, ” one of them is saying.

“No, I find it before you,” ____78__ is saying. “It’s not yours.”

Mike and Jack are sitting ____79___ the road. They are quarreling(争吵)about the comb. Morning is up and then comes the afternoon. They’re still quarreling.

A little boy comes up to them and says, “You’re monks. Monks have no hair. What’s the use of the comb ___80___ you?”

71.A. don’t have

B. are going to have

C. have not

D. aren’t

72.A. in

B. in the

C. the

D. on

73.A. to

B. with

C. in

D. for

74.A. early B. earlier

C. earliest

D. the earliest

75.A. to

B. along

C. on

D. out

76.A. near

B. after

C. behind

D. in front of

77.A. you

B. mine

C. my

D. yours

78.A. other

B. the other

C. others

D. another

79. A. in

B. on

C. at

D. with

80. A. for

B. about

C. on

D. with

强化训练答案:

I.1.families 2.mine blem 3.swimming 9.them 4.meat 10.boys’ 5.tall/long 11.empty 6.studies 12.teacher’s 17.knives 18.our 7.friendly 13.course 19.closed 8.pro

14.traveling

15.locked

16.English

20.different

II.21—25 BAACA

26—30CBDDD

31—35 ACADB

36—40DABAC

III.41.gets carry take

42.to have

43.Don’t be

44.to eat 49.is

45.carry /to 50.does,

46.are playing 47.does, do

48.watching

IV. 51.Does, do does or

52.isn’t any/ is no 56.does, do

53.Are, working 57.Who is

54.How

55.Don’t take 59.What is

58.Would,

60.Why not

V. 61.can’t 68.How 62.buy 69.much 63.Which 70.all 64.me 65.What 66.Here 67.are

VI. 71—75 DBDAC

76—80 DCBBA

JUNIOR BOOK II (上)

一.知识网络 【重点内容概要】 1.形容词、副词的比较级和最高级的基本用法以及比较级和最高级 的规则变化和不规则变化。 2.理解和运用一般讲来时 be going to 的用法。 3.提建议的表达方法及答语。 4.表示需要和询问对方和向对方提出建议。 5.一般过去时及其一般疑问句的回答。 6.反义疑问句。 7.介词 in, on, at 的用法。 8.There be 结构的一般过去时态。

9.一般讲来时 will 的用法。 10.感叹句。 11.邀请和应答;打电话;谈论天气、季节;请求许可。 【句型、词组精讲】 1. May I have a piece of paper, please? 请问,能给我一张纸吗? May I…? 是表示请求对方许可的句型,多用于较正式的场合。 这个句型的肯定回答:(1) Yes, please (2) Certainly. (3) Of course. (4) Sure. (5) That’s OK/all right. (6) Yes, you may /can. 等。 否定回答是:(1) No, you can t. (2) Certainly not. (3) Of course not. 也可婉转地回答:I’m sorry, but …或: I’m afraid not. 如: —May I borrow your bike ,please ? 我可以借你的自行车吗? —Certainly! Here you are. (Sorry .I’m using it. )当然可以! 给你。(对不起,我正用着。) 2. Don’t you usually come to school by bike? 难道你通常不是

骑自行车上学吗? 这是否定疑问句, 常用来表示责怪、 惊奇、 建议等, 可译成 ?难道不…… 吗??回答时若事实是肯定的用 Yes (不),若事实是否定的则用 No(是),注意不要受汉语的干扰。如: —Aren’t you a student? 难道你不是个学生吗? —Yes, I am.. (No, I’m not.) 不,我是。(是的,我不是。) 3. And the air today is nice and clean. 今天的空气很清新。 Nice and 在英语中是个固定结构,意为?很?、?十分?,相当于 very 或 quite, 其后接形容词或副词,用于加强语气。如: The child is nice and strong .这孩子很强壮。 4. few/a few/little/a little few ,a few 用于代替或修饰可数名词; little, a little 用于代替或修饰不可数名词。 a few 和 a little 的意思是肯定的,表示?一些;有一点儿?; few 和 little 的意思是否定的,表示?很少、几乎没有?。 5. Why not? 为什么不呢?

?Why not+动词原形??虽然形式上是否定的,但它所表达的含义是 肯定的,常用来表示一种建议,语气比较委婉、客气。此句型可看作 是?Why don’t you…??的省略式。如: Why not have a swim now? (=Why don’t you have a swim now?) 为什么现在不游泳呢? 6. It’s time for class. 该上课了。 ?It’s time for…? 和?It’s time to…? 这两个句型都表示 ?该……了?或?是……的时候了?。for 后接名词、代词或动词的 ing 形式, to 后接动词。如: It’s time for (to have )lunch .该吃午饭了. 7. What about a quarter past two? 两点一刻怎么样? What about……? (=How about……?)意为?(你认为) ……怎么样? ?常用于征求意见、 询问情况或提出建议。 后接名词、 代词或动名词。 8. Shall we go to the park? 我们去公园去吗? Shall I (we) ……? 表示建议征求对方意见,意为?我(们) ……好 吗? 肯定回答多用:(1)Good idea. (2) All right. (3) OK. (4) Yes, please. 等。

否定回答多用:(1)No, thanks. (2) No, please don’t. (3) No, I don’t think……等。如: —Shall I open the window? 我打开窗户好吗? —No, thanks. (All right.) 不用,谢谢。(好吧。) 9. Let’s make it a little earlier. 让我们早一点吧! (1)Let’s……是提建议的一种句式,意思是?让我们……?,Let’ s 后接动词原形。 肯定回答用 Ok! 或 All right !等; 否定回答则用 No, let’s……. (2)Make it 是习惯用语,it 在这里表示?规定时间?。如: Let’s make it half past six. 让我们定在六点半吧。 10. in front of/in the front of in front of 意为?在(物体之外的)前边?,而 in the front of 意为?在(物体本身的)前部。?表示?在某人前面?要用 in front of sb . 11. They must keep their hands behind their backs .The other students in the class keep their eyes closed.他们必须把手一

直放在背后。班上的其它学生一直闭着眼睛。 ?keep +宾语+宾补?意为?使…保持某种状态?。 其形式有: (1) keep +宾补+形容词; (2) keep +宾语+动词 ing 形式; (3) keep +宾语+介词短语; (4) keep +宾语+副词。如:He kept me waiting for an hour . 他让我等了一个小时。 12. The eraser goes from one student to another—first one way, then another. 橡皮从一个学生手里传到另一个学生手里——先从 这边传过去,然后再从那边传过来。 (1) from…to…从……到:……,通常与基数词或表示时间、地点的 名词以及抽象名词连用。 They go to school from Monday to Friday. 他们从这星期一到星 期五去上学。 (2) one…another…一个……另一个……,一个……又一个(总数是 三个以上)

(3) first……then……先……后…… 13. find/findout/look for find 通常指发现、找到有形的东西,也可指偶然发现某物或某种情 况; find out 意为?找到?、?查出?,多指通过探索、观察而发现, 通常带有?经过困难曲折的涵义?; look for 则指?寻找?的过程。 14. You’d better ask that policeman over there. 你最好问问 那边的那个警察。 had better 为习惯用语,相当于一个情态动词。had better 意为?最 好?,后接动词原形,指现在或将来,用于向对方提出建议或劝告。 其否定形式为 had better not+动词原形。如: You’d better not stay there too long. 你最好别在那里逗留太 久。 15. We live in a place called Gum Tree. 我们住在一个叫桉树镇 的地方。 a place called…=a place named…=a place with the name…名

叫……的地方, called 是过去分词, 给前面的名词作定语。 如:a boy called Tom 一个名叫汤姆的男孩。 16. I hope he’s better tomorrow. 我希望他明天会好些。 hope 是及物动词,意为?希望?,其后可接动词不定式或宾语从句。 如: He hope to go shopping with us. 他希望和我们一起去买东西。 表示?希望某人做某事?不可用 hope sb. to do sth. 而要用 hope +(that)从句。 如:我希望你来。 误:I hope you to come. 正:I hope (that) you will come. 17. Is watching TV too much good or bad for your health? 过 多的看电视对你的身体有害还是有益呢? (1) be good (bad) for 表示?对……有好(害)处?;be good (bad) to 表示 ?等……好 (不好) ? ; be good at 意为 ?擅长……? , ?在…… 方面做得很好?,相当于 do well in。 如:She’s very good to us. 她等我们很好。

Some are very good at boating. 有些人擅长划船。 (2) too much 表示?过多?、?太多?,在句中可作宾、定、表或 状语;而 much too 表示?太?、?过分?,修饰形容词或副词,作 状语。如: Eating too much is bad for your health. 吃得太多对你的身体有 害。 This question us much too difficult. 这个问题太难了。 18. how long/how often how long 意为?多久?、?多长?,用于提问时间或距离的长短。 如: How long were you away last year? 去年你缺席多长时间? How long is the Great Wall? 长城有多长? how often 意为?每隔多久,每隔多长时间?。回答表示程度的频度 副词有 sometimes, always, usually, never 等或 once a week, three times a month 等。如: How often do you go to see your mother? 你每隔多长时间去看你 的母亲?

此外,how far 意为?多远?(对距离提问); how old?多大?(对年龄提问); how many?多少?(对不可数名词数量提问)。 19. What’s wrong with sb/ sth.? 用于询问某人或某物?怎么了?? 或?某物出了什么毛病??。 如:What’s wrong with your watch? 你的手表出了什么毛病? 20. But we need some more. 但我们还需要再准备些。 more 表示?另外的、更多的、附加的?之意,可起代词或形容词作 用。其前还可以再加 some, a little, much, many, a few 等修饰语。 如: Would you like a little more tea? 你要不要再喝点茶? 当 more 前有数词时,more 和 another 可进行改写。如: I wrote two more letters to her. 我又给她写了两封信。(I wrote another two letters to her.) 【语法精讲】 一般过去时

一、一般过去时的形式 1.动词 be 的一般过去时态的形式有两种,即 was, were。was 用于 第一、三人称单数,were 用于第一、三人称复数和第二人称单、复 数。You were we were they were 2.行为动词一般过去时态的形式:动词的过去式,没有人称和数的 变化。 二、一般过去时的用法 1.表示过去某个时间发生的动作或状态,即?一次性的过去动作?。 如: They enjoyed themselves last Sunday. 他们上周日玩得很高兴。 I was busy yesterday. 昨天我很忙。 2.表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。如: We often walked in the evening when we lived in the country last summer. 去年夏天我们住在农村,傍晚常出去散步。 三、一般过去时的时间状语 1.由副词 yesterday 或由 yesterday 开头构成的短语:yesterday

morning/ afternoon 等。如:Where did you go yesterday? 昨天 你去哪儿了? 2.由?last+表时间的名词?构成的短语:last week, last year 等。如:I received two letters from my home last month. 上个 月我收到两封家信。 3.由?时间段+ago?构成的短语:a moment ago, an hour ago 等。 如:They left two hours ago. 他们两小时以前离开了。 4.由?介词+时间名词?构成的短语:in 1998, on Monday, on April 12 等。如:Napoleon did in 1821. 拿破仑死于 1821 年。 5.其它词或词组:then, just now 等。如: The scientists lived in China then. 当时这些科学家住在中国。 将来时表示法 一般将来时表示在将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态。表示 ?将来?的句式很多,常用的句式及用法归纳如下: 一、be going to+动词原形(专题与 will 的区别) 1.这种结构表示主体现在打算在最近或将来要做某事。这种打算往 往是事先考虑好的。如: My brother is going to learn English next year. 我哥哥准备明

年学英语。 I am going to meet Tom at the station at six. 我六点钟要到火 车站去接汤姆。 2.这种结构还可以表示说话人根据已有的迹象认为非常可能即将发 生某事。如: Look at these black clouds——it is going to rain. 看这些乌 云——要下雨了。 I’m afraid I’m going to have a bad cold. 恐怕我要得重感冒 了。 注意: 1. 如果 be going to 后接的是形容词或副词(there)时,其后应加 上 be, 然后再接形容词或副词。 如: I’ m going to be busy this Sunday. 这个星期天我很忙 2. there be 句型也可用于这种句型中,但 there 不能和 have 连用。 如:There is going to be an English film this evening. 今天 晚上有一场英文电影。 二、shall/ will+动词原形。在书面语中,第一人称常用 shall, 但 在口语中,所有人称都可用 will.

1.will/ shall 均可表示单纯的将来。如:The radio says it will be cloudy tomorrow. 收音机报道明天多云。 2. 表示预料中将要发生的动作或情况。 如: You’ ll feel better after having this medicine. 吃了这药,你就会感到好些的。

3. will 表示人的主观意愿, 它带有浓厚的感情色彩。 如: Come earlier tomorrow, or I won’t let you in. 明天早点儿来,否则我不让你 进来。 4.在问对方是否愿意或表示客气的邀请或命令时,常用 will。如: Will you go to see a film with us? 你愿意和我们一起去看电影 吗? 5.shall 表示建议或征求对方的意见。如:Shall we go at eight? 我们八点去好吗? 6. 表示不以人们的意志为转移的规律。 如: He is fourteen this year, and he will be fifteen next year. 他今年十四岁,明年十五岁。 三、come, go, leave, fly, begin, arrive 等表示位置转移的动词 用现在时行时表示将来的动作。如: Mr. Li says he is leaving for Beijing tomorrow. 李先生说他明 天将去北京。

The sports meeting is beginning at three this afternoon. 运 动会将于今天下午三点开始。 四、在条件、时间状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来的动作。如: If it doesn’t rain, they will climb a hill tomorrow. 如果明 天不下雨,他们将去爬山。 I’ll write to you as soon as I arrive home. 我一到家就给你 写信。 五、come, go, start, leave 等动词的一般现在时也可以表示将来, 它是用来根据规定或时刻表示一定会发生的动作或状态。 与现在进行 时态一样,一般现在时主要用于往返动作。如: The train leaves at two o’clock p.m. 火车下午两点钟开。 The new term starts at the beginning of September. 新学期将 于九月初开始。 注: 表示往返和位置转移动词的一般现在时和现在进行时都可以表示 按计划安排将要发生的事,但一般现在时表示?不可改变或不可随便 更改的事件或计划? , 所以常用于时刻表; 而现在进行时表示将来 ?按 计划安排的事可能会改变?。 六、用?情态动词+动词原形?也可表示将来。这种形式一般用于比

较明显的表示将来的时间状语的句子中。如:You must get up early tomorrow. 你明天必须得早起。 七、用?has better+动词原形?也可以表示将来。如:You’d better go to see your sister next week. 下周你最好去看看你妹妹。 使用比较等级应注意的事项 1.注意错用比较等级的构成。 1)他比我走得慢。 误:He walks slowlier than I. 正:He walks more slowly than I. 有些双音节形容词(副词),可在词尾加-r(-er), -st(-est)构成比 较级和最高级。如:happy, dirty, clever 等。但以?ly?结尾的 副词,除了 early 外多在其前加 more, most 构成比较级和最高级。 2)游泳是我最喜爱的运动。 误:Swimming is my most favourite. 正:Swimming is my favourite sport. 有些形容词,本身表示的程度就已达到?极限?,或者无法再比较, 所以没有比较等级形式。再如:full, empty, whole, afraid, round,

living, dead 等。 2.注意比较对象前后的一致。 比较级中,比较的双方必须是同一类的人或事物,非同类的事物是不 能进行比较的。如: 我的自行车比你的自行车便宜。 误:My bike is cheaper than you. 正:My bike is cheaper than yours 在比较级中,比较的双方虽属同类,但相比较的事物为了避免重复, than 后面的比较对象常用 that,one, those 或 ones 代替前面出现 的比较对象。如: 北京的冬天比上海冷。 误:In winter, the weather of Beijing is colder than it of Shanghai. 正:In winter, the weather of Beijing is colder than that of Shanghai. 3.注意比较范围中的?包括?与?不包括?。

在同一范围内比较时,必须把主体排除在被比较的对象之外。如: 吉姆比班里的其他任何学生都高。 误:Jim is taller than any students in his class. 正:Jim is taller than any other student in his class. 4.注意比较级、最高级前定冠词 the 的使用。 形容词比较级前一般不用定冠词,但句中若有?of the two?结构, 表示两者 ?较……的一个? 时, 要加定冠词 the。 如: He is the taller of the two. 他是两人中个子较高的一位。 5.注意比较等级前修饰词的使用。 比较级前不可用 very, quite, too 等词来修饰,但可以用表示比较 程度的 much, a little, a bit, even, still 等副词来修饰。如: This book is much thicker than that one. 这本书比那本书厚得 多。 Yesterday was a little colder than today. 昨天比今天有点冷。 另外,名词短语也可修饰比较级,说明程度。如:I’m three years other than he. 我比他大三岁。

二.考试热点 1.一般将来时 be going to 的用法,通过对话询问对方的计划、打 算,并提出各种建议,学会提建议的表达方法。 2.形容词的比较级和最高级以及它们之间的句型转换,能修饰比较 级的词。 3.在交际运用中考查表计划、打算、询问及建议的用法。 4.一般过去时。 5.各种情况的翻译疑问句。 6.邀请、请求许可、打电话及写电话留言和谈论天气。 主要考查题型:选择填空,句型转换题,口语运用题,书面表达题。 三.重、难点突破 1.比较级用于两者间的比较;有比较连词’than 则要用比较级。在 运用比较级时应注意以下几方面:1)alittle,abit,much,even, still 可以修饰比较级;以加强语气,而 very 不能修饰比较级。2) 进行比较时,要注意比较的对象、比较的范围是否一致。 2.最高级用于三者或三者以上的比较,一般有 in...或 of..., among...之类的词。 形容词最高级前应带 the, 而副词最高级前的 the

可省略。 3.最高级和比较级常进行转换。最常见的转换句式是:最高级转为 比较级,即?...than any other..."结构。 4.提建议的常用句式: (1) 用?Shall we/I...??句型。其意思是?…...好吗??主要用 于提出某种建议或征求对方意见,多用于第一人称。常用 Good idea 回答。 (2) 用"Let ’s+动词原形?句型。在表示?建议?时包括对方在内, 意为‘‘咱们......吧!?有时还可以在句尾加上"Shall we??通常 用 OK 回答。 (3) 用?Why not+动词原形?句型。意为?为什么不......?"它常用 All right 回答。 (4) 用?had better+动词原形?句型。其意是?最好......?,表 建议或劝告。 (5) 用?How/What about + doing/名词?句型。 5.一般过去时是非常重要的一个时态,在书面表达中,使用很广。 一般过去时的运用要掌握其构成和常用时间状语。 它的构成可分为两 种情况:

1)主语+谓语 be(was/were)+其他。其否定和疑问的构成分别为:主 语+was not/were not+其他。Was/Were+主语+其他? 2)主语+行为动词/连系动词的过去式+其他。 其否定和疑问的构成分 别为:主语+did not(didn’t)+谓语动词的原形+其他,Did+主语+ 谓语动词的原形+其他?此处关键是谓语动词要用原形。 动词变过去式, 有规则动词和不规则动词之分, 需要区分牢记。 常见的过去时间状语有:yesterday,last+时间名词,时间段+ago 等。 6.关于 be going to 与 will。 这两者都表示将来,be going to 常用来表示打算,计划、决定要做 的事情或根据某些现象或征兆预测即将发生的事。 在表示意图或即将 发生某事时可与 will 互用,但下列情况常用 will 或 shall 而不用 be going to。 1)表带意愿色彩的将采。 2)问对方是否愿意,或表示客气的邀请或命令。 3)表示建议或征求意见。 7.反意疑问句。反意疑问句是在陈述句后面加上一个简短的附加问

句。其用法如下: 1)若前面的陈述句是肯定式,后面的附加问句用否定形式,反之,要 用肯定式。简言之,前肯,后否:前否,后肯;前名(词)后代(相应 代词);前代后代,时态一致。若陈述部分为 there be 句型,其后部 分要用 there。 2)当反意疑问句的陈述部分含有 few,little no, never,hardly 等 词时,附加部分要用肯定式。 3)对于反意疑问句的回答,要根据实际情况回答,若事实是肯定的, 要用 yes,事实是否定的,要用 no,在译成汉语时要注意。如: There is no water on the moon,is there?月亮上没有水,是吗? No,there isn’t.是的,没有。(注:月亮上没有水是事实,故不 能回答为 Yes,there is.) 4)祈使句的反意疑问句除 Let’s...,shall we?外,其余的附加问 句均为 will、you。 8. 感叹句, 感叹句根据感叹部分可分为两种类型: 1)How+形容词+主语+be!或 How+副词+主语+动词! 2)What a/an+形容词+可数名词单数+主+谓!或 What+ 形容词+复数

名词(或不可数名词)+主+谓! 9.交际用语项目 1) Could I speak to...,please? 是打电话常用语,若接电话的是 所找之人时, 用 This is. . . speaking 或 to. . speaking 或 Speaking。 若接电话不是本人时,可以说 Sorry,he/she is out。或 Hold on a moment,please。/One moment,please。 2) Is that...? 或 Is that...speaking?是在电话上询问对方是谁。 3) Would you like to...?是邀请别人。同意即以 I d like to 回答。 若不能应允,则可以用 I d like to,but...婉拒。 4)在表示对别人答谢时,常用如下的答谢语: ①That’s all right.②That’s OK.③It’s a pleasure.④With pleasure。⑤It’s my pleasure.⑥Not at all.⑦You re Welcome 四.典型例题 【例 1】There is going to ______ a sports meeting in our school next week. A. be B. have C. open D. hold

分析 此题考查学生句子中的词语搭配。?举行运动会?为 hold a

sports meeting, 但句中有?there?一词,决定要用 there be 句型, 表示?某时有……?,虽然 have 也有?有?的含义,但它是?(某 人/某物)有?故本题答案为 A。 【例 2】Of all the shoes in your shop, is this pair ______ one? A. very good cheapest 分析 此题考查学生形容词比较等级的用法。因为句中有?Of all B. much better C. a cheaper D. the

the shoes?这个表示最高级的范围的短语,所以答案应选 D。 【例 3】选出与句中划线部分意思相同或相近的词或短语。 1) — Shall we meet at eight? —Let s make it a quarter earlier, A. ten minutes C. half an hour B. fifteen minutes D. an hour

2) He’s going to London by air. A. by plane train 分析 此题考查学生对英语词汇的理解。a quarter?一刻? B. by ship C. by car D. by

就是十五分钟 fifteen minutes。 by air 就是乘飞机 by plane, 所

以两题答案为 B 和 A。 【例 4】______ I open the window? It s so warm here. A. Must 分析 B. Will C. Shall D. Would

此题考查学生对助动词、情态动词的理解。will, shall,

would 都有征求对方意见之意,语气都很委婉、客气,但它们接的人 称代词不同。will, would 常接第二人称 you, shall 接第一人称 I 和 we。故此题答案选 C。 【例 5】He doesn’t know _____ English because he has studied it for only ______ weeks. A. much, a few a few, a little 分析 此题考查学生对 little/ a little, few / a few 的理解。a B. little, few C. few, a little D.

little/ little 修饰不可数名词,a few/ few 修饰可数名词。而 a little, a few 表示 ?有点, 少数几个? , 在句中有肯定含义; little/ few 表示?少数?, ?几乎没有?在句中有否定含义。此题中 English 是不可数名词,weeks 是可数名词,所以答案为 A。 【例 6】改写句子。 We have a class meeting once a week.

_______ _______ do you have a class meeting? 分析 此题考查学生对疑问词的正确理解和运用。once a week?一

周一次?, 表示动作的频率次数,而 how often 正是针对动作的频率、 次数提问的疑问词,故该两空格填 How often。 【例 7】Peter collected some old coins two years ago. (改为 否定句) Peter ______ collect ______ old coins two years ago. 分析 此题考查学生对一般过去时句型的转换。一般过去时的句子

在改一般疑问句和否定句时要借助动词 did,而且句中的 some 在否 定句中要改为 any,所以两空应填出 didn’t, any。 【例 8】Eating more vegetables will keep you ______ . A. health 分析 B. fat C. weak D. healthy

此题考查学生对语句的理解及 keep 一词的用法。 ?多吃青菜?

不会使人 ?胖? 或 ?体弱? , 故 B、 C 两答案不能填。 而 keep 是 ?使…… 处于某种状态?。keep sth. +形容词。A 答案 health 是名词,不能 选,所以只有 healthy (形容词、健康的)才行。 【例 9】We do eye exercises every day. (改为一般疑问句)

______ you ______ eye exercises every day? 分析 此题考查学生 do 作实义动词、助动词的用法。句中 do eye

exercises 中的 do 是实义动词?做?之意。将此句改为一般疑问句 要借助助动词 do,而实义动词 do 也不能少,所以两格应填 Do, do。 【例 10】Bruce, Look at your dirty shoes. You d better ______ them right now. A. washed 分析 B. washing C. wash D. to wash

此题考查学生对 You’d better 习惯用语中的用法。You’d

better 意思是?你最好……?后面接动词原形。故此题答案选 C。 【例 11】(广州市,2003)Now the air in our hometown is done. A. much better better 思路分析 B.more worse C.more than it was before。Something must be

D。much worse 此题考查形容词比较级的用法, 由 more 不能修饰比较级

可以排除 B、C,由"Something must be done"(必须采取措施)知, 情况不好,故选 D。 解后反思 能修饰比较级的常见词有: much, a little, a bit, even,

still,any 等。 【例 12】(南宁市,2003)Do you think tomorrow? A.is there be 思路分析 B.there s going to be C.will there an American film

D. there s going to have 此题考查 there be 句型的用法及宾语从句的语序。 故 A、

C 可以排除。而 there be 句型的将来时结构应是 there will be 或 there is(are) going to be...所以本题正确答案为 B。 解后反思 【例 13】— 在 there be 句型中不能出现 have 的各种形式。 is it from our school to Lupu Bridge? Shall we go and visit it? C How far D. How

——About half an hour s bus ride。 A. How long much 思路分析 B.How often

本题考查疑问词的用法。how long 指时间长短,如 two

days;how often 问频率,如 three times a day;how much 问(不 可数)多少;而 how far 问距离,而本题 half an hour’s bus ride 指的是距离,故选 C。 【例 14】(桂林市,2003)Could you tell me if there is a flight

to the capital A. in 思路分析 B. on

——March,25th? C. at D. of

此题考查介词与时间搭配的用法。 in 不与具体日期连用,

但它:可以与时间段、季节、年连用;at 与时间点连用,of 不与时 间连用,而 on 与具体日期 连用,故选 B 解后反思 on 与时间的连用,有如下几种情况:

1)on 月+日/on+日期 2)on+星期/on 星期+morning/afternoon/evening 3)On a+修饰词+morning/afternoon/evening/day 4)on the morning/afternoon/evening of 月、日。 【例 15】(桂林市,2003) last term? A. Did,study studied 思路分析 此题考查一般过去时的一般疑问句的用法。 由 last term he at this school

——Yes,I think so, B。Does,study C. Was,study D. Did,

知 B 可以排除,而 study 是行为动词,其疑问句要借助助动词 did 且

助动词后的谓语动词要用动词原形,故选 A。 【例 16】He has never visited the Great Hall of the People, A.hasn’t he t he 思路分析 此题考查反意疑问句,由前后时态要一致的原则,选项 ? B。has he C.does he D.doesn’

D、C 可排除,又 never 意为?从不’’,故选 B。 解后反思 弄清反意疑问句的特点是解题关键。

五.强化训练及答案(Book II Units 1-14) I.词汇 A)根据句意或汉语提示完成句子。 1._____is the second month of a year. 2. Her father work in a ______ . (医院) 3. Do you ______ his telephone number? (记得) 4. The twins sit in the _______ row.(前面的). 5. There are sixty _______ in an hour. B)用括号中所给词语的适当形式填空。

6. The students ran out of the classroom ______. (quick) 7. December is the _______ month of a year.(twelve) 8. Are you good at _______basketball? (play) 9. They all go to school on_____.(foot) 10. The farmers are busy _______ on the farm.(work) C)根据划线部分的意思,选出与其意思相同或相近的选项。 11. She is the student called Mary. A. with a name with name 12. This sweater looks nice. I want to take it. A. sell B. borrow C. use D. buy B. with the name C. has the name D.

13. They’d like to stay here for a few days. A. a little B. many C. some D. a lot of

14. What’s wrong with your TV set. A. the matter B. trouble C. worst D. the bad thing

15. Long long ago, there lived a poor old man in the village.

A. had

B. took

C. stood

D. was

II.单项选择 16. Does your sister enjoy______ the music? A. listening listen to 17. Reading _____ the sun is bad ____ eyes. A. under, to for 18. Please give me_____. A. two piece of red paper. C. two pieces of red paper B. two piece of red papers D. two piece of red papers B. under, for C. in, to D. in, B. to listen C. listening to D. to

19. There’s ___ tea in the cup, is there? A. a few B. a little C. few D. little

20. Why not_____ outside the zoo? A .meet B. to meet C. meeting D. met

21. Mr. Johnson _____ Tokyo yesterday morning.

A. get

B. arrived

C. reached

D. reached in

22. Do you know the way _____ the post office? A. of B. to C. for D. with

23. She ____ a new watch. A. needs to buy buying D. need to buy B. needs buying C. need

24. —Don’t they come by bike? —_____. A. Yes, they don’t are. B. No, they do C. Yes, they

D. No, they don’t.

25.______ delicious food they are! A. How a B. What a C. How D. What

26. Chongqing is bigger than ____ in China. A. all the cities city D. any city B. any cities C. any other

27. Her brother is _____ than she. A. more stronger strong B. much stronger C. much

D. very stronger

28. She’s coming back ____ two day. A. after B. in C. later D. behind — ______.

29. —When did you come to Linfen? A. For two weeks. C. Two weeks later.

B. In two weeks. D. Two weeks ago.

30. ______ are you going to the zoo, by bike or by bus? A. How III.补全对话 选择正确的答案补全对话 A: Excuse me, sir. B: Yes? ___31____ A: ___32___ me the way to the railway station? B: Well, go down to the end of this street and then turn left. ___33___ A: Is it far from here? B: I think so. B. Why C. What D. Which way

A: Can I take a bus? B: Yes, ___34___ A: Oh, yes. Thanks a lot. B: ___35___ 31. A. What do you want to do? C. What can I do for you? 32. A. Can you call Can you tell 33. A. The railway station is new. is on you right. C. The railway station is far. station is beautiful. 34. A. there’s a bus stop over there. B. there’s a policeman over there. C. there’re many people over there. D. there’s a railway station over there. D. The railway B. The railway station B. Let me help you. D. What can you do for me? C. Do you help D.

B. Can you say

35. A. All right. all.

B. Fine, thank you.

C. That’s

D. You’re welcome.

IV.句型转换,每空一词。 A)完成句子,使上下两句意思一致。 36. She went home on foot yesterday. She _______ ______ yesterday. 37. I like the busy life. I like to _______ ______. 38. What is your favourite sport? ________ _____ is your favourite? 39. She often helps me with English. She often helps me _____ ____ English. 40. There was no rain last week. It ______ _____ last week. B)按要求进行句式转换。 41. She had some bread this morning. (一般疑问句)

Did she_____ _____ bread this morning? 42. He put the eggs in the basket. (对划线部分提问) ______ _____ he put the eggs? 43. Her sister is a careful girl. (改为感叹句) ______ ______ her sister is! 44. Is that a photo or a knife? (变为复数形式) Are those ____ or ______? 45. He writes a letter to his parents every month. (改为现 在进行时) He ______ ______ a letter to his parents now. V.完成下列句子,每空一词。 46. 我刚做完作业。 I ______ _______ my homework just now. 47. 做眼保健操对眼睛有益。 ______ eye _____ is good for eyes. 48. 这个筐比那个筐重得多。

This basket is _______ _______ than that one. 49. 昨天晚上你没看电视吗? _______ you _________TV last night? 50. 我想你吃得太多了。 I think you are eating_______ ______. VI.完形填空。 通读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 51-60 各题后 A、B、C、D 四个 选项中选出一个最佳答案。 Small cars may take the place of (代替)big cars in the future (将来).There is 51 for only two people in such a car. If everyone __52_ such a car, there will be less pollution(污染)_53__ the air. There will also be more space for 54 cars in cities, and the streets will be less crowded (拥挤).The little cars will cost_ 55_ less. Driving will be _56_, too, as those little cars can go only 65 kilometres an hour .If big cars are still used along with the small _57 , two kinds of roads will be _58 in the future. Some roads will be used _59 the big , fast cars, and _60 roads will be needed for the slower, smaller ones.

51. A. seat 52. A. pulls 53. A. at 54. A. park 55. A. much

B. place B. rides B. in B. parking B. many

C. a room C. drives C. for C. stop C. more C. safer C. seat C. needing C. in C. other

D. space D. pushes D. on D. stopping D. lots of D. worse D. seats D. needed D.as D. the other

56. A. dangerous B. safe 57. A. one 58. A. nees 59. A. for 60. A. another B. ones B. needs B. by B. others

Ⅶ.阅读理解(10%) 根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。 Women’s fashions (时装)change more quickly than men’s .In the early 1990’s, all women wore their skirts down to the ankle (脚踝).Today, some skirts are even longer than before, but some are very short .Women’s shoes have also gone through all sorts of changes in the last ninety –five years .For example, boots

(靴)for women were very common at the beginning of the century .Then for years, they were not thought fashionable.Today, they’re back again in all colours, lengths (长度)and materials (材料). In fact, today’s women can wear all kinds of clothes on almost any occasion (场合). While all of these changes were taking place in women’s fashions, men’ s clothing remained (保持)almost the same as it was a few years ago. And, in fact, most men are still dressed in the kinds of they used to wear. 61. Today women like to wear _____skirts. A. long and short 62. Boots are thought _____now. A. uncommon C. fit for (适合) girls B. fashionable D. unfashionable B. short C. neither long nor short D. both long

63. When today’s women attend (出席) the party, they wear_______. A. any kinds of clothes they like B. long skirts and short boots

C. red long boots

D. skirts down to the ankle

64. Men’s fashions _______. A. change as women’s fashions do B. have also changed C. are changing fast these years 65. The passage tried to tell us _____. A. women’s shoes are back again in all colours, lengths, etc B. today women are dressed in the kinds of clothes they used to wear C. women’s fashions for clothes, shoes and so on always change D. boots for women have been thought fashionable since 1900 D. remain unchanged

强化训练答案: I. 1. February minutes foot 2. hospital 3. remember 8. playing 4. front 9. 5.

6. quickly 10. working

7. twelfth

11—15 B D C A D 21—25 C B A D D 26—30 C B B D

II. 16—20 C D C D A A

III. 31—35 C D B AD IV. 36. walked home 37. keep/ be busy to learn did writing V. 46. finished doing heavier 47. Doing, exercises 50. too much 48. much 40. didn’t rain 38. What sport 42. Where 45. is 39.

41. have any 44. photos, knives

43. How careful

49. Didn’t, watch

VI. 51—55 D C B B A VII. 61—65 D B A D C

56—60 C B D A D

JUNIOR BOOK II( 下)
一.知识网络

【重点内容概要】

1.应答与邀请

2.简单句的五种基本句型

3.情态动词 can,may,must 的用法

4.When,before,after 等连词引导的时间状语从句和 if 引导的条件状语从句

5.Have to 的用法

6.系动词

7.不定式作宾语的用法

8.不定代词的用法

9.表示容量的词和食品名称连用,以说明食品的数量

10.交际项目:1)问路和指路 2)禁止和警告 3)看病

11.理解并运用并列句

12.形容词和副词的比较级,以及它们之间等级的转换

13.冠词的用法

14.过去进行时用法

15.表示祝贺、祝愿、劝告和建议的交际用语,以及表示“确信”的基本句型

常考题型:选择题、句型转换及用所给词的适当形式填空

【句型、词组精讲】

1. Could you ask him to call me, please?

请你让他给我回电话好吗?

ask sb. to do sth. 请某人做某事,ask sb. not to do sth.请某人不要做某事。不定 式在句中作宾语补足语。适用于该句型的动词还有 want, tell, like, would like, teach 等。如:The teacher asked Sam not to be late. 老师叫萨姆不要迟到。Liu Ying told me to wait for her at home. 刘英让我在家里等她。Mr. Zhang often teaches his Japanese friends to cook Chinese food. 张先生常常教他的日本朋友做中国菜。

2. But there were not enough people to pick them. 但是他们没有足够多的人来摘苹果。

enough 在此是形容词,意为“足够的”,它修饰名词时,通常放在名词之前,有时放在

名词之后。

enough 作副词修饰形容词和副词时,放在它们的后面。如:

The boy is old enough to go to school. 这个男孩到了上学的年龄了。

He didn’t run fast enough to catch the bus. 他跑的不够快,没有赶上公共汽车。

3. They needed to climb up the trees with ladders. 他们需要梯子来爬上树。

need 在本句中为实义动词,其后可接不定式或名词。如:

He needs to see a doctor. 他需要去看医生。

We need some more water. Could you get some for us? 我们还需要些水。你能为我 们弄些吗?

climb up 意为“爬上”,up 在此为介词。如:

Don’t climb up the hill. 不要爬山。

with 是“用,借助”的含义。如:

We see with our eyes and hear with our ears. 我们用眼睛看,用耳朵听。

4. It’s best to wear cool clothes. 最好穿凉快的衣服。

It’s best to do sth. 意为“最好去做某事”。这里的 it 为形式主语,真正的主语为 to do sth. 如:

It’s best to get there before 8 o’clock. 最好八点钟以前赶到。

5. The farmers are all busy getting ready for the next year. 农民们正忙着为下一 年做准备。

be busy doing sth. “忙于做某事”。如:The farmers are busy picking apples. (=The farmers are busy with the apple harvest.)

get ready for“为??做准备”,类似的短语还有:get ready to do“准备做??”; get sth. ready“把某事准备好”; ?be ready “??准备好了”。如:I m getting ready for the new lesson. 我正在为新课做准备。 Get your books ready. 准备好你们的书。 Supper is ready. 晚饭准备好了。

6. “I’m here!” said Jim. “And so is Polly!” “我在这!”吉姆说。“波利也来 了!”

“so + be (have,助动词)+主语”结构为倒装语序,表示前句所述的情况也适合于另一 个人或事。如:

He can speak English, so can I. 他会讲英语,我也会。

—I watched the TV programme last night. 昨天晚上我看了那个电视节目。

—So did I. 我也看了。

注意此结构中,前后两后的主语是两个人或物,后一句的时态必须和前一句保持一致,但人 称和数则应与后句主语保持一致。

比较:so+主语+be 动词(助动词、情态动词),此结构常常就前面提到的事实予以确认或 赞同,意为“的确如此”、“是呀”等。如:

—It’s your turn. 轮到你了。

—So it is. 是的,轮到我了。

7. I’m going to get it back. 我准备把它取回来。

get ?back?为“动词+副词”类短语。代词作宾语时要放在动词与副词中间。类似的短

语还有:pick up, ring up, find out, turn on (off, up, down)等。如:

The radio is too noisy, please turn it down. 收音机太吵闹,请把它(声音)调低 些。

If you don’t know the meaning of the word, please look it up in a dictionary. 如果你不知道这个单词的含义,请在辞典里查一下。

8. It takes sb. some time to do sth.

这是一个重要句型,意思是“某人花费一些时间做某事”,可根据需要用不同的时态。 如:

It took me half an hour to go to school by bike yesterday. 有时这个句型可以和 spend 句型转换。如上面这一句也可以说:I spent half an hour (in) going to school by bike yesterday.

9. It is nice +V-ing.

这个句型也可以说成 It is nice to do. 意思是“做??真好”。 如: It was nice talking to you. (和你谈话真高兴。)It’s nice of you to ask me to your party. (谢谢你 请我参加你的晚会).

10. There’s something wrong with?.

这个句型表示“??出了毛病了”。就等于 Something is wrong with?. 句型。如将 something 换为 nothing, 则表示“没出什么事儿”。如:There’s something wrong with my nose. There’s nothing wrong with her.

11. There he is!

这是个倒装句型,把所强调部分 there 提到了句首。如果主语是代词则用 There (Here) + 代词+谓语;如果主语是名词,则用 There (Here) +谓语+名词。如:Here comes Li Lei.

(李雷来了)。There goes the bell. (铃声响了。)Here it is. (它在这儿。)

12. until

与 till 同义,既可用作介词又可用作连词。它常用于以下两种句型:

(1) 用于肯定句时, 意思是“直到??为止”, 句子谓语一般用延续性动词 (如 stay, live, work, study 等),表示动作一直延续到 until 所表示的时间为止。如:

He listened to the radio until his father came back. 他听收音机,直到他父亲回 来为止。

He will be here until Sunday. 他将在这儿一直呆到星期天。

(2)用于否定句时,意思是“在??以前(before)”,“直到??才”,句子谓语一般 是短暂动词(如 come, die, leave 等),它所表示的动作直到 until 所表示的时间才发生。 如:

I didn’t go to bed until eleven o’clock last night. 昨晚我直到十一点才睡觉。

The students will not begin the meeting until their teacher comes. 学生们等老 师到了才开会。

until 与 till 可换用,不过,口语中常用 till,正式文体中常用 until。

13. interest, interested, interesting.

这三个词都与“兴趣”有关。interest 作动词时,要求“人”作宾语。如:This new invention will interest you. 这项新发明会引起你的兴趣。它作名词时,所构成的词组 是 place of interest(名胜)。interested 是过去分词表示人的感觉,现在常用作形容词, 构成的句式是“be (become) interested in”来表示主语“对??感兴趣”之意,要求主 语是“人”。如:I am interested in English. interesting 是现在分词,表示事物具有 能引起人们的某种感觉的能力。其意思是“有趣味的”,常用作形容词,可作定语和表语。

其主语通常是事或物。如:interesting games can always make children happy.(有趣 味的游戏总能使孩子们快乐。)The story is interesting.

14. instead, instead of

instead 是副词,含“代替;更换”之意,可理解为 instead of 的省略,避免不必要 的重复, 省略的部分是介词 of 及其宾语, 常放在句末。 如: Mr. Black is ill, so Miss Green is talking his class instead (of him). instead of 是个复合介词,它后面可接名词、 代词、V-ing 形式等。如:I’ll go to bed instead of watching TV. 我将睡觉,而不看 电视。

【口语回顾】

1. Could I speak to?,please?

电话术语, 意为“我可以和??通话吗?找??接电话好吗?”句中 Could 还可替换为 Can 或 May。如:

—Hello, could (can/ may) I speak to Mr. Brown, please? 你好,请布朗先生接电 话好吗?

—Yes, just a minute, please. 当然,请稍等一下。

2. I’m afraid.

委婉用语。用于礼貌地拒绝某人或对其发生或将要发生的不幸表示惋惜。意为“抱歉, 对不起,恐怕”。如:

I can’t come to supper, I’m afraid. 恐怕我不能去吃晚饭了。

—Can you go with us now? 你现在能同我们一起去吗?

—I’m afraid not. 对不起,我不能。

—Are we late? 我们晚了吗?

—I’m afraid so. 恐怕是的。

3. It’s a pleasure.

用于回答感谢之类的话的客套用语。 意为“能帮上你的忙我很高兴; 不客气; 不用谢。 ” 它还可表达为 It’s my pleasure/ My pleasure / A pleasure. 如:

—Thank you very much for passing the message on to him! 非常感谢你把口信传给了 他!

—It’s a pleasure! 请别客气!

—Thanks for helping me yesterday! 多谢你昨天帮助我!

—My pleasure! Nice to see you again. 不用谢!很高兴又见到你!

4. Can I take a message for you?

询问对方是否愿意留下口信可用此句式。意为“我给你带个口信,好吗?”类似的表达 还有:May I take a message for you? / Would you like to leave a message?

5. by the way.

常用作插入语。用于提出一个新的话题或提起一件已经忘记的事,意为“顺便说一下, 顺便问一下,且说,另外”等。如:

—By the way, there was a telephone call for you. 对啦,有你一个电话。

6. What’s the weather like??

此句式用于询问某地或某时天气如何, 意为: “??的天气如何?”。 还可表达为 How is (the) weather??如:

—What’s the weather like in Beijing now? 现在北京天气如何?

—It’s nice and cool. 很凉 爽。

7. I think so.

有保留地同意或赞同别人的意见或看法时,可用此语。如:

—Can you mend the bike? 你能修理这辆自行车吗?

—Yes, I think so. 我想可以。

直截了当地表达不同意见,可用 I don’t think so 或 I think not。如:

—Can you mend a clock?

—Sorry, I don’t think so.

8. Would you like to??

发出邀请的常见句式,带有商量、询问、试探性的口气,意为“你愿意??吗?”应答 时常用:Yes, I’d love (like) to. 是的,我很乐意。I’d love to, but ??我很愿意, 不过??。如:

—Would you like to come for dinner tonight?

—Thank you, I’d love to.

—Would you like to come to the party tonight?

—I’d love to, but I’m too busy.

9. What can I do for you?

商店售货员、报务员等招呼顾客的礼貌用语,也用于表示主动关心和愿意帮助别人用语。不 同场合可以有不同的译法。类似的表达还有:Can (May) I help you? / Is there anything I can do for you? 在向顾客打招呼时,后面还可以加“sir”或“madam”。对它的应答可 以说:Yes, please/ Yes, I’d like to?/ Yes, I’m looking for?/ Yes, I want to?。 如:

—What can I do for you?

—I want to buy a sweater for my son.

—Can I help you?

—I’d like a new skirt. Please show me the red one.

10. Help oneself (to?).

这是招待客人时常用的交际用语。意思是“请随便(吃??)”。如:Xiao Wang, help yourself to some bananas.(小王,请随便吃香蕉吧。)Children, help yourselves to some apples.(孩子们,请随便吃些苹果吧。)

11. 问路与指路

(1) 问路:

a. Where’s the (nearest)?,please?

b. Is there a?near there?

c. Which is the way to?, please?

d. How can I get to??

e. Do you tell me the way to??

f. Can you tell me the way to??

g. Can you tell me how to get to??

h. I want to go to?. Do you know the way?

i. I’m looking for?. Where is it, do you know?

(2) 指路:可根据具体情况,将下列有关句子组织起来。

a. It’s over there.

b. It’s behind (next to, in front of, near, outside) the?

c. Walk along the road (street).

d. Take the first (second 等) turning on the left. (right).

e. It’s about?metres along on the right (left).

f. Walk on and turn right. (left).

g. Turn right (left) at the traffic lights. You’ll find the?on your right (left).

h. Go on until you reach the end of the road. You will see the?in front of you.

i. Go down this road until you reach the first traffic lights. Turn left at the end of the road you’ll see the?. You can’t miss it.

另外,在“问路”时,如对方不知道,问路人仍要向他表示谢意。如:

—Excuse me. Is there a post office near here?

—Sorry. I don’t know. You’d better ask a policeman.

—Thank you all the same.

【语法精讲】

否定疑问句

否定疑问句的结构一般为:助动词(或情态动词、连系动词)与 not 的缩写形式+主语+其它 成分?也可写成:

助动词(或情态动词、连系动词)+主语+ not + 其它成分?这种问句表达的含义主要有以下 几种。

一、表示惊讶或提出反问。译为:“难道不??吗?”说话人指望对方作出肯定回答,或深 信自己所说的话,以致不需要对方作出答复。如:

Don t you believe me? (Do you not believe me?)你不相信我?

Don t you hear of it? (Do you not hear of it?)难道你没听说过它?

二、表示试探性的建议或有礼貌的邀请。如:

Don t you think it s too noisy? Please turn it down.你不觉得它太吵闹了吗?请把声 音调低些。

Won t you have a cup of tea? 请喝杯茶如何?

三、表示提问人的怀疑。如:

Isn t he going? (Is he not going) 他不去了吗?

四、表示赞叹(相当于一个感叹句,朗读时一般用降调。)如:

Isn’t it a nice day? (Is it not a nice day?)这天气多么好啊!

Aren t the babies lovely? (Are the babies not lovely?)这些婴儿真可爱啊!

特殊形式的反意疑问句

一、当陈述部分为Iam?结构时,附加问句常用 aren t. 如:

I am very busy , aren t I ?

二、当陈述句部分是 there be 句型时,附加部分需用?there。如:

There isn t any bread on the plates, is there?

三、陈述句谓语动词为 have 时,有以下三种情况:

1.当 have 作“有”解时,用 have 或 do 的适当形式均可。

He has a daughter, hasn t/doesn t he?

2.当 have 作“经历、遭受、得到、吃、喝”等解时,附加问句用 do 的适当形式。如:

They had noodles for lunch, didn t they?

3.当陈述句谓语动词含有 have to, has to, had to 时,附加问句用 do 的适当形式。如:

We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don t we?

Alice has to finish her work now, doesn t she?

四、当陈述部分有:few/little/never/hardly/nothing 等表示否定意义的词时,附加问句 通常用肯定形式。如:

He hardly hurt himself in the accident, did he?

The Canadian girl knows little Russian, does she?

Kate is never later for class, is she?

注:如果陈述部分带有否定意义的前、后缀如:un-/in-/im-/dis-/-less 等构成的派生词, 仍把该句看作肯定句,附加问句用否定形式。如:

The girl is unhappy, isn t she?

五、当陈述部分的主语是 anybody, anyone, somebody, someone, everybody, everyone, no one, none, neither 等词时,附加问句的主语一般用 they, 有时也可用 he。 如:

Everyone knows the answers, don t they? /doesn t he?

六、当陈述句中主语是 this, that, everything, anything, something, nothing 等词时, 附加问句的主语是 it。如:

Something is wrong, isn t it?

Nothing can stop us now, can it?

七、当陈述部分含有 had better 时,附加问句的助动词用 had;陈述部分含有 would like 时,附加问句的助动词用 would。如:

You d better have a rest, hadn t you?

He d like to go, wouldn t he?

八、当陈述部分含有情态动词 must 时,附加问句部分要视 must 所表示的意义来定,有四种 情况:

1.当 must 表示推测时,附加问句不用 must,而是用 must 后面相呼应的助动词形式。如:

You must be very hungry, aren t you?

2.当 must 表示“应该“时,附加问句用 mustn t。如:

We must work hard at Chinese, mustn t we?

3.当 must 表示“必须”时,附加问句用 needn t。如:

You must see the doctor, needn t you?

4.当 must 表示“禁止”时,附加问句用 must。如:

You mustn t do that again, must you?

九、祈使句的附加问句主要有以下四种情况:

1.以行为动词开头的祈使句,附加问句用 will you 或 won t you,有时也用 would you, can you 等。如

Give me a hand, will you?

2.否定的祈使句,附加问句一般用 will you。如:

Don t play with the cat, will you?

3.以 Let s 开头的祈使句,附加问句用 shall we。如:Let s have a meeting, shall we?

4.以 Let us 或 Let me 开头的祈使句,附加句用 will you。如:

Let us help you, will you?

Let me do it for you, will you? (或 may I?)

十、当陈述部分的主句是 I think, I guess, I believe 等结构时,附加问句的主谓语一般 要与陈述部分宾语从句中的主谓语保持一致,并且要注意否定的转移。如:

I don t think he can finish the work, can he?

I guess she taught herself Japanese, didn t she?

十一、陈述部分是省略形式的感叹句,附加问句的主语与感叹句的主语保持一致。如:

What fine weather, isn t it?

What a clever boy, isn t he?

How cool the water is, isn t it?

十二、陈述部分主语是不定式、动名词或从句时,附加问句部分的主语用 it。如:

To learn English well is very important, isn t it?

Doing morning exercises is good for your health, isn t it?

感叹句

1.感叹句由 what 或 how 引导,句末常用感叹号,用来表示喜、怒、哀、乐等强烈情感。

2.What 引导感叹句时,在句中作定语修饰句中的名词,名词前常有形容词修饰。其结构为:

(1)What +a(an) +形容词+单数名词+主语+谓语!

(2)What +形容词+复数名词/不可数名词+主语+谓语!如:

What a nice picture it is! 多么好的一幅画啊!

What beautiful flowers they are! 多么漂亮的花啊!

What bad weather it is! 多么糟糕的天气啊!

3.How 引导感叹句,在句中作状语修饰形容词、副词。其结构为:

(1)How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语!

(2)How+形容词+ a(an)+单数可数名词+主语+谓语!如:

How delicious they are! 它们多么好吃啊!

How well she is singing! 她唱得多么好啊!

How nice a day it is! 多么好的天气啊!

4.感叹句中主语和谓语总是放在句末,且为陈述句语序,即主语在前,谓语在后,放在前 面的是强调的部分。在口语中,只要能将句意表达清楚明白,可将句中的主语、谓语省略, 甚至 How 后面的强调部分也可省略。如:

What a happy baby (it is)! 多么快乐的婴儿啊!

How cold (it is)! 多冷的天气啊!

How (fast) time flies! 时间过得真快啊!

5.陈述句变感叹句时可按下列步骤进行:

(1) 首先将陈述句在谓语后面断开。 如: The tree is/ very tall. Lily is/ a good girl.

(2)在后一部分前加 how 或 what。判断的依据是:如果后一部分的中心词是形容词或副 词则加 how,如果后一部分的中心词是名词要加 what。然后将前后两部分位置进行调换,注 意大小写及标点符号的调整。如:How tall the tree is! girl Lily is! What a good

注意:如果陈述句中的形容词或副词前有 very, quite, so, too 等程度副词修饰,变成感 叹句后一定要去掉。

简单句 并列句 复合句分解

1. 简单句 由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)构成的句子叫做简单句。

I go to school at 7:00 every day.(一个主语和一个谓语)

Wang Nan and Wang Fan sing and dance.(二个主语和二个谓语)

在初中阶段,我们应该掌握简单句的五种基本结构:

(1)主语+谓语(S+V)

We study hard for the people.

在这种结构中,谓语动词是不及物动词(vi.),其后不跟宾语。

(2)主语+谓语+宾语(S+V+O)

She speaks English.

They play basketball after class.

(3)主语+连系动词+表语(S+V+P)

Wang Hongji is a good student.

连系动词除 be 外,还有 look(看上去),get(逐渐变得),turn(变成),feel(感觉), become(变成)等等。

(4)主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语(S+V+In O+DO)

She bought me a pen yesterday.

He has taught us English for 3 years.

这种结构可转化为“主语+谓语+直接宾语+for (或 to) +间接宾语”。如:She bought a pen for me yesterday.

(5)主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语(S+V+O+OC)

We can keep it warm. They call me Lao Wang.

He asked me to help him with his English.

注意:在此结构中,宾语与宾语补足语之间的关系是逻辑上的“主谓”关系。

另外,有些简单句结构比较特殊,包含一个字 或一个成份。如:Good morning! Hello! Thanks! Happy New Year.等。

2.并列句 由并列连词(and, but, so, or 等)把两个(或两个以上)简单句连在一起而 构成的句子叫并列句。

He helps me and I help him.

We bought granny a present, but she didn t like it.

This is our first lesson, so I don t know all your names.

3.复合句 由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句所构成的句子称复合句。所谓“从句”就是 充当一个句子成份的“主谓结构”。 这个“主谓结构”在主句中作什么成份, 就叫什么从句。 比如,这个“结构”在主句中做状语,我们就把它叫做状语从句。这个“结构”在主句中做 宾语,我们就把它叫做宾语从句,等等。从句须有一个引导词来引导。如:

You must see the doctor if you re ill.

主句

从句

此句中含有 if(如果)引导的从句,表示条件,因为它在主句中作状语,所以,我们就把 它叫做“条件状语从句”。在初中阶段,我们应该掌握状语从句和宾语从句。下面对状语从 句作一归纳总结。

(1) 时间状语从句: 由表示时间的连词引导: when (当??时), while (当??时候, 与??

同时),before(在??之前),after(在??之后),until(直到??为止),since (自从??以来),as soon as(一??就??)等。如:

When she reached home, she had a short rest.

(2)条件状语从句:由连词 if 引导。如:

If you eat old food, you may be ill.

需要说明的是,上述两种从句,如果主句是一般将来时(或含有将来的意思),那么,这两 种从句中的谓语动词应用一般现在时。如:不能说 If I will be free tomorrow, I will go to the cinema. 而应说 If I am free tomorrow, I will go to the cinema.

(3)原因状语从句:由 because 等词引导。如:

The children went to the farm, because the farmers needed some help.

注意:不能因为汉语中有“因为??,所以??”这样的关联词而译成英语 “Because?,so?”,两者只用其中之一便可。如:不能说 Because he is ill, so he can t come to school.而应说 Because he is ill, he can t come to school.或 He is ill, so he can t come to school.

(4)比较状语从句:由连词 than, as?as?等引导。如:

Jim is older than I (am).

He runs as fast as Li Ping (does).

注意:由 than, as?as?引导的状语从句中的谓语动词常常省略

(5)结果状语从句:由 so?that?(如此??以致??)引导。如:

He became so angry that he couldn t speak.

另外,在 so?that?引导的复合句中,如果 that 后的从句为否定句或含有否定意义,则常

用“too?to?(太??而不能??)”改写为简单句。如上一句可改写为 He became too angry to speak.

情态动词

特点

(1)本身有一定的词义。

(2)必须与后面动词原形一起构成谓语。

(3)无人称和数的变化。

(4)各种句式变化与含 be 动词句式变化相同。

1. can

(1)表示能力。如:

He can do it by himself.

Two eyes can see more than one.(谚语)

(2)表示允许。如:

Can I come in?

You can go now.

在这种情况下,它与 may 意思接近,可换用,但问句中用 may 比用 can 语气委婉。

(3)与 be able to 在表示能力上意思接近,可换用,但 be able to 有更多的时态,而 can 只有现在时和过去时。如:

No one can do it. (=No one is able to do it.)

Will you be able to come tonight? (不能说:Will you can come tonight?)

(4)其过去式 could 可用来比较委婉客气地提出问题或陈述看法。此时,could 和 can 没 时间上的差别。如:

Could (Can) you lend me your bike?

2. may

(1)请示许可。如:May I take this seat?

但在回答这种问句时,常避免用 may 这个词,而用其它方式。如:

肯定回答:Yes, please. Certainly.

否定回答:Please don t. No, you mustn t.

(2)谈论可能性。如:

He may know the answer.

She may not be there today.

3. must

(1)表示一种揣测(只有在肯定句中)。如:That must be Xiao Li.

(2)表示必要性。如:I must go now.

(3)与 have to 很接近,但 have to 强调客观需要,must 说明主观看法。比较:

I must tidy the room. (主观看法)

I have to tidy the room.(客观需要)

(4)在回答 must 的一般问句时,否定用 needn t。如:

-Must we do it?

-Yes, you must. (No, you needn t)

4. have to 必须,不得不

这个情态动词与上述3个不同,它有第三人称单数形式 has,并且各种句式的变化与含有行 为动词的句式变化相同。如:They have to go there.

否定结构为:

They don t have to go there.

He has to look after his little brother.

一般问句为:Does he have to look after his little brother?

二.考试热点

1.通过大量的有关邀请、应允、打电话谈论天气、季节、喜好的对话,学会交际用语,此 内容常见于中考的口语运用题。

2.掌握一般将来时 will 的用法,形容词与副词的用示及反意疑问句等,此内容常见于中考 的书面表达题中。

3.要求掌握情态动词(can, may, must, need)、反身代词、不定代词的用法,其考点常出 现在选择填空题中。

4. 理解并掌握由 when, before, after 引导的时间状语从句; if 引导的条件状语从句; and, but 连接的并列句。其考点常出现在选择题或句型转换题中。

三.重难点突破

1.关于问路、指路和看病的常用句式是非常重要的交际用语,只要熟读,是容易掌握的。

2.情态动词事主动词,但它无人称代词和数的变化。在使用时,首先要依据语境和所表示 的语气来区分。 其次注意在疑问句中的否定回答。 如: May I??No, you mustn’t. Must I?? No,you needn’t.

3.when,after,before,if 这四个词的用法如下:当它们连接时间(或条件)状语从句 时,若主句为祈使句一般现在时或一般讲来时时,从句要用一般现在时表示讲来时。

4.until 用法复杂,它分为两种情况使用:当它引导的复合句的主句谓语动词为终止性动 词时,他要用否定形式,即 not?until 作“直到??才”解。它引导的从句时态要求与上 述 when 的用法基本相同。

5.must 与 have to do 用法区别:

must 表示说话者的主观愿望,作“必须”解,它本身可以构成疑问句和否定句。而 have to 指客观要求,作“不得不”解。它有时态变化,不能直接构成疑问和否定。

6.stop doing 表示“停止做?,而 stop to do 则表示“停下来(去)做(另外一件事)。”

7.neither...nor,either?or,both?and

neither...nor “既不??也不” ,连接主语时,谓语动词要与离谓语最近的主语保持 人称和数的一致,同时它要修饰对等成分,它的反义词是 both...and both...and " 既??又” 连接主语时, 谓语动词要用复数, 必须修饰对等成分。 either. . . or "或者...... 或者” ,“要么??要么”,连接主语时,谓语的数

由离它最近的主语决定,它也要修饰对等成分。另注意 both 用法,由以下例句可知其位置 关系

The two students are both from Japan.

The two students both come from Japan.

Both the students are Japanese.

Both of them are Japanese.

8.关于不定代词的用法。

1)some 或与 some 构成的合成词一般只用在肯定的陈述句中,但若表示询问,征求意见时, 可以用于疑问句中;any 或与 any 构成的合成词一般只翔于否定句或疑问句。

2)当形容词修饰不定代词时,应将形容词放在所修饰的不定代词之后。

9.关于 so + be(情态动词或助动词)+主语。

这是 so 引导的倒装句,这种句子是指前句所述情况也适合另一个(或另一些)人或物,以免 重复。 在使用这一结构时, 要注意谓语动词的时态要与上一句保持一致。 这种结构译为“?? 也是这样。”而 so+主语+谓语结构,意为“??确实如此。”用时要注意区分。

10.几种比较等级的转换

1) At? than B ---- B + not so (as)?as A ---- B+?less?than A

如:This book is more difficult than that one.

---- That book is not so difficult as this one.

---- That book is less difficult than this one.

2)主语+最高级+范围

---- 主语+比较级 than any other + 范围

如:.Jim is the shortest boy in my class.

Jim is shorter than any other boy in my class.

3) prefer A to B ---- like A better than B

11.see sb.do/doing 看见某人做/在做某事。接 do 表示动作的全过程,接 doing 表示 动作在进行中。类似用法的词还有 watch,hear。

12.find it + adj + to do 结构,表示感觉做某事怎么样。

13.or 当“否则”,“不然”用祈使句+ or + 陈述句(用 will 的将来时)

此句式可以改为:

If 引导否定条件句,陈述句。

另请注意这种结构:

祈使句+and(then)+陈述句。(用 will 的将来时) if 引导的肯定条件句,陈述句。

14.反身代词

1)反身代词的构成分两种:第一、二人称反身代词在形容词性物主代词后加上 self 或 selves,第三人称的反身代词在宾格代词后加上 self 或 selves。

2)反身代词的用法:一种是作宾语,由主语发出的动作又回到动作者本身。

如:I enjoyed myself at the party.另一种是作名词或代词的同位语,用来加强语气。 如: I can do it myself.

3)初中阶段由反身代词构成的常用词组有:enjoy oneself,help oneself to,learn by oneself,teach oneself,(all)by oneself,leave...by oneself,lose oneself in 等。 在使用反身代词时,应注意它在数、性别上与哪一个保持一致。试比较:“Help yourselves to some fish,Tom and Mike.”I can’t leave the girl by herself。

四. 典型例题

【例 1】The young man drives ______ than he did three months ago.

A. much carefully

B. much more careful

C. mach careful carefully

D. much more

分析 此题从两个方面考查学生: 一是多音节词的比较级; 二是形容词与副词如何 使用。句中有 than 提醒学生该用比较级,而句中 drives 是动词,修饰动词应该用副词。故 B、C 两答案不行。而多音节词的比较级在词前加上 more,再要加上 much 是修饰程度,“小 心得多了”,此题答案应为 D。

【例 2】1) China is one of ______in the world.

A. the oldest country

B. the oldest countries

C. much older country

D .much older countries

2) — How great Dalian Radio and TV centre looks!

—Yes. That s one of the greatest _________ in Dalian.

A. building

B. build

C. buildings

D. builds

分析 one of 表示“??的一个”是整体的一部分。整体部分要用复数形式,1) 题中 A、C 两答案不行。句中的“in the world”是表示最高级的范围,故 D 答案也不行, 所以 B 答案才对。2)题中 A、B 不行:D 答案的 builds 不是名词的复数形式,故答案为 C。

【例 3】Tom often has lunch at school, ______ ?

A. doesn t Tom

B. doesn t he

C. hasn’t he

D. hasn’t Tom

分析 此题考查反意疑问句的构成。反意疑问句构成:一、前为肯定陈述句,后为否定简略 问句;二、前为否定陈述句,后为肯定简略问句。此题前为肯定,所以后者要用否定形式并 且问句中的主语应改为人称代词(he),所以 A、D 不行。has lunch“吃中饭”中的 has 不是助动词,故要借助动词 does,所以正确答案为 B。这里要提醒的是如果反意疑问句陈述

部分有 no, nobody, never, few, little, hardly 等含有否定意思的词,后面的反问部分 就要用肯定形式。

【例 4】They arrived in Guangzhou _______ the morning of May 25.

A. at

B. in

C. on

D. during

分析 此题考查的是介词表示时间的用法。英语中“在早上、下午、晚上”的表示为 in the morning/ afternoon/ evening。但如果 morning, afternoon, evening 前或后有修饰语的 话,则表示某一特定(某天的)上午、下午、晚上,要用介词 on,故此题答案为 C。

【例 5】 There is_______ with my bike. I hurt myself.

A. anything wrong

B. something wrong

C. wrong anything

D. wrong something

分析 此题考查形容词修饰不定代词后置的问题。英语中 something, anything, nothing 如有形容词修饰,则放于不定代词之后。该句是肯定句,所以 A、B、C 中有 anything 不行, 那么 B、D 中只有 B 才是对的。

【例 6】 Even the top students in our class can t work out this problem, so it _____ be very difficult.

A. may

B. must

C. can

D. need

分析 此题考查学生对情态动词的理解。 情态动词后都接动词原形, 而且无人称和数的变化, 但各个情态动词有它自己的含义。can 表示能力“能、会”之意;may 表示允许、猜测“可 以,可能”之意;must 表示“一定,必须”;need 表示“需要”。此句中的上句表示连最 拔尖的学生也算不出这道题,那一定是题目非常难。所以从句子的理解答案应为 B。

【例 7】句型转换

The box was so heavy that she couldn t carry it.

(改为简单句)

The box was ______ heavy ______ her ______ carry.

分析 此题考查学生对句型及表达方法多样化的掌握。so?that(如此??以致), 可以和 too?to(太??而不能)互相转换,所以此三空应填 too,for,to。

【例 8】The little girl ______ go back home ______ she finished cleaning the classroom.

A. doesn t, until

B. doesn t, and

C. didn t, until

D. didn t, while

分析 此题考查学生对句子的理解。 小女孩是扫完了地才回家的。 应用 not?until(直到?? 才)句型。答案从 A 和 C 中去选择,因为句中的 finished 是过去时,所以其前面的否定形式 也要用过去时,那么此题答案应为 C。

【例 9】It was late. She washed her face ______ went to bed.

A. or

B. so

C. and

D. but

分析 此题陈述的是“她”前后两个动作,并不表示选择、因果、转折关系,故答案为 C。

【例 10】时态填空题

“Stop ______ (write), and listen to me, please,” said Mr. Brown.

分析 stop to do sth 与 stop doing sth 表示的意思是不同的。前者是“停下来 去做另一件事”,而后者是“停止正在做的事”。此题 Mr. Brown 要求听他说,所以应停止 写字,那么这里应填 writing 一词。

【例 11】同义句转换

She was very angry. She could say nothing. She was ______ angry to say ______.

分析 此题“她太生气而什么也说不出”, 表示结果可以用 too?to 来替换。 由于 too?to 本身含有否定含义,而 nothing=not anything。所以此两格应填 too, anything.

【例 12】 We won’t go to the Great wall if it _______ tomorrow.

A. rains

B. rain

C. will rain

D. raining

分析 此题考查 if 引导的条件状语从句的动词时态。if 引导的条件状语从句,如 果主句是一般将来时,从句用一般现在时,本题从句的主语是 it,为第三人称单数形式, 其动词要加 s,故答案为 A。

【例 13】His bag fell off bike.He stopped

it up.

A.pick

D.picks

C.picked

D. to pick

分析

此题是考查 stop 的用法。stop to do 表示“停下来去做另一件事”,而 stop doing

则表示“停止正在做的事”o 由题意知是停下来去捡,所以选 D。

解后反思

在解决一词多种用法时,应先弄懂各自含义,然后再考虑语境。

【例 14】 We won’t go to Huaxi Park if it

next Sunday.

A. will rain

B,rain

C. rainy

D. rains

分析

此题考查证引导的条件状语从句主从句时态关系。if 引导时间或条件状语从句若主

句为祈使句,或一般现在时,从句用一般现在时,所以 A 不符合,而 B 与 it 不符,故 D 为 正确答案。

【例 15】 一 Do you live by yourself,Mr. Wang?

Yes.I have two sons.But are now studying in America.

of them lives with me.They

A. neither

B.both

C. none

D.either

分析

此题考查这四个词的用法。both 用于“两者都”,作主语时谓语用复数,它要修饰

复数名词; neither 是 both 的反义词,它指“两者都不”,它修饰单数名词,作主语谓语 用单数。both of+复数名词(成代词),作主语谓语用复数;neither of+复数名词(或代词), 作主语谓语用单数. none 指“(三者或三者以上)一个都不”可用于人或物,它作主语时谓 语可用单数或复数,它的反义词是 all,all 指“三者或三者以上都”,它作主语时谓语用 复数。

either 指“两者之一”, 修饰单数名词, 作主语谓语用单数, 本题由 two sons 和 but 及 lives 知答案为 A。

解后反思

弄清所表达的数量范围并结合语境是正确选择的根本。

【例 16】Your sister works very hard,and

A. so you are you

B. so you do

C.so are you

D.so do

分析

由题意知,本题考查 so+谓+主语这一结构,该结构谓语的时态应与前句一致,数却

由后主语决定,所以选 Do

【例 17】 I hear you’re got a set of Australia stamps.

I have a look?

一 Yes,Certainly.

A. Do

B.May

C.Shall

D.Should

分析

此题考查如何正确使用这四个词。A 项在此是构成一般现在时的疑问助动词,无实

义。C 项用于第一人称疑问句中表“征求”或“询问”,D 是 C 项的过去式,由题意可知此 处是表“请求”,B 项正合题意。

解后反思

由例句可以看出掌握情态动词的含义和用法并结合语境去分析才能做出正确选

择。

【例 18】June’s brother didn’t work so class.

as the others didin’ this

A.harder

B.hard

C.hardest

D.hardly

分析

此题考查 so...as 的用法。Not so?as 表“不和??一样”,它要带形容词或

副词的原级,故 A、C 不对,而 hardly 为“几乎不”,所以选 B。

解后反思

as(so)...as 究竟是形容词原级还是副词原级与谓语动词有关。当谓语为行

为动词时,则用副词原级;当谓语为连系动词时,则用形容词原级。另外 so?as 只能用于 否定句。

【例 19】 The boy is

to take care of him self.

A.enough old

B.enough young

C. old enough

D.young enough

分析

此题考查 enough 的用法。 enough 修饰形容词或副词时, 应放在所修饰词之后, 故 A、

B 可排除。题意为他已到能自理的年龄了。故选 C。

【例 20】 The English novel is quite easy for you.There’ re—words in it.

A. a little

B.little

C.a few

D. few

分析

此题考查这四个词的用法。由题意 easy for you 知表肯定意义的 a few,a little

可排除,又由 words 是可数名词,应选 D。

解后反思

a few 修饰可数名词,表肯定。few 修饰可数名词,表否定。

a little 修饰不可数名词,表肯定。little 修饰不可数名词,表否定。

【例 21】

一 I won’t go to the party tomorrow.

you told me you should.What’s happening?

A.But

B.So

C.And

D.Or

分析 此题考查连词的用法。but 是转折连词表转折,so 表因果关系,and 是顺承或并列关 系,无实义,or 表选择关系,由原题句意可知是转折关系。此题选 A

解后反思

解答考查连词的题应考虑句子之间关系并要和题意相结合。

五. 强化训练及答案

I.词汇

A) 词语替换

1. The students enjoyed themselves very much at the party.

A. had a very good time

B. talked a lot

C. asked many questions

D. laughed very much

2. It’s a pleasure to help you to do your homework.

A. sorry

B. OK.

C. bad thing

D. a happy thing

3. Give me a call when you need me.

A. Give me a message

B. Wake me up

C. Ring me up

D. Call my name

4. The child fell asleep in the end.

A. got to sleep

B. went to bed

C. was in bed

D. stayed in bed

5. We go home on foot every day.

A. run home

B. stay home

C. walk home

D. leave home

B)词汇转换:用所给单词的适当形式填空。

6. When you cross the road, you must look around _______ (care).

7. Mr. Wang gave us a _____ (swim) lesson yesterday.

8. If you want to be________ (health), you have to take more exercise.

9. Children, help _____ (you) to some fish.

10. Eating too many sweets is bad for your ________ (tooth).

11. It’s _____ (cloud) today, isn’t it?

12. Look! How happily the children ______ (play) in the park!

13. You look ________ (worry). What’s wrong?

II.单项选择

1. She felt _____ about her party, didn’t she?

A. worry

B. worried

C. worries

D. worrying

2. I know the weather isn’t ______ , but I must go out ______ some shopping.

A. bad, to do

B. fine, to do

C. bad, do

D. fine, and doing

3. Is the ________with your watch?

A. anything wrong

B. something wrong

B. wrong something

D. wrong anything

4. ______ beautiful the skirt is!

A. How

B. What a

C. How a

D. What

5. The weather here is very different _____ Australia ______ this time of year.

A. form, in

B. of, in

C. with, on

D. from, at

6. The ______ girl sings the song very ______.

A. beautiful, beautiful

B. beautiful, beautifully

C. beautifully, beautiful

D. beautifully, beautifully

7. Thanks for ______ me _______ beautiful presents.

A. give, so much

B. giving, so much

C. giving, so many

D. give, so many

8. There aren’t enough candles. We need_____ more.

A. a little

B. much

C. most

D. a few

9. Lin Tao went to work on the farm last week, and______.

A. his sister did so

B. so did his sister

C. so his sister did

D. did his sister so

10. She likes singing, ______she doesn t like dancing.

A. and

B. or

C. for

D. but

11. Aunt Huang was ill in _______ hospital yesterday.

A. a

B. an

C. the

D. /

12. The teacher s wards ______ her face ______ red.

A. made, turn

B. make, to turn

C. made, turned

D. made, turns

13. The rain ______for nearly five hours.

A. fall

B. keeps

C. lasts

D. blows

14. Mary often eats _____ food, so she is _____ fat now.

A. too much, much too

B. too many, many too

C. much too, too much

D. many too, too many

15. It’s little hot in the room. Will you please keep the windows _____?

A. open

B. to open

C. opening

D. opened

16. She didn t come to school yesterday, did she?

______ , thought she was not feeling very well.

A. No, She didn t

B. Yes, She didn t

B. No, She did

D. Yes, She did

17. Miss Li is one of______ in our school.

A. a popular teacher

B. more popular teacher

C. most popular teacher

D .the most popular teachers

18. Our hometown is getting ______.

A. beautiful and beautiful

B. more beautiful and more beautiful

C. more and more beautiful

D. beautifuler and beautifuler

19. Li Lei is _______ a visit to France. He’s better ______ a bus to the People’s Park.

A. on, catch

B. on, to catch

C. in, not to catch

D. in, not catch

20. Our English teacher told us ______ questions in Chinese.

A. answer

B. not answer

C. not to answer

D. didn’t answer

21. They didn t start the work ______their teacher came back.

A. until

B. while

C. as soon as

D. if

22. —Thank you for having us. We had a very good time today.

—______.Bye!

A. No, thank you

B. I’m afraid not

C. You shouldn t say that

D. It was my pleasure

23. The doctor ______the baby carefully.

A. looked over

B. heard from

C. worried about

D. looked like

24. —Must we finish our homework now, Mrs. Read?

—Oh no, you______.

A. mustn t

B. can t

C, won t

D. needn t

25. —I m sorry I______ my exercise book at home.

—Don t forget______ it to school tomorrow, please.

A. forgot, to take

B. left, to bring

C. forgot, bring

D. left, to take

26. Please go out to climb the hill if it ______tomorrow.

A. rains

B. raining

C. won t rain

D. doesn t rain

III.句型转换

1. Mrs. Brown has to sit down and rest every five minutes.(对划线部分提问)

_______ ________ does Mrs. Brown have to sit down and rest?

2. Nothing is too difficult, _______ ______? (完成反意疑问句)

3. After he finishes his homework, he’ll leave the classroom.(改为同义句)

He ______ leave the classroom _____ he finishes his homework.

4. I had some apples and oranges. (改为否定句)

I ______ have any apples ______ oranges.

5. They had a good time last Sunday. (改为同义句)

They _______ ______ last Sunday.

6. They work hard. (改为感叹句)

_______ ______ they work!

7. He doesn’t want to go out because it’s raining heavily.(就划线部分提问)

_______ ______ he want to go out?

8. It will be snowy the day after tomorrow. (就划线部分提问)

____ _____ the weather ______ like the day after tomorrow?

9. The boys will go swimming tomorrow.(改为一般疑问句)

______ the boys _____ ______ tomorrow?

10. This picture is beautiful. That one is more beautiful. (合并为一句)

That picture is _____ ______ ______ this one.

IV.根据汉语意思完成英语句子。

1.安担心她的晚会是因为食物没有准备好。

Ann _______ ______ _______ her party because the food isn’t ______.

2.天这么热,为什么不脱掉你的外套呢?

It’s very hot today. ______ _____ you ______ ______ your coat?

3.说着这些话,他朝着我做鬼脸。

______ these words, he made ______ at me.

4.足球、篮球和排球,你最喜欢哪一个?

_______ ballgame ______ you ______ ______, football, basketball or volleyball?

5.你到北京之后给李叔叔去个电话。

Please ______ Uncle Li _____ _____ after you ______ Beijing.

6.他看到他的妻子多么高兴啊!

_______ _______ he is to see his wife!

7.这道数学题太难,我做不出来。

This maths problem is _______ hard for me _______ work out.

8.你为什么不改打排球?

_______ don’t you play volleyball_______?

V.补全对话。

Bill and Kate want to send a postcard to their friend, Peter. They are in the post office to buy a stamp (邮 票) and post the card.

Man: Can I help you?

Bill: We ____1__ a stamp, please.

Man: Is it for a ___2___ or for a postcard?

Kate: It’s for a postcard.

Man: Are you sending the card to someone here in England or in another __3___?

Bill: We’re sending it to a ___4__ in England.

Man: Then you need a three-penny stamp. Here you are, one three-penny stamp.

Bill: Thank you.

Kate: Stick(粘贴)the stamp on the ___5____, Bill. Then we can ___6__ it.

Bill: OK. ___7___ the letter box?

Kate: Over there.

Bill: I ___8____ Peter will send us a postcard.

Kate: ____9____ ____10___I.

Ⅵ.完形填空

Most adults (成年人) once studied at school, had classes and did their homework every day. The same is 3 1 is going on at school now. 2 it seems that doing weekend (周末) homework

problem for the modern students..

All the students should agree that weekend homework should be abolished (取消). It’s

4

for them

studying at school five days a week. They have a lot of interests. With homework to do on Saturday and Sunday, when can they find 5 to help around the house, go and see a football or basketball game or a good 6 at home? Because of these other activities(活

film, join in family recreations(娱乐) ,or just have 动), the homework can t be finished until that on Monday teachers are know nothing about the to go to school on Monday 9 8 7

. So their weekend homework is usually done in such a hurry

and often threaten (威胁) to fail whole class of students because they

. If there were no weekend homework for the students to do, they would be happy 10 having a good rest and to learn what the teachers teach.

1. A. thing

B. school

C. class

D. homework

2. A. Also

B. But

C. Still

D. Though

3. A. no

B. another

C. one

D. other

4. A. not enough

B. enough

C. no good

D. no use

5. A. friends

B .time

C. places

D. money

6. A. a rest

B. an .exam

C. a lesson

D. picnic

7. A. Monday afternoon

B. Saturday afternoon

C. Friday night

D. Sunday night

8. A. pleased

B. sorry

C. unhappy

D. not worried

9. A. lesson

B. games

C. interests

D. activities

l0. A. until

B. when

C. before

D. after

Ⅶ.阅读理解

A

It was a beautiful day. The sun was shining. There was no cloud, and the weather was warm. Trees just turned green, flowers came out. Young people were walking after breakfast, children were playing on the grass happily. Mr. Brown saw an old man standing alone under the tree with a big umbrella (伞) in his hand.

Mr. Brown went up and asked him, “Do you think we are going to have rain today?” “No,” said the old man. “I don t think so.” “Then are you carrying the umbrella because the sun is too hot?” “No, the sun is not very hot in this season.”

Mr. Brown looked at the big umbrella again, just then the old man said, “I m old and my legs aren t very strong for walking far away. I must have a walking stick. But young people will think I m too old to do anything. When I carry an umbrella in such fine weather, they will laugh at me and say I m stupid (愚 蠢), but I don t mind.” Mr. Brown said, “Oh, I see. You re never too old. It s important for us young people

to understand the old people. Now let s have a walk together, will you?” The old man said, “Thank you, let s go!”

l. This story happened ______.

A. on a summer morning

B. on a spring morning

C. on a summer afternoon

D. on a spring afternoon

2. Mr. Brown is______.

A. neither old nor young

B. more than twenty

C. older than the old man man

D. as old as the old

3. —In which country did this story happen?

—_____.

A. In England

B. In India

C. I have no idea

D. In Australia

4. From the story we know some old people ________

A. are afraid of saying they re old

B .should have walking-sticks

C. don t like young people

D. are very happy every day

5. After you read this story, you can know _______

A. when the people become older

B .what you give the old people to eat

C. where you can find the old people

D. what you should do for the old people

B

“Cool” is a word with many meanings .Its old meaning is used to express a temperature that is a little bit cold. As the world has changed, the word has had many different meanings.

Cool can be used to express feelings of interest in almost anything.

When you see a famous car in the street, maybe you will say, “it s cool.” You may think, s so cool,” when you see your favourite footballer.

“he

We all maximize (扩大)the meaning of “cool”. You can use it instead of many words such or “surprising”. Here s an interesting story we can use to show the way the word is used.

as “new” A teacher asked

her students to write about the waterfall (瀑布) they had visited. On one student s paper was just the one sentence, “It s so cool.” Maybe he thought it was the best way to show what he saw and felt.

But the story also shows a scarcity (缺乏) of words. Without “cool”, some people have no

words

to show the same meaning. So it is quite important to keep some credibility(可信性). Can yon think of many other words that make your life as colourful as the word “cool”? I can. And cool. think they are also very

6. We know that the word “cool” has had_____.

A. only one meaning

B. no meanings

C. many different meanings

D. the same meaning

7. In the passage, the word “express” means “______”.

A. see

B. show

C. know

D.

feel

8. If you are ______something, you may say, “it s cool.”

A. interested in

B. angry about

C. worried about

D. unhappy with

9. The writer takes an example to show he is ______ the way the word is used,

A. pleased with

B. strange to

C. worried about

D. unhappy with

10. In the passage, the writer suggests(暗示)that the word “cool”______.

A. can be used instead of many words

B. usually means something interesting

C. can make your life colourful

D. may not be as cool as, it seems

Ⅷ.书面表达

英国男孩 Jim Green 来信想在北京征询笔友,你决定做他的笔友。现在你用英语写一封回信,介绍自己的情况。要求单 词数大约50个左右。回信应包括下面表格中的内容。

Name: Li Dong School name: No .18 Middle School

Sex: schoolboy Favourite subjects: maths, history, English

Aye: 15 Sports: basketball, swimming

Number of people in your family: 3 Interests: pop music

Ⅸ.短文改错

Yesterday Timmy helped his father in the

1 __

garden. Timmy is youngest in the Blake

2

family. Timmy and his father dug two hole.

3

They planted two trees. “Our garden looks

4

very beautifully,” Timmy said.

5

“It’s filled of weeds(草),”his father said.

6

“It’s the nice garden in the street,” Timmy said.

7

“The nicest ones?” his father asked.

8

“Yes,” Timmy answered. “Nobody grass

9

is longer than our.” 10

参考答案:

Ⅰ. 1. A yourselves

2. D

3. C

4. A 11. cloudy

5. C

6. carefully

7. swimming 13. worried

8. healthier

9.

10. teeth

12. are playing

Ⅱ. 1. B A 16. D

2. B

3. A

4. A

5. D 19. A

6. B 20. C

7. C 21. A

8. D

9. B

10. D

11. D 24. D

12. A 25. B

13. C 26. D

14. A

15.

17. D

18. C

22. D

23. A

Ⅲ. 1. How often How hard

2. is it

3. won’t, until/ before 8. What will, be

4. didn’t, or

5. enjoyed themselves

6.

7. Why doesn’t

9. Will, go swimming

10. more beautiful than

Ⅳ. 1. is worried about, ready reach talk off

2. Why don’t 7. too, to

3. With, faces

4. Which, do, like best

5. give, a call,

6. How happy

8. Why, instead

Ⅴ. 1. want do

2. letter

3. country

4. friend

5. card

6. post

7. Where’s

8. hope

9. So

10.

Ⅵ. 1. A

2. B

3. C

4. B

5. B

6. A

7. D

8. C

9. A

10. D

Ⅶ. 1. B

2. B

3. C

4. A

5. D

6. C

7. B

8. A

9. C

10. D

Ⅷ. 略

Ⅸ. 1. √ filled→full

2. the youngest 7. nicest

3. holes 8. ones→one

4.√

5. beautiful 9. Nobody→Nobody’s

6. 10. our→ours12

JUNIOR BOOK III (上)
一.知识网络

【重点内容概要】

1.过去完成时

2.购物用语及书信格式

3.能运用 so?that 和 so that 引导的状语从句

4.动词不定式作主语

5.定语从句

【句型、词组精讲】

seem

seem 意为“似乎”、“好象”,为不及物动词,常用于以下几种结构:

1.后面可接不定式的一般式(seem to do sth.),不定式的进行式(seem to be doing sth.)和不定式的完成式(seem to have done sth.)。如:

She seems to be right.

看来她好像是对的。

Jack seems to be doing his homework. 杰克好像正在做家庭作业。

2.可接从句,构成句型“It seems/ seemed that?”意为“看起来好像??”。如:

It seems that he is right. 看来他好像是对的。

It seems that he has read the book. 看来他好像已读过这本书。

3.后接形容词作表语。如:

The teacher seems angry. 老师看起来很生气。

This book seems quite interesting. 这本书看起来很有趣。

4.后接名词、动词 ing 形式或介词短语。如:

She seems a clever girl. 她看上去是个聪明的女孩。

It seems raining. 天好像要下雨。

He seems at home. 他好像在家里。

5.还可用于 there be 句型中,表示“似乎有??”。如:

There seems to be nobody in the classroom. 教室里似乎没有人。

“是否”if & whether

1. if 和 whether 在其引导的宾语从句中作“是否”解时, 一般情况下, 两者可通用。 但 if 常用于口语中,whether 比较正式。

2.if 和 whether 在下列情况下不能通用。

(1)作介词宾语时用 whether,而不用 if。如:

I’m interested in whether he’ll go out.

(2)whether 引导的宾语从句可移到主句之前,if 则不能。如:

Whether this is true or not, I’m not sure.

(3)与动词不定式连用时,只能用 whether。如:

She can’t decide whether to go to Japan.

(4)宾语从句的谓语动词是否定形式时,只能用 if。如:

I want to know if he won’t come here tomorrow.

表示“也”种种

初中英语教材中出现了六个意思相当于汉语“也”的单词,用法比较广泛,现分述如 下:

1. too

用在肯定句中,放在句末,前面可用逗号与句子隔开,也可不用;也可放在句子中间,

前后都加逗号。如:

(1)Nice to meet you, too. 见到你我也很高兴。

(2)You, too, may have a try.

你也可以试一试。

2. either

用在否定句中,常放在句末,前面常用逗号与句子隔开。如:

He can’t sing. I can’t sing, either. 他不会唱歌,我也不会。

3. also

放在句子中间,不用逗号隔开。如:

She also likes English. 她也喜欢英语。

4. so

用在肯定句中,常用句式为:so+助动词、系动词或情态动词+主语,表示前面说的情 况也适用于后者。如:

(1)A:Tom likes dancing. 汤姆喜欢跳舞。B:So do I. 我也喜欢。

(2)Li Lei went to the park yesterday and so did I. 李雷昨天去公园了,我 也去了。

(3)I am a teacher and so is she. 我是位教师,她也是。

5. neither

用在否定句中,常用句式为 neither+助动词、情态动词或系动词+主语,表示前面说 的情况也适用于后者。如:

(1)My brother doesn’t like playing football and neither do I. 我弟弟不 喜欢踢足球,我也不喜欢。

(2)A: Han Meimei can’t draw. 韩梅梅不会画画。 我也不会。

B: Neither can I.

(3)She isn’t right and neither am I. 她不对,我也不对。

6. nor

用法如同 neither。区别为 neither 用于两者之间;nor 用于两者或两者以上。如:

(1)Wei Fang has no story-books. Neither (Nor) do I. 魏芳没有故事书。我也 没有。

(2)Wei Fang has no story-books. Nor do I. Nor do you. 魏芳没有故事书。我 也没有。你也没有。

7. 以上有些句式可以相互转换。如:

(1)He can’t sing. I can’t sing, either.

He can’t sing. Neither/ Nor can I.

(2)My sister likes singing and so do I.

My sister likes singing and I like it, too.

(3)She also goes to work by bike.

She goes to work by bike, too.

【语法精讲】

被动语态

主动语态变被动语态必须注意下面几个问题。

谓语动词的人称和数应和主动结构的宾语保持一致。如:

They built the tall building last month. →The tall building was built last month.

与原句时态应保持一致。如:

They will speak English. →English will be spoken.

动作的执行者无须说明或不必强调时,by 短语可省略。(如没握最好不要省。)如:

We speak English in our school. → English is spoken (by us) in our school.

主动结构中作宾补的不定式可以省去 to,但变为被动语态时必须加上 to .如:

He made me finish the work at once. → I was made to finish the work at once.

被动句中 by 短语和 with 等短语用法不同:强调动作的执行者要用 by;表示状态或主 动者所用的工具或手段要用 with。如:

The work was done by him.

The mountain was covered with snow.

当主动语态含有双宾语时可将任何一个宾语变为被动语态的主语,另一个不变,但当 直接宾语作主语时,要在间接宾语前加上介词 to 或 for。如:

My sister gave me a pen yesterday. → A pen was given to me by my sister yesterday. / I was given a pen (by my sister) yesterday.

“主语+谓语+宾语+宾补”句型变为被动语态时,只能将主动结构中的宾语变为被

动结构中的主语,而宾补不变。如:

I heard her sing a song in the next room. → She was heard to sing a song in the next room.

I saw him getting on a bus. → He was seen getting on a bus.

当主动语态的动词是短语动词时,变为被动语态时不能将动词后的介词或副词丢 掉。如:

He sent for the doctor at once. → The doctor was sent for at once.

当主动语态的谓语或宾语部分含有不定式时,变为被动句时要将不定式变为被动结 构。如:

He is going to do his homework. → His homework is going to be done.

下面几种情况主动语态不能改为被动语态。 (1) 当宾语是 myself 等反身代词时; (2) 当谓语是表示状态的动词如:have, own, hold 等时;(3)当宾语是动词的 ing 形式 时;(4)当宾语是相互代词时;(5)当宾语是表示数量,重量、大小或程度等时。

动词不定式

1.动词不定式作定语时,不定式所表示的动作与其所修饰的中心词之间一般有三种 关系:

(1)动宾关系:即动词不定式所表示的动作与其所修饰的中心词之间具有逻辑上的 动宾关系。如:

She has a lot of work to do. 句中不定式 to do 与 work 构成动宾关系。说明:当 作定语的不定式为不及物动词时或不定式虽是及物动词,但不能与中心词构成合理搭 配时,不定式后要加适当的介词。如:

We have nothing to worry about.

They are looking for a house to eat in.

(2)主谓关系:中心词与不定式所表示的动作之间具有逻辑上的主谓关系,即中心 词是不定式动作的发出者。如:

She is always the first to come to school. 句中的 the first 是 come to school 的逻辑主语,即这个动作的发出者。

(3) 同位关系: 作定语的不定式是对中心词内容的解释和说明。 如: This is the best way to work out the problem. 句中的 way 的内容是 to work out the problem.

2.“疑问词+不定式”结构,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语等。如:

He didn’t know how to do it.

The question is when to start.

说明:

(1) 当句子谓语动词是 know, learn, remember, forget, tell 等时,其后的宾语从句可简化成 “疑问词+不定式”结构,但主句与从句的主语必须一致。如:

I don’t know what I shall do next. →I don’t know what to do next.

(2) 当句子的谓语动词是 tell,ask, show, teach 等,其后带双宾语,且从句主语 和间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可转换成“疑问句+不定式”结构。如:Please tell me where I can find her. →Please tell me where to find her.

过去完成时

1.过去完成时的构成:由“助动词+had+过去分词”构成。如:

The film had begun before I got to the cinema.

2.过去完成时的用法:

1)完成法:表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。它是一个相 对的时态,只有在和过去某时或某动作相比较时才用到它。它表示动作发生的时间是 “过去的过去”。表示过去某一时间常用以下几种方式表达:

(1) by,before 等构成的短语表示。如:

We had learned 20 English songs by the end of last year.

They had gone home before five o’clock.

(2) 用 when, before 等引导的从句表示。如:

I had waited for half an hour when the bus came.

He had gone home before I got to his office.

(3) 通过上下文表示。如:

Tom said that the had seen the girl before.

2)持续法:表示从过去某一时间开始,持续到过去另一时间的动作或状态。往往与 for 或 since 引导的表示一段时间的短语或从句连用,这种用法如同现在完时,谓语 动词只能用 be、live、study、work 等表示延续性的动词或表示状态的动词。如:

She said she had worked here since 1968.

I had taught English for twelve years before I came to this school.

说明:

(1)在带有 after 或 before 引导的时间状语从句的复合句中,由于从句的动作和主

句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确, 所以可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。 如:

He called on me soon after he had returned. (=He called on me soon after the returned.) 他回来不久便来拜访我。

(2)对于一连串的过去动作,其发生的先后顺序,有时可以由动词的词汇意义来表 示,无需再用过去完成时。如:

She looked around but saw nothing. 她环顾四周,但什么也没看到。

He came in and said hello to everyone. 他进来向每一个人问好。

宾语从句反馈

一、从句是陈述句

1.引导词:用 that 连接(口语中 that 常省略)

2.时态:(1)主句是一般现在时态时,从句可根据实际情况用各种时态。

(2)主句是过去时态时,从句多用过去的某种时态与之相呼应。(若从句是属于客 观真理的,则用一般现在时态)。如:

He said that he missed us very much.

The teacher said light travels much faster than sound.

二、从句是一般疑问句

1.引导词:用 if (whether)连接。

2.语序:由疑问句语序改为陈述句语序,即:

(1)主语在先,谓语在后。

(2)有助动词 do, does, did 等则要去掉。

3.标点:主句是肯定句的,句末用句号;主句是问句的,则句末用问号。如:

He asked if Mr. Brown was a doctor.

Do you know if Mr. Brown is a doctor?

三、从句是特殊疑问句

1.引导词:用原疑问词连接。

2.语序:用陈述句语序。

(1)原疑问词是主语的,则不用变。

(2)其余的要把谓语放在主语之后。如:

Can you tell me who will give us a talk?

I don’t know when classes will begin.

3.主语是问句,句末要用问号。

四、三种情况的共同点和不同点

A.共同点:

(1)主句是过去时态时,从句都用过去的时态。

(2)语序都用陈述语序。

(3)若是客观真理时,时态都不变。

B.不同点:

(1)引导词不同(1) that

(2) if (whether)

(3)原疑问词。

(2)句末标点符号不同,主句是陈述句的,句末用句号;主句是疑问句的,句末用 问号。

(3)主句是现在时态时,则根据句意用相应的时态。

二.考试热点

1.被动语态的三种时态:一般现在时的被动语态,一般过去时的被动语态和含情态 动词的被动语态。作为考点常见于选择填空题、句型转换题和动词时态填空题中。另 一考点为计量的表达方法。

2.通过购物、看病、书信等对话、文章,使学生能进行日常交际了英文书信的格式 和书写,从而考查学生听、说、读、写的能力。此考点常见于完成对题和书面表达题 中。

3.理解 so?that 和 though 引导的状语从句及动词不定式和疑问词连用、动词定式 作定语的用法。常见题型为句型转换题。

三.重、难点突破

1.过去完成时的用法和构成,教材有叙述,在使用这个时态时要注意它与过去时有 关系,即所说的“过去的过去”,以下介词短语常用于过去完成时。by+过去时间, by the end of+过去时间,by the time+从句(过去时)等。另外要注意,在过去完 成时中,短暂动作动词不能与 for+时段,since+时点连用。

2.so?that 意为“如此??以致??”,that 后常借结果状语从句。So?that 中间 是带形容词还是副词,由谓语动词来决定。so ?that 从句可以变为 too? (for sb.) to do 或?enough (for sb. to do)的简单句。

3.关于 so 与 such

这两个词都表示“这么”、“这样”、“如此”之意,但两者用法不同。such 是形容 词,修饰名词或名词短语,其用法:such(a/an)adj. +n. (注意:若名词前有 many、 much、few、little 等词时只能用 so) so 是副词,常置于所修饰的形容词、副词之前, 其用法:so+adj.+a/an+n.。so 还有代词用法。

4.英文书信格式

一份正规的信应主要包括四个部分:

1)右上角是写信人的地址和写信日期。地址应从小写到大,地址下面要写日期。

2)对收信人的称呼。一般称呼前都要用 Dear。

3)内容。这是信件的主体。

4)签名。签名前应写 Yours 这类的字样。

5)关于购物用语。

四.典型例题

[例 1]

动词填空

He ______ (tell) to return his book to the library yesterday morning.

分析

此题根据句意“他”应归还书籍,不是自己告知,而是“被人告知”,所以

这里应填被动语态形式。 由于句尾 yesterday morning 表明过去时态, 故应填 was told.

[例 2]

________ of the students are girls in our class.

A. Two three

B. Two threes

C. Two thirds

D. Second three

分析 此题考查学生对英语分数的表达。英语的分数,分子用基数词,分母用序数词, 先读分子,后读分母。当分子大于 1 时,分母就加 s,变为复数,故此题答案为 C。

[例 3]

He likes the book but it _______ too much.

A. pays

B. costs

C. takes

D. spends

分析

此题考查学生对同义词的理解。spend, pay, take, cost 都有“花费”之意,

但它们有区别。take 表示“花费时间”,主语是动词不定式。It takes sb. some time to do sth. pay“付款”常与 for 搭配;spend“花费时间/钱”,常与 on 搭配,其 形式为 spend?on, spend?(in) doing sth.。pay 和 spend 的主语应为“某人”。 但 cost 一词“值??钱”主语应为“某物/某事”。故答案为 B。

[例 4] 将两句并合为一复合句。

The words on the notice board are very small.

I can't see them clearly.

The words on the notice board are ______ small ______I can't see them clearly.

分析 此题考查学生对语言的运用所掌握的能力。此题用 so?that 两词可以把两句合 并起来,使它成为一个结果状语从句。即“通知墙报上的字是如此小以致我看不清 楚。”另外,此题还可以一个简单句:The words on the notice board are too mall for me to see clearly.

[例 5] 同义句转换。

You can do your homework today or you can do it tomorrow.

______ today or tomorrow ______ OK for you to do your homework.

分析 此题关键之处是要理解原句之意。同时选用正确的连接词。此题中已有“or” 提醒学生应用 either?or。“either?or”有“要么??要么”、“或者??或者” 之意。后一空格是考查学生 either?or 其谓语动词“数”的问题,由于 tomorrow 是 单数故后格填 is。

[例 6] 填空

—_______the population of Germany?

—About eighty-one million.

分析 问“人口多少”常用 What’s the population??来表达。所以此题应用固定结 构,即填 What’s。

[例 7] 词语替换。

Your shoes are worn out. You should buy a new pair instead.

A. too big

B. too small

C. too old

D. too cheap

分析

此题考查学生对词语的理解。be worn out 是“被穿破”之意,即“旧了”。

而不存在“太大,太不,太便宜”的问题,所以答案为 C。

[例 8] 正误例析

1)那群女孩继续向前移动。

误:The group of girls all moved.

正:The group of girls all moved on.

分析 英语中有些表示位移的动词,如 pass, go, move, walk 等与 on 连用,往往含 有动作的继续之意。如:pass on 继续传递,go on 继续进行,move on 继续向前移 动,walk on 继续走动等。

2)你能告诉我去博物馆的路吗?

误:Can you tell me the way go to the museum?

正:Can you tell me the way to the museum?

分析 the way to?这一结构中 to?是介词短语,作定语,修饰 the way。英语中类似 这种表达还有:the answer to the question 问题的答案,the key to the door 门 上的钥匙等。另外有关问路的句型还有:Can you tell me how to get to the ?? Can you tell me how I can get to the?? Can you show me the way??How can I get to??等。

五.强化训练及答案

I.词汇

A)根据句意及词首字母写出所缺单词。

1. Kate’s parents put presents in each o______ stockings.

2. The PLA was f____ on August 1, 1927.

3. We got up early in the morning before the sun r_________.

4. I’m sorry to tell you that you f______ the history exam again.

5. She r_____ a letter from her father yesterday.

B)根据句意,用所给单词的正确形式填空。

6. A lot of ______ (foreign) visited our school last Sunday.

7. With the _______ of science, our life is getting better and better. (develop)

8. Do you know the ______ (fly) number leaving for Beijing?

9. She can’t go any farther with her______ legs. (break)

10. They didn’t know who ______ (invent) the fridge.

C)词语理解:根据所给句子划线部分的意思,从四个选项中选出最佳答案。

11. The football match has been on for an hour.

A. has begun for an hour

B. began at one’o clock

C. began an hour ago

D. began for an hour

12. My father joined the Party when he was twenty.

A. is a Party member

B. is in the Party member

C. became a Party member

D. wanted to be a Party member

13. She stopped crying and listened to the music.

A. stopped to cry

B. didn’t cry any more

C. couldn’t cry much more

D. began crying

14. If you want to work out this difficult problem, you must use your head.

A. ask for help

B. think of

C. think hard

D. find way

15. Have you received any letters from your parents these days?

A. heard from

B. listened

C. talked

D. reported

II.选择填空

1. The heavy snow ______ arriving in time.

A. let the train not

B. made the train not to

C. stopped the train of

D. stopped the train from

2. My parents ______ about 1, 000 yuan for my school education(教育)each year.

A. spend

B. take

C. cost

D. pay

3. The medicine ______ cool, clean and dry.

A. must keep

B. must be kept

C. must be carried

D. must be in

4. In _______ time, those mountains will be covered with trees.

A. few years

B. a few years’

C. a few year

D. a few year’s

5. My grandfather could ______ read ______ write because he was too poor to go to school in the old days.

A. either. . .or only. . .but also

B. neither. . .nor

C. both. . .and

D. not

6. There's hardly ______ milk in the bottle, ______ there?

A. no, isn't

B. some, is

C. little, isn't

D. any, is

7. The students should learn ______ from books ______ from life.

A. so, as

B. both, and

C. either, or

D, neither, nor

8. The population is growing faster in _____ developed countries than in ______ developed countries.

A. more, little

B .less, more

C. more, less

D. little, more

9. China is famous ______ her Great Wall.

A. as

B. for

C. to

D. of

10. — How long have you _____ the football team of the school?

—About two years.

A. been on

B. been at

C. joined

D. played

11. We’ll have ______ holiday. What are you going to do?

A. two days

B. two-days’

C. a two-day

D. a two –days

12. The small boy didn’t know what time_______ with presents.

A. his father filled his stockings

B. did his father fill his stockings

C. was his father filling his stockings stockings

D. his father has filled his

13. On New Year’s Day all the children _______ and enjoy themselves.

A. dress in beautiful clothes

B. dress themselves up

C. dress themselves

D. dress

14. I have written _______ down on this list.

A. it of all

B. in the all

C. all it

D. it all

15. The man ______ in 1992, he _____ for ten years.

A. died, was dead

B. died, has been dead

C. was dead, has dies

D. was dead, has been died

16. — What a good student you are! —_______.

A. Thank you.

B. That’s right.

C. I should do more

D. Don’t say that

17. I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. If it _______, we’ll go to the park.

A. rain

B. won’t

C. doesn’t rain

D. will rain

18. —Could you tell me______?

—Yes. They _______ to the library.

A. where are the twins, have been B. where the twins are, have gone

C. where were the twins, have been D. where the twins were, have gone

19. Do you know _______?

A. how using a computer

B. how to use a computer

C. how used a computer

D. how a computer to use

20. The boys is ______ to cook for himself.

A. younger enough

B. old enough

C. enough young

D. enough old

Ⅲ.句型转换。

1. Did you use computers to make the foreign language easy to learn?

_______ computers _______ to help you learn the foreign language_______?

2. The poor truck went past, and there was heavy smoke behind it.

The poor truck went past ______ heavy smoke behind it.

3. His brother is a teacher. His sister is a teacher.

______ his brother ______ his sister ______ ______.

4. It’s a long time since we met last.

We ______ ______ each other for a long time since we met last.

5. Does Mr. Brown enjoy living in China? Could you tell us?

Could you tell us ______ Mr. Brown ______ living in China.

6. They have lived in Shiyan for more than ten years. (对划线部分提问)

_________ ________ have they lived in Shiyan?

7. They’ve visited the Summer Palace already. (改为否定句)

They _______ visited the Summer Palace_________.

8. Could you tell me how I can answer the question in English?(改为简单句)

Could you tell me _______ ______ answer the question in English?

IV.补全对话。

根据对话情景填入所缺单词,使对话完整、通顺。

A: Hello, may I _1_____ to John, please.

B: _2______ on for a moment, please. I’m sorry he isn’t here 3______ now. Who’s that 4_____, please?

A: _5______ is Mary. I’m his classmate.

B: Hello, Mary. Can I 6_____ a message?

A: Yes, please ask him to give me a _7_____ this afternoon, OK? B: Yes, is your number 3394564? A: Yes. B: OK. I’ll _8____ the message on his desk.

A: Thank you for your kind _9______. B: You’re 10_____ . See you.

V.完成句子。

1.这张桌子是由木头做的。

The table is _________ ________ wood.

2.人们常看见他画画。

He is often _______ to _______ pictures.

3.你听见我的话了吗?

Did you hear _______ ______ said?

4.长城有两千多年的历史了。

The Great Wall has ________ ________ _________ more than two______ years.

5.那个年轻人离开家乡已经有两年半了。

The young man ________ _______ _______ ________ his hometown for two and a half years.

6.汤姆到中国以来已经给他父母写了好几封信。

Tom ______ ______ several letters to his parents _______ he ______ to China.

7.老师告诉我们不要在课堂上大吵大闹。

The teacher told us _______ _______ make a lot of noise in class.

8.没有你的帮助,她不能按时完成这项工作。

She couldn’t finish the work on time ________ your ______.

VI.完形填空

Once a man named Henry found a box of old papers(文件) in a room. He of them, for he didn't like old things very much. 2

1

most

one of these papers was

an old letter. It was written by a famous writer(作者).

“When this letter was written,” said Henry, “ the writer. But now everyone knows him. Some people like to

3 4

knew about and keep

letters like this. I will get a lot of money for this letter if I sell it to the right man.”

There were a lot of dirty marks (斑迹) all over the letter. He thought, “It doesn't look the letter letter to a 6 7 5 . No one wants to buy a letter if it's dirty. So he cleaned . At last it looked new and he was very pleased. He took the in New York, He knew that old papers of this kind were bought

and sold there.”

The man in the shop looked at the letter for a long time. Then he said, “I’ll 8 you ten dollars.”

“Only ten dollars?” said Henry. “But people pay a hundred letter like this. I've cleaned it and made it look nice.”

9

a

“I can see that,” said the man. “That's the old papers like them to be dirty.”

10

. People who buy

1. A. took

B. burnt

C. wrote

D. kept

2. A. And

B. Because

C. But

D. If

3. A. Noone

B .Anyone

C. All

D. Everyone

4. A. read

B. see

C. buy

D. sell

5. A. dirty

B. true

C. worried

D. nice

6. A. carefully

B. kindly

C. heavily

D .suddenly

7. A. market

B .shop

C .library

D. bookshop

8. A. spend

B. lend

C. send

D. give

9. A. on

B. in

C. for

D. with

10. A. difficulty

B. problem

C. question

D. answer

阅读理解

A

When Mencius (孟子)was a small boy, his father died. So Mencius and his mother were quite poor. One day Mencius returned home from school and found his mother making some cloth(布). It was very beautiful and expensive.

“How much of your book have you read today?” Mencius’ mother asked him. Mencius threw down his book. “I haven’t read any of it,” he replied, “I played with some friends of mine in the fields.”

When his mother heard this, she picked up a pair of scissors(剪刀)and cut the cloth.

“Why have you cut your cloth?” Mencius asked. “It was so beautiful and now you’ve wasted(浪费)it.” “You have wasted your time,” his mother said. “Now I have wasted mine. Look at the terrible thing we have done.”

Mencius learnt a lot from this lesson. After that, he always studied hard.

根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。

1. When did this story happen? ___________

A. Not long before liberation(解放)B. More than 2000 years ago

C. About 400 years ago

D. In the 18th century

2. Mencius and his mother were quite poor because _________.

A. they had to spend a lot of money on beautiful and expensive cloth

B. Mencius was young and he couldn’t work

C. his father died when Mencius was a child

D. Mencius’ schooling cost them much money

3. What was Mencius doing while his mother was cutting the cloth?

A. He was reading his book.

B. He was playing in the fields.

C. He was trying to help her.

D. He was watching strangely (奇怪地.)

4. When the mother knew Mencius had played in the fields, she was_________.

A. pleased

B. surprised

C. sad

D. happy

5. The mother cut the cloth because ________.

A. she thought making cloth was wasting time

B. she wanted to make more beautiful cloth

C. she wanted to teach her son a lesson

D. she wanted her son to do his lessons at once

B

Everyone needs friends. We all like to feel close to someone. It is nice to have a friend to talk, laugh, and do things with. Surely, there are times when we need to be alone. We don't always want people around. But we would feel lonely if we never had a friend.

No two people are just the same. Sometimes friends don't get along well. That doesn't mean that they no longer like each other. Most of the time they will make up and go on being friends.

Sometimes friends move away. Then we feel very sad. We miss them very much. But we can call them and write to them. It could be that we would even see them again. And we can make new friends. It is surprising to find out how much we like new people when we get to know them.

Families sometimes name their children after a close friend. Many places are named after men and women who have been friendly to people in a town. Some libraries are named this way.

So are some schools. We think of these people when we go to these places.

There’s more good news for people who have friends. They live longer than people who don't. Why? It could be that they are happier. Being happy helps you stay well. Or it could be just knowing that someone cares. If someone cares about you, you take better care of yourself.

6 .The first paragraph (段) tells us ______.

A. none need friends

B. we always need friends around us

C. making friends is the need in people’s life

D. we need to be alone

7. Which of the following is what the writer doesn't say in the passage?

A. People are not happy when their friends leave them.

B. people will never see their friends after their friends move away.

C. People can know their friends in different ways.

D. People like their friends very much if they get to know them.

8. Which of the following is most probably the place people name after friendly people?

A. city.

B. A room.

C. A town.

D. A library.

9. People who have friends live longer than people who don't because ______.

A. they feel happier and are healthy

B. they get a lot of help from their friends

C. they take better care of themselves

D. both A and C

10. The main idea of this passage is ______.

A. that people are all friends

B. that people need friends

C. how to get to know friends

D. how to name a place

综合训练答案:

Ⅰ. 1.other’s 2.founded 3.rose 4.failed 5.received 6.foreigners 7.de

velopment C 15.A

8.flight

9.broken

10. (had) invented

11.C

12. C

13.B

14.

Ⅱ. 1.D A 13. B

2.D

3. B

4.B 15. B

5.B 16. A

6.D

7.B

8.B 18. B

9. B 19. B

10. A 20. B

11. C

12.

14. D

17. C

Ⅲ. 1.Were used, easily 2.with seen

3.Both, and, are teachers 7.haven’t, yet

4.haven’t 8.how to

5.if/ whether, enjoys 6.How long

Ⅳ. 1.speak ring

2.Hold

3.right

4.speaking/ calling

5.This

6.take

7.call/

8.leave

9.help

10.welcome

Ⅴ. 1.made of been away from

2.seen, draw

3.what I

4.a history of, thousand 7.not to

5.has

6.has written, since, came

8.without, help

Ⅵ. 1.B

2.C

3.A

4.C

5.D

6A

7.B

8.D

9.C

10.B

Ⅶ. 1—5 B C D C C

6.C

7.C

8.D

9.D

10.B

JUNIOR BOOK III (下)
一.知识网络

【重点内容概要】

1.过去完成时

2.购物用语及书信格式

3.能运用 so?that 和 so that 引导的状语从句

4.动词不定式作主语

5.定语从句

【句型、词组精讲】

seem

seem 意为“似乎”、“好象”,为不及物动词,常用于以下几种结构:

1.后面可接不定式的一般式(seem to do sth.),不定式的进行式(seem to be doing sth.) 和不定式的完成式(seem to have done sth.)。如:

She seems to be right.

看来她好像是对的。

Jack seems to be doing his homework. 杰克好像正在做家庭作业。

2.可接从句,构成句型“It seems/ seemed that?”意为“看起来好像??”。如:

It seems that he is right. 看来他好像是对的。

It seems that he has read the book. 看来他好像已读过这本书。

3.后接形容词作表语。如:

The teacher seems angry. 老师看起来很生气。

This book seems quite interesting. 这本书看起来很有趣。

4.后接名词、动词 ing 形式或介词短语。如:

She seems a clever girl. 她看上去是个聪明的女孩。

It seems raining. 天好像要下雨。

He seems at home. 他好像在家里。

5.还可用于 there be 句型中,表示“似乎有??”。如:

There seems to be nobody in the classroom. 教室里似乎没有人。

“是否”if & whether

1.if 和 whether 在其引导的宾语从句中作“是否”解时,一般情况下,两者可通用。但 if 常用于口语中,whether 比较正式。

2.if 和 whether 在下列情况下不能通用。

(1)作介词宾语时用 whether,而不用 if。如:

I’m interested in whether he’ll go out.

(2)whether 引导的宾语从句可移到主句之前,if 则不能。如:

Whether this is true or not, I’m not sure.

(3)与动词不定式连用时,只能用 whether。如:

She can’t decide whether to go to Japan.

(4)宾语从句的谓语动词是否定形式时,只能用 if。如:

I want to know if he won’t come here tomorrow.

表示“也”种种

初中英语教材中出现了六个意思相当于汉语“也”的单词,用法比较广泛,现分述如下:

1. too

用在肯定句中,放在句末,前面可用逗号与句子隔开,也可不用;也可放在句子中间,前后 都加逗号。如:

(1)Nice to meet you, too. 见到你我也很高兴。

(2)You, too, may have a try.

你也可以试一试。

2. either

用在否定句中,常放在句末,前面常用逗号与句子隔开。如:

He can’t sing. I can’t sing, either. 他不会唱歌,我也不会。

3. also

放在句子中间,不用逗号隔开。如:

She also likes English. 她也喜欢英语。

4. so

用在肯定句中,常用句式为:so+助动词、系动词或情态动词+主语,表示前面说的情况也适 用于后者。如:

(1)A:Tom likes dancing. 汤姆喜欢跳舞。B:So do I. 我也喜欢。

(2)Li Lei went to the park yesterday and so did I. 李雷昨天去公园了,我也去了。

(3)I am a teacher and so is she. 我是位教师,她也是。

5. neither

用在否定句中,常用句式为 neither+助动词、情态动词或系动词+主语,表示前面说的情况 也适用于后者。如:

(1)My brother doesn’t like playing football and neither do I. 我弟弟不喜欢踢 足球,我也不喜欢。

(2)A: Han Meimei can’t draw. 韩梅梅不会画画。 不会。

B: Neither can I. 我也

(3)She isn’t right and neither am I. 她不对,我也不对。

6. nor

用法如同 neither。区别为 neither 用于两者之间;nor 用于两者或两者以上。如:

(1)Wei Fang has no story-books. Neither (Nor) do I. 魏芳没有故事书。我也没有。

(2)Wei Fang has no story-books. Nor do I. Nor do you. 魏芳没有故事书。我也没有。 你也没有。

7. 以上有些句式可以相互转换。如:

(1)He can’t sing. I can’t sing, either.

He can’t sing. Neither/ Nor can I.

(2)My sister likes singing and so do I.

My sister likes singing and I like it, too.

(3)She also goes to work by bike.

She goes to work by bike, too.

【语法精讲】

被动语态

主动语态变被动语态必须注意下面几个问题。

谓语动词的人称和数应和主动结构的宾语保持一致。如:

They built the tall building last month. →The tall building was built last month.

与原句时态应保持一致。如:

They will speak English. →English will be spoken.

动作的执行者无须说明或不必强调时,by 短语可省略。(如没握最好不要省。)如:

We speak English in our school. → English is spoken (by us) in our school.

主动结构中作宾补的不定式可以省去 to,但变为被动语态时必须加上 to .如:

He made me finish the work at once. → I was made to finish the work at once.

被动句中 by 短语和 with 等短语用法不同:强调动作的执行者要用 by;表示状态或主动者 所用的工具或手段要用 with。如:

The work was done by him.

The mountain was covered with snow.

当主动语态含有双宾语时可将任何一个宾语变为被动语态的主语, 另一个不变, 但当直接宾 语作主语时,要在间接宾语前加上介词 to 或 for。如:

My sister gave me a pen yesterday. → A pen was given to me by my sister yesterday. / I was given a pen (by my sister) yesterday.

“主语+谓语+宾语+宾补”句型变为被动语态时,只能将主动结构中的宾语变为被动结构 中的主语,而宾补不变。如:

I heard her sing a song in the next room. → She was heard to sing a song in the next room.

I saw him getting on a bus. → He was seen getting on a bus.

当主动语态的动词是短语动词时,变为被动语态时不能将动词后的介词或副词丢掉。如:

He sent for the doctor at once. → The doctor was sent for at once.

当主动语态的谓语或宾语部分含有不定式时,变为被动句时要将不定式变为被动结构。如:

He is going to do his homework. → His homework is going to be done.

下面几种情况主动语态不能改为被动语态。(1)当宾语是 myself 等反身代词时;(2)当 谓语是表示状态的动词如:have, own, hold 等时;(3)当宾语是动词的 ing 形式时;(4) 当宾语是相互代词时;(5)当宾语是表示数量,重量、大小或程度等时。

动词不定式

1.动词不定式作定语时,不定式所表示的动作与其所修饰的中心词之间一般有三种关系:

(1)动宾关系:即动词不定式所表示的动作与其所修饰的中心词之间具有逻辑上的动宾关 系。如:

She has a lot of work to do. 句中不定式 to do 与 work 构成动宾关系。说明:当作定语 的不定式为不及物动词时或不定式虽是及物动词, 但不能与中心词构成合理搭配时, 不定式 后要加适当的介词。如:

We have nothing to worry about.

They are looking for a house to eat in.

(2)主谓关系:中心词与不定式所表示的动作之间具有逻辑上的主谓关系,即中心词是不 定式动作的发出者。如:

She is always the first to come to school. 句中的 the first 是 come to school 的 逻辑主语,即这个动作的发出者。

(3)同位关系:作定语的不定式是对中心词内容的解释和说明。如:This is the best way

to work out the problem. 句中的 way 的内容是 to work out the problem.

2.“疑问词+不定式”结构,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语等。如:

He didn’t know how to do it.

The question is when to start.

说明:

(1) 当句子谓语动词是 know, learn, remember, forget, tell 等时,其后的宾语从句可简 化成“疑问词+不定式”结构,但主句与从句的主语必须一致。如:

I don’t know what I shall do next. →I don’t know what to do next.

(2) 当句子的谓语动词是 tell,ask, show, teach 等,其后带双宾语,且从句主语和间接 宾语一致时,宾语从句可转换成“疑问句+不定式”结构。如:Please tell me where I can find her. →Please tell me where to find her.

过去完成时

1.过去完成时的构成:由“助动词+had+过去分词”构成。如:

The film had begun before I got to the cinema.

2.过去完成时的用法:

1)完成法:表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。它是一个相对的时 态,只有在和过去某时或某动作相比较时才用到它。它表示动作发生的时间是“过去的过 去”。表示过去某一时间常用以下几种方式表达:

(1) by,before 等构成的短语表示。如:

We had learned 20 English songs by the end of last year.

They had gone home before five o’clock.

(2) 用 when, before 等引导的从句表示。如:

I had waited for half an hour when the bus came.

He had gone home before I got to his office.

(3) 通过上下文表示。如:

Tom said that the had seen the girl before.

2)持续法:表示从过去某一时间开始,持续到过去另一时间的动作或状态。往往与 for 或 since 引导的表示一段时间的短语或从句连用, 这种用法如同现在完时, 谓语动词只能用 be、 live、study、work 等表示延续性的动词或表示状态的动词。如:

She said she had worked here since 1968.

I had taught English for twelve years before I came to this school.

说明:

(1) 在带有 after 或 before 引导的时间状语从句的复合句中, 由于从句的动作和主句的动 作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,所以可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。如:

He called on me soon after he had returned. (=He called on me soon after the returned.) 他回来不久便来拜访我。

(2)对于一连串的过去动作,其发生的先后顺序,有时可以由动词的词汇意义来表示,无 需再用过去完成时。如:

She looked around but saw nothing. 她环顾四周,但什么也没看到。

He came in and said hello to everyone. 他进来向每一个人问好。

宾语从句反馈

一、从句是陈述句

1.引导词:用 that 连接(口语中 that 常省略)

2.时态:(1)主句是一般现在时态时,从句可根据实际情况用各种时态。

(2)主句是过去时态时,从句多用过去的某种时态与之相呼应。(若从句是属于客观真理 的,则用一般现在时态)。如:

He said that he missed us very much.

The teacher said light travels much faster than sound.

二、从句是一般疑问句

1.引导词:用 if (whether)连接。

2.语序:由疑问句语序改为陈述句语序,即:

(1)主语在先,谓语在后。

(2)有助动词 do, does, did 等则要去掉。

3.标点:主句是肯定句的,句末用句号;主句是问句的,则句末用问号。如:

He asked if Mr. Brown was a doctor.

Do you know if Mr. Brown is a doctor?

三、从句是特殊疑问句

1.引导词:用原疑问词连接。

2.语序:用陈述句语序。

(1)原疑问词是主语的,则不用变。

(2)其余的要把谓语放在主语之后。如:

Can you tell me who will give us a talk?

I don’t know when classes will begin.

3.主语是问句,句末要用问号。

四、三种情况的共同点和不同点

A.共同点:

(1)主句是过去时态时,从句都用过去的时态。

(2)语序都用陈述语序。

(3)若是客观真理时,时态都不变。

B.不同点:

(1)引导词不同(1) that

(2) if (whether)

(3)原疑问词。

(2)句末标点符号不同,主句是陈述句的,句末用句号;主句是疑问句的,句末用问号。

(3)主句是现在时态时,则根据句意用相应的时态。

二.考试热点

1.被动语态的三种时态:一般现在时的被动语态,一般过去时的被动语态和含情态动词的 被动语态。作为考点常见于选择填空题、句型转换题和动词时态填空题中。另一考点为计量 的表达方法。

2.通过购物、看病、书信等对话、文章,使学生能进行日常交际了英文书信的格式和书写, 从而考查学生听、说、读、写的能力。此考点常见于完成对题和书面表达题中。

3.理解 so?that 和 though 引导的状语从句及动词不定式和疑问词连用、动词定式作定语 的用法。常见题型为句型转换题。

三.重、难点突破

1.过去完成时的用法和构成,教材有叙述,在使用这个时态时要注意它与过去时有关系, 即所说的“过去的过去”,以下介词短语常用于过去完成时。by+过去时间,by the end of+ 过去时间,by the time+从句(过去时)等。另外要注意,在过去完成时中,短暂动作动词 不能与 for+时段,since+时点连用。

2.so?that 意为“如此??以致??”,that 后常借结果状语从句。So?that 中间是带 形容词还是副词,由谓语动词来决定。so ?that 从句可以变为 too? (for sb.) to do 或?enough (for sb. to do)的简单句。

3.关于 so 与 such

这两个词都表示“这么”、“这样”、“如此”之意,但两者用法不同。such 是形容词, 修饰名词或名词短语,其用法:such(a/an)adj. +n. (注意:若名词前有 many、much、 few、little 等词时只能用 so) so 是副词,常置于所修饰的形容词、副词之前,其用法: so+adj.+a/an+n.。so 还有代词用法。

4.英文书信格式

一份正规的信应主要包括四个部分:

1)右上角是写信人的地址和写信日期。地址应从小写到大,地址下面要写日期。

2)对收信人的称呼。一般称呼前都要用 Dear。

3)内容。这是信件的主体。

4)签名。签名前应写 Yours 这类的字样。

5)关于购物用语。

四.典型例题

[例 1]

动词填空

He ______ (tell) to return his book to the library yesterday morning.

分析

此题根据句意“他”应归还书籍,不是自己告知,而是“被人告知”,所以这里应

填被动语态形式。由于句尾 yesterday morning 表明过去时态,故应填 was told.

[例 2]

________ of the students are girls in our class.

A. Two three

B. Two threes

C. Two thirds

D. Second three

分析 此题考查学生对英语分数的表达。英语的分数,分子用基数词,分母用序数词,先读 分子,后读分母。当分子大于 1 时,分母就加 s,变为复数,故此题答案为 C。

[例 3]

He likes the book but it _______ too much.

A. pays

B. costs

C. takes

D. spends

分析

此题考查学生对同义词的理解。spend, pay, take, cost 都有“花费”之意,但它

们有区别。take 表示“花费时间”,主语是动词不定式。It takes sb. some time to do sth. pay“付款”常与 for 搭配;spend“花费时间/钱”,常与 on 搭配,其形式为 spend?on, spend?(in) doing sth.。pay 和 spend 的主语应为“某人”。但 cost 一词“值??钱” 主语应为“某物/某事”。故答案为 B。

[例 4] 将两句并合为一复合句。

The words on the notice board are very small.

I can't see them clearly.

The words on the notice board are ______ small ______I can't see them clearly.

分析 此题考查学生对语言的运用所掌握的能力。此题用 so?that 两词可以把两句合并起 来,使它成为一个结果状语从句。即“通知墙报上的字是如此小以致我看不清楚。”另外, 此题还可以一个简单句:The words on the notice board are too mall for me to see clearly.

[例 5] 同义句转换。

You can do your homework today or you can do it tomorrow.

______ today or tomorrow ______ OK for you to do your homework.

分析 此题关键之处是要理解原句之意。同时选用正确的连接词。此题中已有“or”提醒学 生应用 either?or。“either?or”有“要么??要么”、“或者??或者”之意。后一 空格是考查学生 either?or 其谓语动词“数”的问题, 由于 tomorrow 是单数故后格填 is。

[例 6] 填空

—_______the population of Germany?

—About eighty-one million.

分析 问“人口多少”常用 What’s the population??来表达。所以此题应用固定结构, 即填 What’s。

[例 7] 词语替换。

Your shoes are worn out. You should buy a new pair instead.

A. too big

B. too small

C. too old

D. too cheap

分析

此题考查学生对词语的理解。be worn out 是“被穿破”之意,即“旧了”。而不

存在“太大,太不,太便宜”的问题,所以答案为 C。

[例 8] 正误例析

1)那群女孩继续向前移动。

误:The group of girls all moved.

正:The group of girls all moved on.

分析 英语中有些表示位移的动词,如 pass, go, move, walk 等与 on 连用,往往含有动作 的继续之意。如:pass on 继续传递,go on 继续进行,move on 继续向前移动,walk on 继 续走动等。

2)你能告诉我去博物馆的路吗?

误:Can you tell me the way go to the museum?

正:Can you tell me the way to the museum?

分析 the way to?这一结构中 to?是介词短语,作定语,修饰 the way。英语中类似这种 表达还有:the answer to the question 问题的答案,the key to the door 门上的钥匙等。 另外有关问路的句型还有:Can you tell me how to get to the ??Can you tell me how I can get to the?? Can you show me the way??How can I get to??等。

五.强化训练及答案

I.词汇

A)根据句意及词首字母写出所缺单词。

1. Kate’s parents put presents in each o______ stockings.

2. The PLA was f____ on August 1, 1927.

3. We got up early in the morning before the sun r_________.

4. I’m sorry to tell you that you f______ the history exam again.

5. She r_____ a letter from her father yesterday.

B)根据句意,用所给单词的正确形式填空。

6. A lot of ______ (foreign) visited our school last Sunday.

7. With the _______ of science, our life is getting better and better. (develop)

8. Do you know the ______ (fly) number leaving for Beijing?

9. She can’t go any farther with her______ legs. (break)

10. They didn’t know who ______ (invent) the fridge.

C)词语理解:根据所给句子划线部分的意思,从四个选项中选出最佳答案。

11. The football match has been on for an hour.

A. has begun for an hour

B. began at one’o clock

C. began an hour ago

D. began for an hour

12. My father joined the Party when he was twenty.

A. is a Party member

B. is in the Party member

C. became a Party member

D. wanted to be a Party member

13. She stopped crying and listened to the music.

A. stopped to cry

B. didn’t cry any more

C. couldn’t cry much more

D. began crying

14. If you want to work out this difficult problem, you must use your head.

A. ask for help

B. think of

C. think hard

D. find way

15. Have you received any letters from your parents these days?

A. heard from

B. listened

C. talked

D. reported

II.选择填空

1. The heavy snow ______ arriving in time.

A. let the train not

B. made the train not to

C. stopped the train of

D. stopped the train from

2. My parents ______ about 1, 000 yuan for my school education(教育)each year.

A. spend

B. take

C. cost

D. pay

3. The medicine ______ cool, clean and dry.

A. must keep

B. must be kept

C. must be carried

D. must be in

4. In _______ time, those mountains will be covered with trees.

A. few years

B. a few years’

C. a few year

D. a few year’s

5. My grandfather could ______ read ______ write because he was too poor to go to school in the old days.

A. either. . .or only. . .but also

B. neither. . .nor

C. both. . .and

D. not

6. There's hardly ______ milk in the bottle, ______ there?

A. no, isn't

B. some, is

C. little, isn't

D. any, is

7. The students should learn ______ from books ______ from life.

A. so, as

B. both, and

C. either, or

D, neither, nor

8. The population is growing faster in _____ developed countries than in ______ developed countries.

A. more, little

B .less, more

C. more, less

D. little, more

9. China is famous ______ her Great Wall.

A. as

B. for

C. to

D. of

10. — How long have you _____ the football team of the school?

—About two years.

A. been on

B. been at

C. joined

D. played

11. We’ll have ______ holiday. What are you going to do?

A. two days

B. two-days’

C. a two-day

D. a two –days

12. The small boy didn’t know what time_______ with presents.

A. his father filled his stockings

B. did his father fill his stockings

C. was his father filling his stockings stockings

D. his father has filled his

13. On New Year’s Day all the children _______ and enjoy themselves.

A. dress in beautiful clothes

B. dress themselves up

C. dress themselves

D. dress

14. I have written _______ down on this list.

A. it of all

B. in the all

C. all it

D. it all

15. The man ______ in 1992, he _____ for ten years.

A. died, was dead

B. died, has been dead

C. was dead, has dies

D. was dead, has been died

16. — What a good student you are! —_______.

A. Thank you.

B. That’s right.

C. I should do more

D. Don’t say that

17. I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. If it _______, we’ll go to the park.

A. rain

B. won’t

C. doesn’t rain

D. will rain

18. —Could you tell me______?

—Yes. They _______ to the library.

A. where are the twins, have been B. where the twins are, have gone

C. where were the twins, have been D. where the twins were, have gone

19. Do you know _______?

A. how using a computer

B. how to use a computer

C. how used a computer

D. how a computer to use

20. The boys is ______ to cook for himself.

A. younger enough

B. old enough

C. enough young

D. enough old

Ⅲ.句型转换。

1. Did you use computers to make the foreign language easy to learn?

_______ computers _______ to help you learn the foreign language_______?

2. The poor truck went past, and there was heavy smoke behind it.

The poor truck went past ______ heavy smoke behind it.

3. His brother is a teacher. His sister is a teacher.

______ his brother ______ his sister ______ ______.

4. It’s a long time since we met last.

We ______ ______ each other for a long time since we met last.

5. Does Mr. Brown enjoy living in China? Could you tell us?

Could you tell us ______ Mr. Brown ______ living in China.

6. They have lived in Shiyan for more than ten years. (对划线部分提问)

_________ ________ have they lived in Shiyan?

7. They’ve visited the Summer Palace already. (改为否定句)

They _______ visited the Summer Palace_________.

8. Could you tell me how I can answer the question in English?(改为简单句)

Could you tell me _______ ______ answer the question in English?

IV.补全对话。

根据对话情景填入所缺单词,使对话完整、通顺。

A: Hello, may I _1_____ to John, please.

B: _2______ on for a moment, please. I’m sorry he isn’t here 3______ now. Who’s that 4_____, please?

A: _5______ is Mary. I’m his classmate.

B: Hello, Mary. Can I 6_____ a message?

A: Yes, please ask him to give me a _7_____ this afternoon, OK? B: Yes, is your number 3394564? A: Yes. B: OK. I’ll _8____ the message on his desk. A: Thank you for your kind _9______. B: You’re 10_____ . See you.

V.完成句子。

1.这张桌子是由木头做的。

The table is _________ ________ wood.

2.人们常看见他画画。

He is often _______ to _______ pictures.

3.你听见我的话了吗?

Did you hear _______ ______ said?

4.长城有两千多年的历史了。

The Great Wall has ________ ________ _________ more than two______ years.

5.那个年轻人离开家乡已经有两年半了。

The young man ________ _______ _______ ________ his hometown for two and a half years.

6.汤姆到中国以来已经给他父母写了好几封信。

Tom ______ ______ several letters to his parents _______ he ______ to China.

7.老师告诉我们不要在课堂上大吵大闹。

The teacher told us _______ _______ make a lot of noise in class.

8.没有你的帮助,她不能按时完成这项工作。

She couldn’t finish the work on time ________ your ______.

VI.完形填空

Once a man named Henry found a box of old papers(文件) in a room. He of them, for he didn't like old things very much. 2

1

most

one of these papers was

an old letter. It was written by a famous writer(作者).

“When this letter was written,” said Henry, “ the writer. But now everyone knows him. Some people like to

3 4

knew about and keep

letters like this. I will get a lot of money for this letter if I sell it to the right man.”

There were a lot of dirty marks (斑迹) all over the letter. He thought, “It doesn't look the letter letter to a 6 7 5 . No one wants to buy a letter if it's dirty. So he cleaned . At last it looked new and he was very pleased. He took the in New York, He knew that old papers of this kind were bought

and sold there.”

The man in the shop looked at the letter for a long time. Then he said, “I’ll 8 you ten dollars.”

“Only ten dollars?” said Henry. “But people pay a hundred letter like this. I've cleaned it and made it look nice.”

9

a

“I can see that,” said the man. “That's the old papers like them to be dirty.”

10

. People who buy

1. A. took

B. burnt

C. wrote

D. kept

2. A. And

B. Because

C. But

D. If

3. A. Noone

B .Anyone

C. All

D. Everyone

4. A. read

B. see

C. buy

D. sell

5. A. dirty

B. true

C. worried

D. nice

6. A. carefully

B. kindly

C. heavily

D .suddenly

7. A. market

B .shop

C .library

D. bookshop

8. A. spend

B. lend

C. send

D. give

9. A. on

B. in

C. for

D. with

10. A. difficulty

B. problem

C. question

D. answer

阅读理解

A

When Mencius (孟子)was a small boy, his father died. So Mencius and his mother were quite poor. One day Mencius returned home from school and found his mother making some cloth(布). It was very beautiful and expensive.

“How much of your book have you read today?” Mencius’ mother asked him. Mencius threw down his book. “I haven’t read any of it,” he replied, “I played with some friends of mine in the fields.”

When his mother heard this, she picked up a pair of scissors(剪刀)and cut the cloth.

“Why have you cut your cloth?” Mencius asked. “It was so beautiful and now you’ve wasted(浪费)it.” “You have wasted your time,” his mother said. “Now I have wasted mine. Look at the terrible thing we have done.”

Mencius learnt a lot from this lesson. After that, he always studied hard.

根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。

1. When did this story happen? ___________

A. Not long before liberation(解放)B. More than 2000 years ago

C. About 400 years ago

D. In the 18th century

2. Mencius and his mother were quite poor because _________.

A. they had to spend a lot of money on beautiful and expensive cloth

B. Mencius was young and he couldn’t work

C. his father died when Mencius was a child

D. Mencius’ schooling cost them much money

3. What was Mencius doing while his mother was cutting the cloth?

A. He was reading his book.

B. He was playing in the fields.

C. He was trying to help her.

D. He was watching strangely (奇怪地.)

4. When the mother knew Mencius had played in the fields, she was_________.

A. pleased

B. surprised

C. sad

D. happy

5. The mother cut the cloth because ________.

A. she thought making cloth was wasting time

B. she wanted to make more beautiful cloth

C. she wanted to teach her son a lesson

D. she wanted her son to do his lessons at once

B

Everyone needs friends. We all like to feel close to someone. It is nice to have a friend to talk, laugh, and do things with. Surely, there are times when we need to be alone. We don't always want people around. But we would feel lonely if we never had a friend.

No two people are just the same. Sometimes friends don't get along well. That doesn't mean that they no longer like each other. Most of the time they will make up and go on being friends.

Sometimes friends move away. Then we feel very sad. We miss them very much. But we can call them and write to them. It could be that we would even see them again. And we can make new friends. It is surprising to find out how much we like new people when we get to know them.

Families sometimes name their children after a close friend. Many places are named after men and women who have been friendly to people in a town. Some libraries are named this way.

So are some schools. We think of these people when we go to these places.

There’s more good news for people who have friends. They live longer than people who don't. Why? It could be that they are happier. Being happy helps you stay well. Or it could be just knowing that someone cares. If someone cares about you, you take better care of yourself.

6 .The first paragraph (段) tells us ______.

A. none need friends

B. we always need friends around us

C. making friends is the need in people’s life

D. we need to be alone

7. Which of the following is what the writer doesn't say in the passage?

A. People are not happy when their friends leave them.

B. people will never see their friends after their friends move away.

C. People can know their friends in different ways.

D. People like their friends very much if they get to know them.

8. Which of the following is most probably the place people name after friendly people?

A. city.

B. A room.

C. A town.

D. A library.

9. People who have friends live longer than people who don't because ______.

A. they feel happier and are healthy

B. they get a lot of help from their friends

C. they take better care of themselves

D. both A and C

10. The main idea of this passage is ______.

A. that people are all friends

B. that people need friends

C. how to get to know friends

D. how to name a place

综合训练答案:

Ⅰ. 1.other’s velopment C 15.A 2.founded 8.flight 3.rose 9.broken 4.failed 5.received 11.C 6.foreigners 12. C 13.B 7.de 14.

10. (had) invented

Ⅱ. 1.D A 13. B

2.D

3. B

4.B 15. B

5.B 16. A

6.D

7.B

8.B 18. B

9. B 19. B

10. A 20. B

11. C

12.

14. D

17. C

Ⅲ. 1.Were used, easily 2.with seen

3.Both, and, are teachers 7.haven’t, yet

4.haven’t 8.how to

5.if/ whether, enjoys 6.How long

Ⅳ. 1.speak ring

2.Hold

3.right

4.speaking/ calling

5.This

6.take

7.call/

8.leave

9.help

10.welcome

Ⅴ. 1.made of been away from

2.seen, draw

3.what I

4.a history of, thousand 7.not to

5.has

6.has written, since, came

8.without, help

Ⅵ. 1.B

2.C

3.A

4.C

5.D

6A

7.B

8.D

9.C

10.B

Ⅶ. 1—5 B C D C C

6.C

7.C

8.D

9.D

10.B


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