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选修七 Unit 5 Travelling abroad 第三课时——Grammar


非限定性定语从句,只是对先 行词做些附加说明,如去掉, 主句的意思仍然清楚。这种 从句和主句间用逗号隔开。

His dog, which was now very old, became ill and died.

他的狗当时很老了, 生病后就
死了。

(去掉从句, 主句意义仍然完整:
他的狗生病死了)

Yesterday I met Li Lei, who

seemed to be very busy.
昨天我碰上李雷了,他好象很忙 (去掉从句, 意义仍然完整:

昨天我碰上李雷了)

Mr King was quickly taken to hospital. Her legs were badly hurt.
Mr King, whose legs were badly hurt, was quickly taken to hospital. We shall make a decision about Ms King. I have told you her story. We shall make a decision about Ms King, whose story I have told you.

区别 限定性 译成先行词的定 译法 语: “…的” 1. 作宾语时可省 关系 2. 可用that 词 3. 可用who 代 替whom 非限定性 通常译成主句 的并列句 1. 不可省 2. 不用that 3. 不可用who 代替whom

His brother, who is eighteen years old, is a PLA man. 他的哥哥是个解放军战士,现今十八岁 (说明他只有一个哥哥) His brother who is eighteen years old is a PLA man. 他那个十八岁的哥哥是位解放军 (说明他还有别的哥哥)

关系词的作用: ①代替先行词在从句中充当一定成分 ②把主从句连起来构成一个复合句 关系 起着代词和连词的作用,在从句中 代词 充当主语,宾语或定语
关系 起着副词或介词短语和连词的作用, 副词 在从句中充当状语

非限制性定语从句的关系词

1. 指人时:who, whom, whose 2. 指物时:which, as which (指词/整个主句只能位于主句后) as (正如,可位于主句前、中、后) 3. 指地点时:where = 相应介词 + which 4. 指时间时:when = 相应介词 + which 5. 指原因时:for which (切不可用why)

非限定性定 语从句考点

1. 用which代替指物的先行词
(不能用that且不可省)

The project, which lasted two
years, cost five million dollars. 这项工程历时两年,耗资五百

万美元。

2. 指人时主格用who,宾格用whom
His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他,对他要求很严格 I happened to meet Li Hong, whom I didn't recognize at once. 我碰巧遇到李红但并没马上认出她来

3. 表示所属用whose(先行词人/物) Li Ming, whose mother has been ill for two days, is absent from school today. 黎明的妈妈病了两天了,他今天没 上学。 The room, whose windows face east, is our dormitory. 那个房间是我们宿舍,房间的窗户 朝东。

4.关系副词引导非限定性 定语从句 (why不能引导,要用for which) I have told them the reason, for which I didn’t attend the meeting. 我没去开会,我已告诉他们理由了 Last Sunday he reached Nanjing , where a conference was to be held. 他上周日到了南京,有个会将在那举行

5. 介词+关系代词引导非限定性定语从句
I finished my work ahead of time,

after which I went home.
我提前干完了活,随后就回家了。

He lost his glasses, without which he
can’t see anything.

他眼镜丢了,没眼镜他什么都看不到

6.表达数量或定位的数词或代词 +of
which/whom引导非限定性定语从句 表示部分的词常见的有:不定代词 all, both, none, neither, either, some any, 数词(含基数词,序数词,分数 和百分数);the +最高级/比较级, 以及表示数目或数量的词语many, most, few, several等。

He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. Up to now, he has written ten stories,

three of which are about city life.
There are two buildings, the larger of

which is a hundred feet high.
Many people, some of whom are not

overweight, are going on diets.

7. since when; from where引导的非 限定性定语从句

since when = and since then自那时起 from where 从某处(指大概地方) He stood at the window, from where we can see the park. The book was written in 1946, since when the education system has witnessed great changes.

8. as, which 非限定性定语从句 as和which可代整个主句,相当于 and this或and that。as一般放在 句首,which在句中

As we know, smoking is harmful to one’s health. He is from America, which I know from his accent. 他是美国人,这一点我是从他的口 音得知的。

as、which区别 a. which只能主句之后
而as 可放在主句之前/中/后

b. 否定句中一般用which
c. which 意为“这一点”

而as 表示 “正如…”

as“正如…” 常用结构: as we all know 正如我们所知道的 as you say 正如 你所说的 as I can see 正如我所能看到的 as we had expected 正如我们所料 as you may have heard… 正如你可能听到过的那样 as is often the case = as often happens 情况往往如此/这是常有的事

as“正如…” 也常用于被动结构: as is expected (正如所料) as has been explained (正如所解释的) as is mentioned above (正如所提到的) as is known to all (众所周知) as is announced/reported (据宣布/报道) as has been mentioned above (正如前面被提到的那样) as has been pointed out (正如所指出的那样)

1. As we expected, he failed the exam. 正如我所预料的,他不相信我。 He failed the exam, which we hadn’t expected. 他考试失败了,这一点我们没料到 2. She heard a terrible noise, which brought her heart into her mouth. 她听到一可怕声音,这让她把心提 到嗓子眼了

非限定性定语 从句注意事项

非限制性定语从句和简单句的比较 1. He failed in the exam.____ made his This parents angry. 2. He failed in the exam, which _____made his parents angry. × that

3. He has two sons. Both of _____ are them teachers. 4. He has two sons, both of ______ are whom teachers.

非限制性定语从句和其他从句的比较 1. It is well known that the earth is ___ round. 2. What is well known is that the earth _____ is round. 3. That the earth is round is known _____ to us. 4. ____ is known to us, the earth is As round.

非限制性定语从句和先行词有时分隔 【2007 福建】 The village has developed a lot where we learned farming two years ago. 【2007 江西】 After graduation she reached a point in her career where she needed to decide what to do.

非限制性定语从句和先行词有时分隔 【2007 福建】 The village has developed a lot where we learned farming two years ago. 【2007 江西】 After graduation she reached a point in her career where she needed to decide what to do.

快乐体验

Who is she?

Cecilia, ______ took who

weight-loss pills,
now realizes that
health is important.

Cecilia, _______ whose body is thin, still wants to lose some weight (减肥).

英雄这部电影下周上映,这让我们很高兴 The film “hero” will be on show next week, ______________________. which makes us very happy

张艺谋是个非常有名的导演,他曾得金鸡奖 Zhang yimou, who is a very famous director ________________________,

has got the Golden Rooster Awards.

这是章子怡,她在电影中扮演重要角色
The woman,_________________________ who plays an important part in the film, is Zhang ziyi.

路太滑了,以至于引起了很多事故。
The road was too slippery, ___________ which caused __________________. a lot of accidents.

1. Hangzhou is a beautiful city, ______ where
people visit the famous West Lake. 2. Alice received an invitation from her which boss, _______ came as a surprise.

3. As is known to all, he is the best student. __
4. The young man had a new girl friend,

____ who is a pop star.

5. I should thank my teacher, with whose ______ help, I solved the problem. 6. He once worked on the Bird’s Nest,

____ _______ his son is proud. of which
7. He will come to see me next July,

_____ he won’t be so busy. when

Fill in the blanks with proper link words The doctor lives downstairs
“Doctor,” she said loudly, breaking into the room, where there was a man, “I want _____ you to tell what is wrong with me.” He

looked at her from head to foot, then said, As “____ is shown in the mirror, I've just
three things to tell you.

First, I suggest that you, my lady, ______ whose

weight needs reducing by nearly fifty
pounds, should do more exercise. Second, you may use 1/10 as much lipstick which (口红), by ______ you will be prettier. And third, I’m an artist---the doctor,

whom you are looking for, lives downstairs" _____

高考链接 1 【2012全国II】
That evening, _______I will tell you more

about later, I ended up working very late.
A. that B. which

C. what

D. when

句意:以后我将和你谈起的那个晚上,我工 作到了很晚。这里that evening是先行词,在 定从中作介词about的宾语,所以用which。

高考链接
2 【2012安徽】 Alot of language learning, _____ has been discovered, is happening in the first year of life, so parents should talk much to their children during that period.

A. as
C. which

B. it
D. this

高考链接
本句中关系代词是整个一句话 A lot of language learning is happening in the first year of life. 此时关系代 词用which或as。但as放在指代的主 句之前/中、后,而which只能放在 指代的主句之后。本题关系代词插 在了主句中故答案为A

高考链接 3 【2012北京】 When deeply absorbed in work, ______ he often was,he would forget all about eating or sleeping. A. that B. which C. where D. when
本题中的非限定性定语从句少表语 因此选用关系代词答案为B。

高考链接
4 【2012福建】 The air quality in the city, _____ is shown in the report, has improved over the past two months. A. that B. it C. as D. what

高考链接 句意:正如报道所写的那样,这个 城市的空气质量在过去的两个月已 改善了,关系代词指代主句整句话: The air quality in the city has improved over the past two months. 且关系代词放到了主句之中,故答 案为as选C.

高考链接 5 【2012 陕西】 It is the third time that she has won the race, ____ has surprised us all. A. that B. where C. which D. what
非限制性定语从句中先行词是整个主 句,关系词在从句中做主语,选C。

高考链接 6 【2012山东】
Maria has written two novels, both of _____ have been made into television series.

A. them
C. which

B. that
D. what

高考链接
本题中先行词为two novels,后面是 一个非限定性定语从句且介词前置, 因此用both of which引导,句意为: Maria写了两部小说,两部都被拍成 电视剧了。

高考链接
7 【2012江西】 By 16:30, ____ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A. which B. when C. what D. that 题意:到16:30,也就是几乎到了关 闭时间时,几乎所有的画都被出售了 定语从句少主语故选关系代词答案为A

高考链接
8 【2012四川】 In our class there are 46 students, _____ half wear glasses. A. in whom B. in them C. of whom D. of them 前后无连词故不能用人称代词them而 用关系代词whom引导定语从句;在46 个学生当中,表所属应用of。故选C

高考链接
9 【2012浙江】 Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature, _____, for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society. A. which B. who C. where D. whom 先行词Ellen(人名)在定语从句中作 主语,故选用关系代词who,答案为B。

高考链接
10 【2012江苏】 After the flooding, people were suffering in that area, ____ urgently needed clean water, medicine and shelter to survive. A. which B. who C. where D. what 本题先行词为people且在定从中作 主语,故用关系who,答案为B。

1. Yesterday Mr. Li finally bought his
own house, _______ is a hospital.

A. in where
B. to the east of which C. to the east of it D. in the east of that

2. My brother's purse, _______ he put ¥1,000, was missing on the bus. A. there B. which C. in which D. that 3. The computer, _____ he paid ¥3,000, was once owned by his uncle. A. which B. for which C. that D. to that

4. Last night we saw two movies, _____ was interesting. A. both of which C. both of them B. neither of which D. neither of them

5. I used to live in a house, ____ grew a

tall tree.
A. in front of it D. in front of that B. in front of which C. in the front of which

6. Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise. A. it B. that C. which D. he 7. The weather turned out to be very good, ___was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it

8. She is a teacher of much knowledge, _____ much can be learned. A. who B. that C. from which D. from whom 9. China has many rivers, ____the Changjiang River is the longest. A. which B. in which C. among which D. one of which

10. His walking stick, ____ he can’t walk, was lost yesterday. A. that
C. which

B. with which
D. without which

11. He must be from Africa, _____ can

be seen from his skin.
A. that B. which

C. who

D. what

12. ______is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high school is increasing. A. Which B. As C. What D. That 13. American women usually identify their best friend as someone _____ they can talk frequently. A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom

14. The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, _______ the sailing time was 226 days. A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 15. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, _______ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose

16. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% ___ are sold abroad.

A. of which
C. of them

B. which of
D. of that

17. Whenever I met her, ___was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. A.who B. which C. when D. that 18. She brought with her three friends, none of _____ I had ever met before. A. them C. whom B. who D. these

19. They will fly to Washington, ____ they plan to stay for two or three days. A. where B. there C. which D. when 20. We came a week ago,_______the weather has been bad. A.when B.during which C.since then D.since when

21. I’ll give you my friend’s home address, ____ I can be reached most evenings. A. which B. when

C. whom

D. where

22. All the neighbor admire this family, __ the parents are treating their child like a friend. A. why B. where C. which D. that

23. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, ___ wanted to buy it. A. none of them B. both of them C. none of whom D. neither of whom 24. She refused to give me the reason, _____she didn't accept my invitation. A.why B.when

C.for which

D.that

25. The newly built café the walls ,
of________are painted light green,

is really a peaceful place for us,
especially after hard work. A.that C.what B.it D.which

26. After graduating from college,I took some time off to go travelling, ___turned out to be a wise decision.

A.that
C.when

B.which
D.where

27. The settlement is home to nearly
1,000 people, many of______left

their village homes for a better life
in the city. A.whom C.them B.which D.those

28. My friend showed me round the town,_____was very kind of him. A.which B.that C.where D.It 29. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us,________we gave some bells and glasses. A.to which B.to whom C.with whom D.with which

30. They've won their last three matches, _______I find a bit surprising. A.that B.when C.what D.Which 31. It is reported that two schools, ___ are being built in my hometown, will open next year. A. they both B. which both C. both of them D. both of which

32. ____ is reported in the newspapers,
talks between the countries are

making progress.
A. It C. That B. As D. What

33. The Beatles, _____ many of you are
old enough to remember, came from

Liverpool.
A. what C. how B. that D. as

34. His movie won several awards at
the film festival, ______ was beyond

his wildest dream.
A. which C. where B. that D. it

35. Great changes have taken place in
that school. It is no longer what it

was 20 years ago, ____ it was so
poorly equipped. A. when C. what B. which D. that

36. I walked in our garden, ____ Tom
and Jim were tying a big sign onto

one of the trees.
A. which C. where B. when D. that

37. He said he would come to my
to see me tomorrow afternoon,

____ I will have some other friends
play together. A. when C. which B. where D. whom

38. Helen was much kinder to her
youngest son than to the others,

_____, of course, made the others
envy him. A. who C. what B. that D. which

39. Her sister has become a lawyer, _______ she wanted to be. A. who B. that C. what D. which 40. Carol said the work would be done by October, ____personally I doubt very much. A. it B. that C. when D. which

Homework
Finish the exercises

on P41 — 42.


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