镇江中学 2015-2016 学年高一上学期期中考试 英语试卷
命题人：陈曦 审核人：华爱珍 校对人：杜韵婷 注：本试卷满分 120 分，考试时间 120 分钟。请将本试卷选择题做在答题卡上，非选择题做在答卷上。
第 I 卷（共 80 分）
一．听力（10 分，每小题 0.5 分） 第一节（共 5 小题） 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有
一个小题，从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项，并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后，你都有 10 秒钟的时间来回答有关小题 和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 1. What is the woman doing? A. Walking. B. Driving. C. Running. 2. What book has the man’s sister got? A. A medical book. B. A Chinese textbook. C. An English textbook. 3. Who is ill? A. The man. B. The woman. C. The man’s brother. 4. What does the man imply? A. His brother will watch the game. B. He isn’t interested in the game. C. His brother will play in the game. 5. What is the relationship between the speakers? A. Mother and son. B. Hostess and guest. C. Waitress and customer. 第二节（共 15 小题） 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有几个小题，从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项，并标在试卷的相应位置。听每段对话或独白前，你将有时间阅读各个小题，每小题 5 秒钟；听完后，各小题给出 5 秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 听第 6 段材料，回答第 6 至 8 题。 6. What day is it today? A. Wednesday. B. Thursday. C. Friday. 7. How will the man’s brother come? A. By train. B. By car. C. By air. 8. What will the woman do on Friday night? A. Meet Professor Smith. B. Celebrate her birthday. C. Attend a lecture. 听第 7 段材料，回答第 9 至 11 题。 9. When does the conversation take place? A. At the beginning of a class. B. In the middle of a class. C. Between the classes. 10. Why didn’t the boy answer any questions on the homework? A. He found them difficult. B. He read the wrong chapter. C. He forgot to read the chapter. 11. How did the boy get to school this morning? A. On foot. B. By bus. C. By bike.
听第 8 段材料，回答第 12 至 14 题。 12. Where does the conversation probably take place? A. In a library. B. In an office. C. In a classroom. 13. How many brothers and sisters does the man have? A. 5. B. 3. C. 2. 14. What are the speakers mainly talking about? A. Love. B. Friendship. C. A family. 听第 9 段材料，回答第 15 至 17 题。 15. What was the woman’s favorite subject in college? A. Law. B. English. C. French. 16. How long did the woman work in the last company? A. About 4 years. B. About 6 years. C. About 9 years. 17. What is the woman’s greatest concern? A. Salary. B. Further education. C. Paid leaves. 听第 10 段材料，回答第 18 至 20 题。 18. What was the relationship between the speaker and Paul at first? A. Classmates. B. Workmates. C. Boyfriend and girlfriend. 19. How did the restaurant owner acknowledge the speaker’s work? A. He offered her free meals. B. He gave her a discount on meals. C. He paid her a high salary. 20. What changed the speaker’s impression of Paul? A. His relationship with Sophie. B. His superb cooking. C. His devotion to work. 二．单项选择（20 分，每小题 1 分） 21. My history teacher Jones is a teacher with rich __________ who has experienced different ways of life across the world. That ’s to say, his students can get benefit from his ___________ from his world traveling. A. experience; experiences B. experiences; experience C. experiences; experiences D. experience; experience 22. Who would you rather _____________ the report instead of you? A. have write B. have to write C. has written D. have written 23. ___________ his arrival __________ the airport, he received a warm welcome from his students. A. At; of B. On; of C. At; on D. On; at 24. _____________ get out of the room, the little boy felt bored with standing facing the wall and being forced to think about his mistakes. A. Forbidden from B. Forbidding to C. Forbidden to D. Forbidding from 25. Her __________ look suggested that something _____________ to her. A. frightening; frightening should happen B. frightened; frightening had happened C. frightening; frightened had happened D. frightened; frightened has happen 26. Jerry, one of my classmates now, is able to speak fluent English. He seems __________ in
America before. A. to study B. to have studied C. to be studying D. studying 27. — Speaking of our English teacher, he has once studied in Britain and achieved high scores there. — ___________. A. So has he and so has ours. B. So has he and so ours has. C. So he has and so ours has. D. So he has and so has ours. 28. He along with his brothers ___________ how serious the situation is. A. haven’t realized B. hasn’t realized C. don’t realize D. didn’t realize 29. --- I’m so happy to see you again. Where have you been? --- Canada! I ____________ medicine there for four years. A. studied B. had studied C. am studying D. study 30. With his attention ___________ the book, he didn’t hear a word outside. A. concentrating on B. having concentrated on C. being concentrated on D. concentrated on 31. To Youyou’s effort and persistence(坚持不懈) in biological study has _________ her great fame. A. caught B. earned C. discovered D. introduced 32. Our class teacher left the classroom, and we were left ____________ the screen alone. A. to watch B. watching C. to be watched D. watched 33. Many babies ___________ their days and nights at first, sleeping for a long time during the daytime and staying excited all night. A. stay up B. mix up C. look up D. take up 34. So, the question is not whether you’ll ___________ dark times in your life, but when you’ll experience them. A. look through B. break through C. go through D. come through 35. She showed the visitors around the museum, the construction __________ had taken more than three years. A. for which B. with which C. of which D. to which 36. I shall never forget the years ___________ I spent in the countryside with the farmers, ___________ I had a lot of fun. A. when, which B. which, where C. which, that D. that, which 37. She has her ability to create an atmosphere __________ allows everyone around her to be happy all the time. A. where B. which C. who D. what 38. When asked what he would do to avoid failing the dictation again, ___________ said they would go over their notes more carefully. A. half of which B. half of whom C. half of them D. half of who 39. Tom Cruise is the person ____________ I think is the best actor to play the role of Ethan Hunt. A. whose B. which C. whom D. who
40. --- I feel sorry about not writing to you earlier. --- _______________ Anyway, you are always so busy. A. You’re welcome. B. Don’t mention it. C. I think so. D. What for? 三．完型填空（20 分，每小题 1 分） For a period of a month some time ago, I became a vegetarian. Some people won’t eat meat because they think it is cruel to animals, or because of health ____41____. My reason is a little ____42____: it is love. I ____43____ wanted to honor my grandmother by not eating meat. My grandmother spent a large part of her life as a vegetarian, and some of my happiest childhood ____44____ in Vietnam were of sharing a meal with her. In fact, as a child, I learned how to ____45____ food not from dishes my mother often cooked, but from the simple meals my grandmother ____46____. Often, dinner with Grandma would come with interesting ____47____ she had known from her childhood. Grandma ____48____ more than a decade ago. Now I am an adult living in San Francisco, and Grandma’s vegetarian suppers and stories have become a ____49____ past. But one morning it ____50____ to me that I could no longer hear the sound of my grandmother ’s voice, because she had left me forever. So I ____51____ to become a vegetarian for a month. It is something Grandma would do as a way to ____52____ those who had died before her. And I could do no less. In a city famous for its dining experience, this was ____53____. I turned down several dinner parties ____54____ offending(冒犯) the hosts. I ____55____ walking by restaurants where the ____56____ of good cooking wafted(漂浮) in the air. My best friend wondered ____57____ I was going through a mid-life crisis. In truth, I wanted to change my ____58____ many times. What got me through that month-long diet was this ____59____ memory of my grandmother. Now, I followed her ____60____. I invited friends who wanted to taste vegetarian food. And as we ate, I told them stories I had known as a child. 41. A. wonders B. studies C. dreams D. concerns 42. A. different B. useful C. cool D. crazy 43. A. regularly B. simply C. nearly D. hardly 44. A. lessons B. opinions C. chances D. memories 45. A. appreciate B. experience C. improve D. support 46. A. sold B. hunted C. demanded D. prepared 47. A. conversations B. beliefs C. stories D. meals 48. A. pulled away B. took away C. passed away D. put away 49. A. similar B. temporary C. various D. distant 50. A. happened B. changed C. continued D. occurred 51. A. supposed B. believed C. decided D. refused 52. A. honor B. protect C. influence D. attract 53. A. difficult B. surprising C. interesting D. natural 54. A. in memory of B. for fear of C. in search of D. for the sake of 55. A. forgot B. regretted C. avoided D. enjoyed 56. A. taste B. skill C. smell D. sense 57. A. before B. if C. until D. unless 58. A. mind B. brain C. view D. duty
59. A. particular 60. A. theory
B. common B. result
C. public C. fact
D. private D. way
四．阅读理解（30 分，每小题 2 分） A For 400 years, opera has been regarded as one of the most significant forms of musical entertainment. Although television and cinema influence our society, big opera houses around the world continue to sell out every night. Here are three of the most important opera houses in the world. Metropolitan Opera House Founded in 1883, the Metropolitan Opera House is the greatest opera house in the world today. With close to 4,000 seats, it is not only one of the biggest, but also one of the most beautiful theatre buildings, only hiring the best of the best directors, dancers and opera singers. Address: Lincoln Center, New York, New York 10023, USA Tickets Phone: +1(212) 362 6000 Prices: 35-265 US dollars Vienna State Opera House The Vienna State Opera House is especially famous for its annual winter ball, turning the main performance hall into a great ballroom and inviting guests from Vienna and around the world. Most of the structure was destroyed during the Second World War. Today, the Vienna State Opera House offers great acoustics(音响效果), wheel chair access, air conditioning and heating, with 40 productions of opera, ballet and concerts per season. Address: Opernring 2, 1010 Vienna, Austria Tickets Phone: +43(1)513 15 13 Prices: 7-255 Euros, standing places: 50 Euros Sydney Opera House Sydney Opera House, completed in 1973, has become a famous tourist attraction in Australia. It is also one of the most famous performing art venues(场馆) in the world. With over 3,000 events each year and an annual audience of two million people, Sydney Opera House offers the broadest artistic range in one building. With several restaurants and bars, as well as various gift shops, one could spend a whole day in the theatre without even watching a performance. Address: Bennelong Point, Sydney NSW 1225, Australia Tickets Phone: +61(2)92 50 71 11 Price: 24 AU dollars 61. The greatest opera house in the world _________________. A. is famous for its excellent acoustics B. welcomes two million people each year C. is located in Lincoln Center, New York City D. has been destroyed during World War II 62. If you want to book a ticket for a winter dancing party, you should call _________________. A. +61(2) 92 50 71 11 B. +43(1)513 15 13 C. +1(212) 362 6000 D. +43(1)513 13 15 63. Which of the following offers standing places? A. Metropolitan Opera House B. Vienna State Opera House
D. Royal Opera House B Research proves that nearly half of the cancers diagnosed(诊断) in the UK each year—over 130,000 in total— are caused by life choices that include smoking, drinking and eating the wrong things. Tobacco is the biggest factor, causing 23% for cases in men and 15.6% in women, says the Cancer Research UK report. Next comes a lack of fresh fruit and vegetables in men’s diets, while for women it is being overweight. Lead author of the report, Professor Max Parkin, said: “Many people believe cancer is related to fate or ‘ in the genes(基因)’, and that it depends on luck whether they get it or not. Looking at all the evidence, it is clear that around 40% of all cancers are caused by things we mostly have the power to change.” For men, the best advice appears to be: stop smoking, eat more fruit and vegetables and cut down on how much alcohol you drink. For women, again, the best advice is to stop smoking, but also watch your weight. In total, 14 lifestyle and environmental factors, such as where you live and the job you do, cause 134,000 cancers in the UK each year. Some risk factors are well founded, such as smoking ’s link with lung cancer. But others are less well recognized. For stomach cancer, a fifth of the risk comes from having too much salt in the diet, data suggests. Some cancers, like mouth and throat cancer, are caused almost entirely by lifestyle choices. But others, like gall bladder cancer(胆囊癌), are largely unrelated to lifestyle. Public Health Minister, Anne Milton, said: “By making small changes you can cut your risk of serious health problems— giving up smoking, watching you drink, getting more exercise and keeping an eye on your weight.” 64. What does the underlined word “ it”, in the second paragraph, refer to? A. Change. B. Lifestyle. C. Cancer. D. Weight. 65. According to Professor Parkin, ______________________. A. cancers are caused due to genetic reasons B. some cancers may be avoided accordingly C. most cancers are caused for no reason D. men can keep an eye on their weight to avoid cancers 66. According to this passage, stomach cancer can be brought on by _________________. A. working overtime B. taking in too much salt C. lack of exercise D. smoking too much 67. Which of the following can be learnt from this passage? A. Smoking is the only cause of lung cancer. B. About 134,000 people die of cancer in the UK each year. C. Some cancers may not be caused by lifestyle choices. D. Drinking a small amount of wine is good for health. C Graduation speeches are a bit like wedding toasts(致辞). A few are memorable. The rest tend to bring such thoughts as, "Why did I wear such uncomfortable shoes?" But graduation speeches are less about the message than the messenger. Every year a few colleges and universities in the US attract attention because they've managed to book high-profile speakers. And, every year, the media report some of these speakers' wise remarks. Last month, the following words of wisdom were spread: "You really haven't completed the circle of success unless you can help somebody else move forward." (Oprah Winfrey, Duke University).
C. Vienna State Opera House
"There is no way to stop change; change will come. Go out and give us a future worthy of the world we all wish to create together." (Hillary Clinton, New York University). "'This really is your moment. History is yours to bend." (Joe Biden, Wake Forest University). Of course, the real "get" of the graduation season was first lady Michelle Obama's appearance at the University of California, Merced. "Remember that you are blessed," she told the class of 2009, "Remember that in exchange for those blessings, you must give something back... As advocate and activist Marian Wright Edelman says, 'Service is the rent we pay for living ... it is the true measure, the only measure of success'." Apple Computer CEO Steve Jobs' address at Stanford University in 2005, in which he talked about death, is also considered one of the best in recent memory. But when you're sitting in the hot sun, fidgety(烦躁的) and losing your nerves, do you really want to be lectured about the big stuff? Isn't that like trying to maintain a smile at your wedding reception while some relative gives a toast that amounts to "marriage is hard work"? You know he's right; you just don't want to think about it at that particular moment. In fact, as is the case in many major life moments, you can't really manage to think beyond the blisters(水泡) your new shoes are causing. That may seem anticlimactic（扫兴的）. But it also gets to the heart of one of life's greatest, saddest truths: that our most "memorable" occasions may recall the fewest memories. It's probably not something most graduation speakers would say, but it's one of the first lessons of growing up. 68. According to the passage, most graduation speeches tend to recall ___________ memories. A. great B. unimportant C. unforgettable D. unimaginative 69. The graduation speeches mentioned in the passage are related to the following themes EXCEPT_____________. A. death B. success C. service D. generosity 70. It is implied in the passage that at great moments people fail to_____________. A. remain clear-headed B. keep good manners C. remember others' words D. recollect specific details 71. What is "one of the first lessons of growing up"? A. Attending a graduation ceremony. B. Listening to graduation speeches. C. Forgetting details of memorable events. D. Meeting high-profile graduation speakers. D Children's future writing difficulties can be identified before they even learn how to begin writing, according to a new study by Professor Phaedra Royle and Postdoctoral fellow Alexandra Marquis of the University of Montreal's School of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology. The researchers are interested in oral language skills and their impact on grammar and spelling learning. Their work shows that oral language is a good predictor of writing difficulties. "The more children are able to use verb tense in spoken language, the more easily they can learn written language," explained Professor Royle. 71 children aged six to nine years participated in Marquis and Royle's study on the relationship between oral and written language skills. Of these children, 38 spoke only French and 33 could speak several languages, with French being their second or third language. All attended French-language schools. They were first evaluated(评估) in first grade, by having their oral
ability in verb conjugation(结合) measured. Then, at the end of second grade, the children's written skills were tested. Results of Royle and Marquis' study indicate that first grade oral skills were predictive of second grade writing skills one year later. More specifically, the ability to understand the rules of word formation and modify the parts of words in spoken language can predict possible spelling and grammar difficulties in written language. Morphemes(词素) refer to the individual pieces of a word, that have meaning. For example, the two morphemes "dog" and "-s" in "dogs" mean more than one dog. "Our findings also show that children who only speak French have an advantage in terms of spoken language because they constantly use French. But in terms of written language, the two groups showed no significant differences." This is the first study in French in which children's abilities to form words and sentences were measured before they were able to write. "Language difficulties must be identified early in school to develop appropriate teaching methods,” Marquis said. "Babies are sensitive to speech sounds at an early age," she explained. "They can even recognize verb endings at 11 months!" Few studies have focused on pre-school children's sensitivity to the structure of oral language and its predictive nature for written language. 72. The writing difficulties of children in the future __________________. A. can be an indicator of their speaking barrier B. can only be identified after they can write C. can be predicted by their oral language D. can be easily corrected if paid attention to 73. Children that participated in the research __________________. A. knew the link between oral and written language B. all spoke French as a second language C. were tested both in oral and written language D. improved their writing at the end of the second grade 74. Which of the children group had an advantage in spoken language in the study? A. children who spoke only one language B. children who spoke several languages C. children who knew what a morpheme was D. children who were sensitive to writing 75. What is the purpose of the research? A. To understand children’s speaking better. B. To develop more effective teaching methods. C. To help children recognize verb endings earlier. D. Too improve pre-school children’s sensitivity to speech.
第 II 卷（共 40 分）
五．任务型阅读（10 分，每小题 1 分） Rainforests are valuable habitats. About half of all the species of animals and plants in the world live in rainforests. Rainforests are also important because the huge number of plants and trees there provide us with oxygen and help to regulate( 调节 ) the world's climate and atmosphere. Yet despite their value, an area of rainforest about the size of Britain is destroyed every year, and this is called deforestation. Rainforests now only cover 6% of the world’s surface as we cut down the trees for materials such as paper and wood and use the land for farming and crops. Sometimes they're burnt down to make space to grow soya which is an animal feed, and to grow palm trees to produce palm oil. Everyone can do their bit to help reduce the need for
deforestation just by following our tips below. How to help: ? Good wood Tropical hardwoods, such as mahogany(红木), is grown in rainforests and take hundreds of years to grow, so you should avoid using any products made of these woods. It is better to have products made of pine or oak. These trees don’t come from the rainforest and can be more easily replaced as they grow a lot faster. ? Protect animals Some parrots are unfortunately still being taken from rainforest areas to be sold as pets. If you want a parrot as a pet, make sure it has been hatched(孵化) in your country. ? Save trees Save trees by recycling your own paper. If you have some sheets of paper with one clean side you can make a notepad(便条簿) out of them. If you want to buy paper, buy recycled paper, whether it is writing paper or toilet paper! ? Other actions Teach others about the importance of the environment and how they can help save rainforests. Restore damaged ecosystems by planting trees on land where forests have been cut down. Encourage people to live in a way that doesn't hurt the environment. Establish parks to protect rainforests and wildlife. Support companies that operate in ways that minimize(最小化) damage to the environment. Rainforests The important role ? Rainforests are ____77____ to a great number rainforests ____76____ of animals and plants. ? Rainforests play a big role in ____78____ the global climate and atmosphere. Brief introduction The current situation of ? As an area of rainforest about the size of Britain to rainforests rainforests is being destroyed every year, the ____79____ of rainforest trees is now only 6% in the world. ? Sometimes trees are burnt down to make space to grow soya or palm trees. Alternative trees ? Use products made of wood that comes from trees which grow faster and you can ____81____ them more easily. Animals raised as pets ? Before buying a parrot as a pet, make sure it is not taken from rainforest areas. ____80____ Save trees ? You can use less paper or try to ____82____ on how to your own paper to protect the rainforests. protect Other measures ? Raise the public’s ____83____ of the importance rainforests of the environment. ? Encourage others to live in a way which is ____84____ to the environment. ? Establish specialized parks. ? ____85____ companies that are trying their best not to damage the environment. 六．单词拼写（5 分，每小题 0.5 分）
86. She is very fond of Chinese classical l_________ and has spent some time reading Tang and Song poems. 87. Musée du Louvre(卢浮宫) in Paris houses one of the finest collections of Western painting and s___________ in the world. 88. The importance of sleep to a____________ performance is one of the most convincing findings in sleep research in recent years. 89. Do you have anything to eat? I am s____________ to death! 90. Boys and girls will face a lot of physical and psychological changes during their a____________ years. 91. The survivors of the explosion which happened in Tian Jin were longing for the authority ’s ____________(解释) to the accident. 92. Thanks to my English teacher ’s _____________(指导), my English has improved a lot during this period. 93. Nobody wanted to change his view, and soon the conference turned into a terrible _____________(争论). 94. He wore casual clothes to the wedding, which made him wear a(n) _____________(尴尬) smile for the whole night. 95. As for me, I felt it a bit _____________(挑战) for me to live at school independently. 七．动词填空（5 分，每小题 0.5 分） 96. I can’t tolerate ____________(laugh) at by my closest friend especially. 97. His plan is supposed to ______________(approve) yesterday, but it wasn’t. 98. The man was seen ______________(put) a bomb under the shelf of the supermarket, which caused him into the jail(监狱). 99. The plan they’d like to see ____________(carry) out in a month is worth taking. 100. He has cheated me, but he looked at me with a happy smile as if nothing _____________(happen). 101. The manager insisted that complaints from the customers ____________(treat) carefully. 102. It was reported that the construction of the stadiums in Brazil for the Olympics ____________(finish) by 2016. 103. Recently we ______________(discuss) the solutions to the problem, but we still can’t reach an agreement. 104. Highly ____________(devote) to his job, he turned a successful CEO in the end. 105. We are all clear about the order that every equipment _____________(put) where it is. 八．句型转换（10 分，每小题 0.5 分） 106. Daniel, we asked you to take charge of the whole family during our absence. Daniel, we ________ you ________ _________ of the whole family during our absence. 107. After staying in Japan for 6 days, I really missed my son and wanted to see him at once. After staying in Japan for 6 days, I really missed my son and ________ __________ __________ the day of seeing him again. 108. Please don’t beg me to forgive you for a second time since you are already aware of your silly mistakes. _________ _________ you are aware of your silly mistakes, please don’t beg me to forgive you for a second time.
109. There is less than one year for the students in senior three to get fully prepared for the coming exam, so every minute is very important to them. There is less than one year for the students in senior three to ________ full __________ ___________ the coming exam, so every minute _________ to them. 110. Going without meals really affects people’s health. __________ meals really has __________ __________ people’s health. 111. The firefighters found dead in the explosion was worth respect. The firefighters found dead in the explosion was worth _________ ________ __________. 112. We made every effort to make full use of time, but still can’t avoid its running out. We made every effort to __________ the __________ of time, but still can’t avoid its running out. 九．完成句子（10 分，每小题 0.5 分） 113. 当我奶奶回顾往昔的时候，总会为自己的那段黄金时代而感到自豪。 When __________ _________ on her past, my grandma would always feel proud of the golden age belonging to herself. 114. 我总是提醒自己不要对我儿子过分苛刻，毕竟他才是一个不到两岁的男孩。 I always remind myself not to be __________ __________ my son. __________ __________, he has reached his two years’ age. 115. 每天早上在健身房锻炼已经成为了他的一个习惯。 ___________ ____________ in the gym every morning has become one of his habits. 116. 在心理发展方面，男孩和女孩往往是不同的。 Boys and girls _________ __________ be different in the aspect of ____________ development. 117. 这场跨年晚会结果成为了一场灾难，这真令人咋舌。 The cross-year party __________ ___________ a disaster, ___________ was really a astonishment. 118. 她并不漂亮，但我就喜欢她现在的样子。 She is not a pretty girl, but I like her just ___________ __________ ___________. 119. 我本以为他能表现的像一个成年人一样，但没想到他竟如此幼稚。 I ___________ he could ___________ ____________ an adult, but he behaved so childish.
参考答案： 一：1-20: 二：21-40: 三：41-60: 四：61-75: 五：76. play 78. regulating 80. Tips/Suggestions/Advice; 82. recycle 84. friendly 六: 86. literature 88. academic 90. adolescent 92. guidance 94. embarrassed 七：96. being laughed 98. putting 100. had happened 102. would have been finished 104. devoted 八：106. left in charge 108. Now that BACCB ACBCB ACABC ABAAB AADCB BDBAD BBBCC BBCDB DABDA DCCDD CAABC CBAAD CBB CBBC BDCC CCAB 77. home 79. coverage 81. replace 83. awareness 85. Support 87. sculpture 89. starving; 91. explanation(s) 93. argument 95. challenging 97. have been approved 99. carried 101. (should) be treated 103. have been discussing 105. (should) be put 107. was dying/eager for
109. make preparations for counts/matters 111.showing respect for
110. Skipping; effects on 112. make best/most 九：113. looking back on 115. Working out 117. turns out; which 119. thought; act like
114. hard on; After all 116. tend to; psychological 118. as she is