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高考英语语法专题复习课件:定语从句


高考专题-定语 从句!

This is the film which I saw when I was at school. Here are two pictures that are taken from the film .This is the film whose name is Titanic. The man and the woman wh

om you see in the picture are Jack and Lucy . Jack, who is a poor painter, won a ship ticket by playing cards . Lucy is a young beautiful woman , who went to America with her mother . Jack and Lucy, who are the hero and the heroine in the film, loved each other very much .

? 定语从句的定义:分析这些句子可知,定语从 句即用来修饰名词或代词的句子;幻灯片 2被 定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫做“先行词”, 引导定语从句的词叫“关系词”,如that, which, as, who, whom, whose, where, when, why, 等。 关系代词在从句中作主语、定语、宾语、表语等成分, ? 关系代词或关系副词的在句子中的语法功能:
作宾语时关系词常常可以省略; 关系副词在从句中作时间、地点和原因状语.

Definition of the Attributive Clause!

? 定语从句分类:限制性和非限制性。

关 系 词 的 语 法 功 能

This is the film which I saw when I was at school. which指物,作宾语 Here are two pictures that are taken from the film. That指物,作主语 This is the film whose name is Titanic. whose指物,作定语 The man and the woman whom you see in the picture are Jack and Lucy . Whom指人,作宾语 Jack, who is a poor painter, won a ship ticket by playing cards . Who指人,作主语 Lucy is a young beautiful woman ,who went to America with her mother . Who指人,作主语 Jack and Lucy, who are the hero and the heroine in the film, loved each other very much . who指人,作主语

限制性、非限制性定语从句
? This is the film which I saw when I was at school. ? Here are two pictures that are taken from the film . ? This is the film whose name is Titanic. ? The man and the woman whom you see in the picture are Jack and Lucy .
? Jack, who is a poor painter, won a ship ticket by playing cards .

? Lucy is a young beautiful woman , who went to America with her mother . ? Jack and Lucy, who are the hero and the heroine in the film, loved each other very much .

重点 如何选折关系代词、关系副词?幻灯 片 2
relatives which that who whom whose used for thing used as

thing person
person person person/thing

subject(主语) object(宾语)

object(宾语) attribute(定语)

重点 如何选折关系代词、关系

副词?
relatives when(in/on/at+which) used for time used as

where(in/on/at+whic h)
why

place
reason

adverbial (状语)

重点 如何选折关系代词、关系

副词?
? 选折关系词是由先行词来决定的。 一、当先行词是表示时间、地点和原因的词,且 引导词在从句中作时间、地点和原因状语时, 即从句不缺主语、宾语等主要成分,选用 when, where, why。
e.g. A. Do you still remember the day when we met? B. Do you remember the day which / that we spent with each other together? 辨析:A句中when作时间状语,而B句中which / that 作及物动词spent的宾语。

? C. This is the place where I bought my Tshirt. ? D. This is the place which / that I visited three years ago. 特注:选折用when, where, why,我还可以看定 语从句中是否有主语或宾语。如果既有主语又有 宾语,则可以用when, where, why引导。倘若没 有,那么就要考虑是否用that或which. 历年高考题:(NMET 2001, 22) The film brought the hours back to me _______ I was taken good care of in that far-away village. A. until B. that C. when D. where

? 1.(NMET 2003北京春季, 31) We are living in an age _______ many things are done on computer. A. which B. that C. whose D. when ? 3.(NMET 2002 北京, 22) We will be shown around the city: schools, museums, and some other places, _______ other visitors seldom go. A. what B. which C. where D. when ? 8.(NMET 2001, 22) The film brought the hours back to me _______ I was taken good care of in that far-away village. A. until B. that C. when D. where ? 10.(2001上海, 37) He's got himself into a dangerous situation _______ he is likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. while D. why

二、介词加引导词的用法:当关系代词引导一个定语从句 并且在从句中充当宾语时,该从句中的谓语动词必须是及 物动词:如果不是,就要在该动词后加上响应的介词。如 果关系代词为which或whom,则要将介词放在which或 whom前。 观察以下句子: A. This is the book that I have learned a lot from. (这就 是那本让我获益非浅的书) B. This is the book from which I have learned a lot.

C. Do you know the man that she was talking to? (你 认识和她说话的那个人吗?)
D. Do you know the man to whom she was talking?

E. The house that he is living in is now a shop. (他现在居住的房子现在是一个商店。) F. The house in which he is living is now a shop. G. The fellow that I spoke to made no answer. (和我说话的那个小伙子没作任何回答。) H. The fellow to whom I spoke made no answer. (2002 上海, 31) Alec asked the policeman _______ he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident. A. with him B. who C. with whom D. whom

三、who 指人,是主格,在从句中做主语;whom 是宾格,在从句中作宾语;whose是所有格,在 从句中作定语,是定语从句中表示所属关系的 引导词,意为“……的”,既可指人,也可指 物。如: A.He is talking with the girl whose brother is my classmate. (他正在和那个弟弟是我同学的女孩说话。)

B. This is the boy whose father is our English teacher.
(这就是那个父亲是我们英语教师的男孩。)

? C. He lives in a house whose window opens to the south. ? D. I have just bought a new bike whose color is white. ? (2001上海春季, 30 ) Have you seen the film "?Titanic?", _______ leading actor is world famous A. its B. it's C. whose D. which

四、that与which 都可以修饰表示物的先行词。但在有些 情况下只能用that引导,不能用which;有些情况下,只 能用which引导,不能用that。 ①只能用that情况:

1、先行词为all, everything, something, anything, nothing 等不定代词时; A. Please tell me all that you know.
B. I’ll tell you everything that I saw in the United States. C. I’d like to tell you something that will make you surprised. D. Is there anything that has to be done today.

?
? E. There is nothing that has to be done today. ? 2、先行词被数词,形容词最高级及the very, the only, the last等修饰时; ? A. The first student that put up hands was Zhang Ping. ? B. Agriculture was the most important invention that led to the beginning of civilization. ? C. This is the very pen that he is looking for. ? D. This is the only English book that he bought from the bookstore yesterday.

3、先行词中既有人又有物时只能用that引导;

A. Henry and his dog that appeared in street last week disappeared mysteriously in the forest yesterday.
B. We were deeply impressed by the teachers and schools that we had visited. 4、先行词在主句中作表语,或关系代词在从句中作表语 时; A. It is a dictionary that will help you a lot. B. He is no longer the man that he was in our university.

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

② 只能用which的情况 1、关系代词前有介词时用which; This is the house in which I lived ten years ago. 2、先行词本身是that 时用which; I will tell you that which he said yesterday. 3、引导非限制性定语从句时; A. I have lost my mobile phone, which is bought by my father. ? B. She entered a new vocational and technical college, which made her mother very happy. 她上了 一所职业技术学校,这使她的母亲非常高兴。

历年高考题
(1994上海, 19) I shall never forget those years _______ I lived in the country with the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life. A. that; which B. when; which C. which; that D. when; who ? (1999上海, 22) He was very rude to the Customs officer, _______ of course made things even worse. A. who B. whom C. what D. which ? 15.(NMET 2000北京春季,10) The result of the experiment was very good, _______ we hadn't expect. A. when B. that C. which D. what

? (NMET 2000, 17) Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, _______, of course, made the others unhappy. A. who B. which C. this D. what ? (2000上海, 28) Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, _______ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose

五、as 引导时间、原因和方式状语从句,此外, 有时它还可与which一样,引导一个非限制性定 语从句代表主句所要表达的内容。 A.She was ill yesterday, which made her mother very worrized. B.She was patient towards the children, which made them very excited. C.Eating too much, as is well known, is not good for our health. D.He opposed the idea, as could be expected.

?

?

(2003上海春季, 32) _______ has been announced, we shall have our final exams next month. A. That B. As C. It D. What .(NMET 2001, 34)_______ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What

高考链接:定语从句的重要性
?一、写作中,运用定语从句使简 单句变复合句,增加得分点; ?二、掌握定语从句的运用,在阅 读中正确理解从句的意义,从而 准确掌握文章的大意; ?三、语法填空,10个空至少有 一个空设为定语从句关系词的填 写。

课堂小结!
? 定语从句的定义,何为先行词?关系词which, that, who, whom, whose, when, where, why,as等的选用; ? 选择使用when, where, why的情况; ? 介词加关系词的使用情况; ? 只用that的情况; ? 只用which的情况; ? 广东省高考卷的考查方式-语法填空; ? 定语从句在英语中的运用。


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