LESSON THREE 四种进行时态
我们前面所学的四种时态,表达的只是时间概念. 我们前面所学的四种时态,表达的只是时间概念. 本课所学的进行时态除时间概念外, 本课所学的进行时态除时间概念外,又加入了某种感情 色彩. 在传统的教学中, 色彩. 在传统的教学中,进行态往往被认为只是表示一 个进行的动作,其实这只是一个表面现象, 个进行的动作,其实这只
是一个表面现象,进行态更多 的含义在于给人一种生动的画面感. 我们可以形象地比 的含义在于给人一种生动的画面感. 喻:使用一般态像听录音机,使用进行态则像看电视机, 使用一般态像听录音机,使用进行态则像看电视机, 而后者所具备的功能正是画面, 而后者所具备的功能正是画面,这恰恰是一般态和进行 态的不同之处.第二,进行态给我们的是一种暂时性. 态的不同之处.第二,进行态给我们的是一种暂时性. 理解以上两点是非常重要的. 理解以上两点是非常重要的.
请大家看下列表格, 横行则表示情态或 请大家看下列表格, 列表格 竖行表示时间概念, 竖行表示时间概念, 横行则表示情态 叫做情感. 区分开,是我们学好时态的关键. 叫做情感.将"时"与"态"区分开,是我们学好时态的关键.
态 一般 进行 完成 完成进行 时 现 在 一般现在时 现在完成时 现在完成进行时 现在进行时 过 去 一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成进行时 将 来 一般将来时 将来完成时 将来完成进行时 将来进行时 过去将来 一般过去将来时 过去将来进行时 过去将来完成时 过去将来完成进行时
从上表不难看出 16 种时态是由左面竖列中的 时" "时 加横行的 "态"而构成 16 种时态.在以前的教科书上很少提到这一点,而 态 这正是掌握时态的关键所在.在左竖列的"时"同学们比较容易理 解,即时间概念,横行的"态"指的是说话人所流露出的情感或情 态.上课所学的一般态是一种纯时间概念,不含情态,而进行 进行 画面感,也就是我们在导言中提到的录音 态给人的是一种画面感 画面感 机与电视机在视听上的不同效果.希望同学们在本章学习中细心体 会它们的不同之处. ▲ 进行时态的构成
时 态 现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时 过去将来进行时 主系表 is (am, are) being was (were) being will be being would be being 主谓宾 is (am, are) doing was (were) doing will be doing would be doing
1. 表示进行的动作. ● Who are you waiting for? 你在等谁呢? ● What are you thinking about? 你在想什么? ● She is having dinner in the restaurant. 她正在饭馆吃饭. ● The telephone is ringing, would you answer it? 电话铃响了,你可以接一下吗? ● -What were you doing yesterday evening? -昨天晚上你在干什么?
-I was watching TV. -我在看电视. ● He was studying English in the library yesterday evening. 昨天晚上他在图书馆学英语. 1,进行态的暂时性 进行态的暂时性,进行时态与一般时态的比较 进行态的暂时性 ● They live in America.(一贯的) ● They are living in America.(暂时的) 第二句给我们的感觉是,他们一直住在别的什么地方,但目 前暂住美国. ● My TV works perfectly. 我的电视非常好.(一贯的) ● My TV is working perfectly. 我的电视目前很好.(暂时性) 第二句给人的印象是:电视过去工作不正常,最近修了一下, 效果很好. ● Tom, a very clever boy by nature, is being silly today. 汤姆原本是个聪明的男孩,今天怎么傻了. 2. 进行时态的感情色彩. 进行态除了表示一个进行的动作以外, 更多的是带有一种 "态" , 也就是说有一种情态在里面.注意下面句子的比较: ● More and more people buy TV sets. ● More and more people are buying TV sets. 越来越多的人买电视机. 注:第一句话只是说出一个现象,第二句话却给了我们一个生 动的画面,试图让我们看到人们购买电视机的情景.
● Do you know your girl friend was having dinner with a guy in the restaurant near our school yesterday evening?
你知道不知道你的女朋友昨天晚上和一个小伙子在学校附 近的餐馆一起吃饭? 注:说话的人没有用一般过去时,而是用过去进行时态.从这 句话中可以看出他通过进行时态的画面感,给对方一个亲眼看到的 感觉,以刺激听话的人. ● Yesterday at midnight, I was walking by the room, I heard someone sharpening a knife in it. After a while, a woman was crying in it, I rushed in, but there was nobody. 注:上面是一个虚构的吓人故事.他使用了过去进行时态,目 的在于给人一种画面感,以达到恐怖的目的.如果用一般过去时态, 故事会平淡得多. 由于进行时态给人刺激较强,当需强调时,我们也常常用进行 时态来表达,同时和 always, certainly, simply 等副词连用,常有 某种感情色彩. ● She is always thinking of others. 她总是想着别人. 从上面几个例句中可以看出:进行时态给人一种画面感,使语 言生动,加强语言的刺激力,以达到不同的目的.无论是现在进行 时态,过去进行时态,将来进行时态还是过去将来进行时态,它们 所包含的进行时态的"态"是不变的,所不同的只是发生的时间. 进行时态与一般时态的比较 ● He does fine work at school.(说明事实) ● He is doing fine work at school.(表示赞扬) 注:第二句用进行时态的感情色彩表示赞扬.
● My wife always watches TV in the evening.(说明事实) ● My wife is always watching TV in the evening.(表示不满) 我爱人晚上老是看电视. 第二句的进行时态用以表示不满, 进行时态给我们一种画面感, 一种情感的流露,具体是赞扬,不满,还是想刺激听话的人要具体 情况具体分析. ▲ 将来进行时态 ● I will wait for you at the airport. ● I will be waiting for you at the airport. 第一句用的是一般将来时态,第二句用的是将来进行时态.第 二句给人的感觉好像能够看到说话的人将在机场等待的情景,所以 更亲切,更踏实.这就是画面感的效果.我们很难用汉语表达出上 面两句话的不同. ● We will live happily together in this large flat. ● We will be living happily together in this large flat. 注:该例句的情景是一个男子带着未婚妻去看新房.如果只用 一般将来时态,语言就较平淡.使用第二句将来进行时态,便可以 给自己的未婚妻展现一种活生生的未来生活的美好前景.这就是进 行时态的妙处所在.我们同样很难用汉语译出上面两句英文中的不 同时态,这也是汉语在时态表达上的局限性. ▲ 过去将来进行时态 ● He said the Olympic Games would be held in our country. As a great many people would be visiting the country, the government would be building new hotels, an immense stadium (露天大型运动场) and they would also be building new road and a special railway line. 从上面的例子中可以看出:使用过去将来进行时态首先给我们
一个时间点, He said, 即 也就是说站在过去看将来, 这是时间概念. 而使用的"态"是进行,目的还是给我们一个生动的画面感. ▲ 关于进行时态形式需要注意的几个问题. 关于进行时态形式需要注意的几个问题. 1. 非持续性动词的进行时态形式表示将来时态. ● His father is dying 他的父亲要死了. ● The spring is coming. 春天要来了. 2. 有些非持续性动词与进行时态形式连用并不表示将来, 只是为 了给出一个画面感,使语言生动,语气更强. ● They will be arriving here tomorrow. 他们明天到这里. 注:如只从进行去理解,往往会认为上面的句子是错的,而实 际上 will be arriving 比 will arrive 更生动, 给我们身临其境看到他们 到来的感觉. 3. 有些非持续性动词与进行时态连用,表示刚刚开始的动作. ● I'm forgetting English. 我的英语开始荒疏了. ● I'm finding that it is difficult to study English. 我开始发现英语难学了.
1. 学好时态的关键是要了解时态是时与态的组合,竖行的四 种进行态,其"态"的概念是一样的,只要掌握一种,四 种全会.
2. 掌握进行态的关键,在于它表示的是一个暂时性的动作和 给你以生动的画面感,不可一律都用正在来套,有时两种 语言是很难相互直译的,如果希望用一个"正在"来表示 进行,往往将自己逼入误区. 3. 在今后的阅读和听外国人讲话时,多注意他们是怎样使用 时态的,多问为什么,对初学者,最好背下几篇含有进行 态的好文章,比如上课提到的"新概念英语"第二册第一 课,第七课,第十三课,并细心体会各种时态的应用.这 样经过一段时间的学习,在时态应用上就会达到炉火纯青 的地步. 4. 我们在课后也为同学们准备了大量练习,希望同学们用心 做.
I can't let him get away A male crab 螃蟹) met a female crab and asked her to marry him. She ( noticed that he was walking straight(直行) instead of(代替) sideways (横行) Wow . (叫声) she thought, this crab is really special. I can't let , him get away. So they got married immediately(马上). The next day she noticed her new husband walking sideways like all the other crabs, and got upset(惊慌). "What happened?" She asked. "You used to(过去总是) walk straight before we were married." " I can not drink(喝酒) so much every day." A Parrot's (鹦鹉)Answer 鹦鹉) A boy goes to a pet(宠物) shop to buy a parrot. There he sees a parrot with a red string (线) tied (系) its left leg to (腿) and a green string tied to its right leg. He asks the owner the significance (意思) of the strings. "Well, this is a highly trained(经过训练的) parrot. If you pull the red string he speaks French; if you pull the green string he speaks German," replies the shopkeeper." And what happens if I pull both the strings?" the curious (好
奇的)shopper inquires(询问). "I fall off my perch(栖木), you fool!" screeches(尖叫) the parrot. The Silly Policeman At the scene(现场) of a bank robbery(抢劫) a policeman ran up to his officer and said, "The thief got away, sir!" The officer was angry. "But I told you to put a man on all the exits(出 口), " he shouted. "How could he have gotten away?" The Police answer : "He run away from the entry(入口). " Does The Dog Know The Proverb(谚语)? (谚语) "Sam," says his father, "put on your cap and let us go for a walk." Sam is happy. He likes to go out with his father. He puts on his cap and coat, and says, "Father, I am ready." Sam and his father go out into the street. Suddenly they see a big black dog. The dog begins to bark. Sam is afraid of the dog. He wants to run home. His father says, "Don't be afraid, Sam. Don't you know the proverb: 'A barking (会叫) dog does not bite (咬人) "Oh, yes," says Sam, " I know '?" the proverb, you know the proverb, but does the dog know the proverb?"
Jack club A Hint(暗示) Mother: I sent my little boy for two pounds of plums(李子)but you gave him only a pound and a half. Shopkeeper 店主) My scales 称) all right, madam. Have you ( : ( are weighed your little boy? It's Not My Fault(错儿) "Aren't you ashamed(害臊)of yourself, Victor? You're the worst pupil in your class." "What's that got to do with me?(这和我有什么相干?)Is it my fault that the worst one was yesterday transferred(转)to another
school?" An Essential Correction(实质性的纠正) Teacher: Walter, why don't you wash your face? I can see what you had for breakfast this morning. Walter: What was it? Teacher: Eggs. Walter: Wrong, teacher. That was yesterday's. Are Flies(苍蝇)Good to Eat Harry liked to talk very much and his father did not allow him to speak at mealtimes 吃饭的时候) Once, at dinner, Harry wanted to say ( . something very badly. At last his father saw it and asked him kindly, "Well, my boy, what is it?" "Are flies good to eat, father? Asked Harry. "No," said his father. "What makes you ask that?" "You had one in your plate just now, but you have swallowed(咽下) it!"
练 习 说 明 时态是一种非常灵活的语言现象. 我们汉语中在时间上的 表达方式与英文完全不同.英文的时态不仅仅是一种时间概 念,它还带有不同的情态.所以,在做练习时,并不是简单对 和错的问题,而是哪个时态更好.必须同时注意"时"与"态" 两个方面,结合上下文及情景,细心体会,方能真正掌握. 一,将下列句子译成中文,注意句子中时态的使用,并对每组句子 加以比较. 1.What do you do here? What are you doing here? 2.Tom studies hard. Tom is studying hard. 3.I forget his name. I'm forgetting his name. 4.You are too modest. You are being modest. 5.You don't eat much. You are not eating much. 6.You like her don't you? You are liking her aren't you? 7.I expect you to call me. I am expecting you to call me. 8.We begin to study Lesson Two today. We are beginning to study Lesson Two. 9. My wife always watches TV in the evening. My wife is always watching TV in the evening. 10. I'll see her tomorrow. I'm seeing her tomorrow. 二,时态选择.(该题全部取自于全国高考原卷)
1. The last time I Jane, she cotton in the fields. A. had seen; was picking B. saw; picked C. had seen; picked D. saw; was picking 2. We were all surprised when he made it clear that he office soon. A. leaves B. would leave C. left D. had left 3. –Can I join the club, Dad? --You can when you a bit older. A. get B. will get C. are getting D. will have got 4. –Do you like the material? --Yes, it very soft. A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt until the new secretary arrives. 5. I don't really work here; I A. just help out B. have just helped out C. am just helping out D. will just help out 6. –Your phone number again? I quite catch it. --It's 9568442. A. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't 7. I don't think Jim saw me; he into space. A. just stared B. was just staring C. has just stared D. had just stared 8. –Can I help you, sir? --Yes. I bought this radio here yesterday, but it . A. didn't work B. won't work C. can't work D. doesn't work 9. I first met Lisa three years ago. She at a radio shop at the time. A. has worked B. was working C. had been working D. had worked 10. –Alice, why didn't you come yesterday? --I , but I had an unexpected visitor.
A. had B. would C. was going to D. did 11. –Is this raincoat yours? --No, mine there behind the door. A. is hanging B. has hung C. hangs D. hung 三,用所给的动词的适当时态填空,并根据前面所学的知识说出为 什么. (1) Sometimes two or three pickpockets 1 (work) together. For example, you 2 (walk) down the street one afternoon. Two people walking together in front of you suddenly 3 (stop) and 4 (bend) over. You almost 5 (fall) over them. A third pickpocket, who 6 (be) behind you, 7 (take) advantage of the confusion(趁混乱). He 8 (steal) your wallet from the back of your trousers. (2) Pollution 1 (hang) like a brown cloud over many big cities today. Dirt and smoke 2 (pour) from cars and factories. Pollution 3 (spoil) the air we breathe, and it 4 (harm) our health. New York 5 (have) the big problem these days. The city 6 ( have) dirty air. The air smells bad, and it looks ugly. Pollution 7 (is) a health problem, too, because it 8 (hurt) people's lungs.