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M1 定语从句练


School life

Grammar and usage

Lead in
A: That team won the game.
B: Which team?

A: …

Attributives
1. the green team. adjective 2.

the team in green. prepositional phrase 3. the team who are wearing green. attributive clause

A: That team won the game.
B: Which team?

A: 1.The green team won the game. 2.The team in green won the game.
3.The team who are wearing green won the game.

一. 定语从句的基本定义
放在名词或代词后面,由关系代词或 关系副词引导的修饰该名词或代词的 从句叫定语从句。 被修饰的词叫先行词。

关系词的分类
1. 关系代词
常用的关系代词有:that, which, who, whom, whose

2. 关系副词 常用的关系副词有:when, where, why

The girl that / who we saw yesterday is Mary.

先行词

关系代词

Hospital is a place where a doctor works.
先行词 关系副词

Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw the girl yesterday.

Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw the girl yesterday.

Step 1. 确定主句,找相同成分

Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday. The girl we saw the girl yesterday is Mary.

Step 2. 把从句放到主句先行词之后

Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw the girl yesterday.
The girl that / who we saw the girl yesterday is Mary.

Step 3. 删掉从句中的相同成分,并在从 句前加上关系词

先行词和关系词的关系
Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine the machine can fly.

Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine that /which the machine can fly.

四. 关系词的基本用法
在定语从句中,关系词可以充当从句
中的: ? subject 主语 ? object 宾语 ? predicative 表语 ? attribute 定语 ? adverbial 状语 关系副词

关系代词

As subject 主语
The boy is Tom. The boy is smiling. The boy who is smiling is Tom. The boy is Tom. The boy has a round face. The boy who has a round face is Tom. The boy is Tom. He sits in front of me. The man who sits in front of me is Tom.

As object 宾语

The man is kind. Everyone likes him.
The man (who) everyone likes is kind. The woman got the job. We saw her in the street. The woman (whom) we saw in the street got the job.

As predicative 表语 Jack is no longer a lazy boy. He used to be a lazy boy.
Jack is no longer the lazy boy that he used to be.

As attribute定语 The teacher praised the student. His English is the best in our class. The teacher praised the student whose English is the best in our class. whose English =the student’s English

关系词whose实际上是先行词的所有格

The house is mine. The window of the house is broken. The house whose window is broken is mine. whose window =the house’s window

As adverbial 状语

The school is in Shenzhen. He studied in
the school. The school where he studied is in Shenzhen.

在限制性定语从句中关系代词的用法: 1)eg. He is not the man who visited our school yesterday.

The professor who you wish to see has come

who 指人,在从句中作 主语、宾语。 (作宾语可省略)

2) eg.Do you know the man
(whom) we saw at the Beijing Hotel?

whom指人,在从句中作 宾语,可省略。

(1)I’m not interested in the book which has just been published. (2)My mother found the gold ring (which) she had lost. which 指物,在句中作主语或宾语 作宾语时可以省略。

? The season that comes after spring is summer.
Do you know the man (that) I am talking to

that指人或物, 在从句中做主语 或宾语,作宾语时可以省略。

? The teacher praised the student whose English is the best in our class. ? whose =the student’s
关系词whose实际上是先行词的所有格
The house whose window is broken is mine. whose=the house’s window

? whose指人或物。作定语。表示所属关系。

关系代词用法
关系代词 that which 指代
人/物
物 人 人

在从句中 的作用
主/宾
主/宾 主/宾

who whom
whose (=of which)




人/物

人/物

*6. 先行词是下列词时,限制性定
语从句必须用 that 引导。

1)先行词是不定代词或被其修饰 (all, some, any, few, little, much, every, each, no, anything,nothing, everything,something等) eg.All that can be done has been done.

Is there anything that I can do for you. ? Every means that had been tried proved to be useless.

2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰。

eg.This is the cleanest park that you can imagine. The first thing that should

be done is to get some food.

3)先行词被the very, the only, the right, the last, just the等修饰

? eg.This is the only book that has been written in French. ? Those are the very words that he used. ? This is just the book that I am looking for.

4)当先行词由人和物两部分组 成时,
eg.He talked about the things and persons that he had visited in the city.

5) 在 who 或 which 引导的特殊
疑问句中,限制性定语从句必须 用 that 引导。eg.Who is the man that is standing over there.
Which is the car that was made in Beijing.

6)先行词在从句中作表语时, 通常用 that 引导。(常可 省略)

? eg,.She is no longer the girl that she was before she went to the country.

7,当主语以here, there开头时
? eg, Here is the place that you' ve been looking for.

先行词被 such , the same 修饰时,通常用 as引导定语从句

? eg, This is not such a book as I want. ? This is the same book as I want.

关系代词的用法练习
1.The eggs were not fresh. I bought them yesterday. The eggs (that/which) I bought them were not fresh. 2.The friend was not hungry. He came to supper last night. The friend who/ that he came to supper last night was not hungry. 3.He prefers the cheese. It comes from his parent’s farm. He prefers the cheese that / which it comes from his parent’s farm. 4.The noodles were delicious. You cooked them. The noodles( which/ that ) you cooked them were delicious. 5.I don’t like the people. They smoke a lot. that / who they smoke a lot. I don’t like the people

Practice
1.The man _________ who / that stands there is Tom.
2.The girl ____________ (whom / that) I met is Ms Li. 3.The boy ________ whose watch was lost is Tom. 4.The book _________ which/that lies on the desk is his. 5.The pen (which ___________ / that) you bought is good. 6.The magazine ________ whose cover is red is nice.

Practice
1. This is the best film ______ I’ve seen. (that) 2. That is the last lesson (that) _____ I gave you.

3. This is the very book _____ I’m after. (that)
4. That is just the coat whose _____ color is red.

5. That is the right placewhere _____ he works.
6. I still remember the schools and boys (that) ______ I met there.

(that) you said is true. 7. Everything ______ (that) you want? 8. Which is the book _____
9. Who is the girl ______ that sits there. 10. All _____ (that) he said is true. that is said by him is true. 11. All _____ 13. I will make full use of the time

12. Are there any problems ____ that trouble you? ____ that is left for me.

14. Such boys ___ as you mentioned are well. 15. The boys ____ such ___ as you mentioned are well. as no one 16. It is so difficult a problem ___ can work out. 17. It is so difficult a problem_____ that no one can work it out. 18. She wore the same hat ____ as you wore yesterday.

19. You have made the same mistake
that you made last time.. _____ 20. I had the same experience ____ that you have now. 21.She went to the same place ______ where she saw the key. 22. Those ____ who are present are well.

23. Is this factory ___ ___ (that) _____ he the one
visited?

Complete the article on page 11 using who, whom, which or whose.
Answers:

1.____________

who 3.____________
7.____________ which

which 4.____________ whom/who 6.____________ which 8.____________ who/whom

2.____________

who 5.____________ whose

5. Our History teacher tells us stories
______________________________________ that/ which he is good at. /that/which

are very interesting ______________.

whose name is Sally 6. I have a good friend ________________
/who is called Sally __________________. that/which is 7. The library is a place_______________
____________________. quiet and comfortable

Complete the sentences. who/that are 2. It has many students_______________
_____________________. from different countries 3. English is the subject ______________ that/which I

like best _______.
4. I admire most an American lady

who/that teaches us English ________________________.


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