定 语 从 句 一、基本概念： 在复合句中，修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。 定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词； 定语从句一般用关系代词或关系副词来引导， 关系词放在先行词与 定语从句之间起连接作用，同时又作从句中的一个成分 如：1) The man who lives next to us is a policeman. 2) You must do everything tha
t I do. 上面两句中的 man 和 everything 是定语从句所修饰的词， 叫先行词， 定语从句放在先行词的后面。 关系词常有三个作用：1、引导定语从句 2、代替先行词 3、在定语从句中担当一个成分 引导定语从句的关系代词有：that, who, whom, whose, which; 关系副词有：when, where, why. 二、关系词的用法： （一）关系代词的用法： （that, who, whom, whose, which;） 1.who 指人，在从句中做主语 (1)The boys who are playing football are from Class One. (2)Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way. 2. whom 指人，在定语从句中充当宾语，常可省略。 (1) Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about. 注意：关系代词 whom 在口语和非正式语体中常用 who 代替，可省略。 (2) The man who/whom you met just now is my friend. 3. which 指物，在定语从句中做主语或者宾语，做宾语时可省略 (1) Football is a game which is liked by most boys. ( which 在句子中做主语) (2) This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. ( which 在句子中做宾语) 4. that 指人时，相当于 who 或者 whom；指物时，相当于 which。 在宾语从句中做主语或者宾语，做宾语时可省略。 (1) The people that/who come to visit the city are all here. (在句子中做主语) (2) Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning? (在句子中做宾语) 5. whose 通常指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语 (1) He is the man whose car was stolen last week. (2) It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at that time. 注：“whose +名词中心词”这一结构在定语从句中既能作主语（如上 1 句） ，又能作宾语（如上 2 句） whose 的先行词常用来指人， 。 但有时也可以用来指具体事物或抽象概念， 这时可以与 of which 结构互换，词序是：“名词+of which”，如： They came to a house whose back wall had broken down.. (= the back wall of which) He’s written a book the name of which I’ve completely forgotten. (= whose name) 总结： 1． 作主语用 who, which 和 that, 2． 作宾语用 whom, who, which, that, 注：在非正式文体中，用于指人的关系代词 who whom, that 通常可以省略，但在正式文体中通常 用 whom, 不可省略； 用于指物的关系代词 which 和 that 在非正式文体中也通常省略， 但在正式文 体中一般不省略。 3． 作定语用 whose 4． 作表语只用 that ，它既可以指人，也可以指物，但时常省略。如： He is no longer the man that he used to be. This is no longer the dirty place (that) it used to be.
( )1、 -Do you know the man ______is talking with your father？ -Yes， he‘s our headmaster. A. he B. who C. which D. whom ( )2、The girl ______ is reading under the tree _____my sister. A. which； is B. whom； was C. who； is D. who； was ( )3、Have you seen the film Titanic ___actors are very famous? A who B whose C that D whom ( )4、 Ann asked the policeman ___he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident. A with him B with whom C who D whom ( )5、A child ____parents are dead is called an orphan. A which B his C whose D with ( )6、This is the reason ______ he told me. A、that B、why C、on which D、for that ( )7、Do you know the scientist _______ gave us a talk just now? A. who B. whom C. which D. whose ( )8、This is the dictionary _______ Mum gave me for my birthday. A. which B. what C. whose D. whom ( )9、Shaolin Temple ________ lies in the west of Zhengzhou welcomes the visitors both at home and abroad. A. where B. which C. who D. what ( )10、—Do you know the girl _______ is standing under the tree? —She is my little sister. A. who B. whom C. whose D. which 三、课后练习 ( )1. Beijing is the 29th city _______ holds the Olympic Games. A. where B. that C. which D. what ( )2. Have you read the book _______ I gave you yesterday? A. that B. when C. where ( )3. The man _______ came to our party with a present is my old friend. A. when B. which C. who ( )4. I like writers _______ write short stories. A. which B. what C. whom D. who ( )5. This is the question _______ we are talking about now. A. that B. who C. where D. when ( )6. —What are you looking for? —I am looking for the book _______ I bought yesterday. A. who B. which C. whose ( )7. Jack, there is someone in the office _______ would like to speak with you. A. who B. which C. whom ( )8. If a bag is filled with books and pens, it must belong to someone _______ works hard. A. which B. / C. whom D. who
( )9. Many young people prefer the songs _______ have great lyrics. A. which B. who C. where D. whom ( )10. Even teachers can’t understand some expressions _______ their students use in daily life. A. whose B. who C. that D. whom ( )11. The bridge ____ a big ship can go has been built. A. under which B. under that C. in which D. on which ( )12. The book ____ is torn is mine. A. the cover of which B. the cover of that C. which the cover D. whose cover of ( )13. He talked about the classmates and the school ____ he had visited. A. who B. that C. which D. about which ( )14. You have seen the girl ____ sister is a Chinese teacher. A. whom B. of whom C. whose D. of which ( )15. We should do all ____ is useful to people. A. / B. that C. it D. which ( )16. We came to a place ____ they had never paid a visit before. A. which B. in which C. on which D. to which ( )17. Those ____ finished doing it put up your hands. A. who have B. who has C. which have D. have ( )19. The man ____ was a friend of mine. A. that you just talked to B. whom you just talked to him C. who you just talked to him D. which you just talked to ( )20. I went to the school ____ my father once worked. A. that B. which C. where D. on which ( )21. I shall never forget those years _______ I lived in the country with the farmers, _________has a great effect on my life. A. that; which B. when; which C. which; that D. when; who ( )22. The weather turned out to be very good, _______was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it ( )23. Carol said the work would be done by October, ___ personally I doubt very much. A. it B. that C. when D. which ( )24. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ___ , of course, made the others unhappy. A. who B. which C. this D. what ( )25. Have you seen the film "Titanic", ________ leading actor is world famous? A. its B. it's C. whose D. which 典型例题 1B2C3b4b5c6a 7a8a9b10a 课后练习 1B2A3D4D 5-9ABADA 10C 11 解析：考查定语从句随意性关系引导词。基本常识：定语从句随意性关系引导词由搭配介词
+which/whom 构成，先行词指人用前者，先行词指事/物用后者。定语从句引导词的判断方法为将 先行词想方设法放入从句， 使从句成为一个完整且有先行词成分的陈述句。 此句中， 先行词为 the bridge; 从句为 a big ship can go, 二者构成的完整句为 A big ship can go under the bridge. 因此， 答案为 A 12 解析：考查定语从句随意性关系引导词以及所属关系引导词。 此句中先行词为 the book, 从 句应为 cover is torn, 二者构成的完整句为 the cover of the book is torn. 因此随意性关系 引导词结构为 the cover of which 或所属关系引导词结构 whose cover. 因此，答案为 A 13 解析：考查先行词即指人又指物的定语从句相同意思引导词。定语从句相同意思引导词基本要 点，无论限定性还是非限定性定语从句的主宾表引导词均为相同意思引导词。 先行词指事物的情况，用引导词 which.此句中，先行词为 the classmates and the school， 从 句为 he had visited, 二者构成的完整句为 He had visited the classmates and the school. 所 以不难发现先行词在限定性定语从句中作 visited 的宾语使用，先行词既指人又指物。 因此，答 案为 B 14 解析： 考查定语从句所属关系引导词。 此句先行词为 the girl， 定语从句为 sister is a Chinese teacher，二者构成的完整句为 The girl's sister is a Chinese teacher. 先行词的's 所有格构 成的所属关系结构在从句中作定语。因此， 答案只能为 C. 定语从句固定关系引导词相关要点： 先行词在定语从句中除作从句主宾表成分以外的成分， 均为相 关意思引导词，其中包括固定关系引导词和随意性关系引导词。固定关系引导词只有 when(时间关 系)，where（地点关系） ，why(先行词为 the reason,原因关系）whose（所属关系，包括's 所有格 关系和 of 所有格关系，由 whose 修饰的名词成分前不能用冠词成分，whose 应为名词的前置性定 语成分） ；随意性关系引导词为相关搭配介词+which/whom 构成的引导词结构充当。 15 解析：考查限定性定语从句中先行词为不定代词的相同意思引导词。 此句中先行词 all 为不定 代词，从句为 is useful to people，从句缺主语， 二者构成的完整句为 All is useful to people. 为了便于理解，All =All the things/ everything.所以从句的完整句还可以写成 Everything is useful to people; 或 All the things are useful to people. 因此，答案为 B 16 解析：考查定语从句随意性关系引导词。此句先行词为 a place, 从句为 they had never paid a visit before, 二者构成的完整句为 They had never paid a visit to the place before. 因 此，答案为 D。此句的可转换概念进行相同意思引导词的考查，题干为 We came to a place _____ they had never visited before. 其答案可以为 which/that/省略引导词。 17 解析：考查为指示代词在从句中作主语的指代分析以及引导词的数量。此句中，those 为定语从 句的先行词，相当于 those students/clerks, finished diong it 为定语从句成分，从句缺主语 以及谓语动词的完成时态助动词。 主语指人， 用一般引导词 who, 引导词数量与先行词一致为复数。 因此， 答案为 A 19 解析：考查完整的定语从句。此句中先行词在从句中作介词宾语，先行词相同意思用引导词充 当， 先行词指人。因此，答案为 A 20 解析：考查定语从句相关意思引导词。此句先行词 the school, 定语从句 my father once worked,二者构成的完整句 o 为 My father once worked in the school. in the school 可以用固 定关系引导词中的地点关系引导词 where 表示, 也可以用随意性关系引导词 in which 表示。 因 此，答案为 C 21 解析： 前一空考查定语从句相关意思引导词； 后一空考查定语从句整句先行词相同意思引导词。 前一定语从句的完整句为 I lived in the country with the farmers those years. 先行词在从 句中作非主宾表成分，先行词与时间相关。后一定语从句的完整句在理解基础上的意思转换为 The experience has a great effect on my life. The experience= I lived in the country with the farmers those years。所以为整句先行词在从句中作主语。 因此，答案为 B 22 解析：考查定语从句整句先行词在从句中作主语。非限定性定语从句在意思理解基础上的完整 句为 This natural phenomenan was more than we could expect. This natural phenomenan=
The weather turned out to be very good. 因此，答案为 B 23 解析：考查定语从句整句先行词在从句中作宾语。 非限定性定语从句的完整句为 Personly I doubt that the work would be done by October very much. 因此， 答案为 D 24 解析：考查非限定性定语从句整句先行词在从句中作主语。非限定性定语从句完整句为 It made the others unhappy that Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play. It=Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play. 在从句中构成形式主语与 真实主语关系。因此，答案为 B 25 解析： 非限定性定语从句引导词考点， 先行词 the film， 放入从句为 The leading actor of the film is world famous, 先行词放入从句为 of 所有格作后置性定语，用相关意思引导词中的所属 关系引导词。 答案为 C （二）关系副词的用法： （when, where, why. ） 1．when 指时间，在从句中作时间状语，它的先行词通常有：time, day, morning, night, week, year 等。如： I still remember the time when I first became a college student. Do you know the date when Lincoln was born? 注：when 时常可以省略，特别是在某些句型和某些时间状语中。如： Each time he came, he did his best to help us. But help never stopped coming from the day she fell ill. 2．where 指地点，在从句中作地点状语。它的先行词通常有：place, spot, street, house, room, city, town, country 等，如： This is the hotel where they are staying. I forget the house where the Smiths lived. 注：where 有时也可以省略。如： This is the place (where) we met yesterday. 3． why 指原因或理由，它的先行词只有 reason。如： That is the reason why he is leaving so soon. 注：why 时常也可以省略。如： That is the real reason he did it. (三) 使用关系副词应注意下列几点： 1． 这三个关系副词在意义上都相当于一定的介词+which 结构： when = on (in, at, during?) + which; where = in (at, on?) + which; why = for which. 如： I was in Beijing on the day when (=on which) he arrived. The office where (=in which) he works is on the third floor. This is the chief reason why (=for which) we did it. 2． 当先行词是表时间的 time, day 等和表地点的 place, house 等时，一定要注意分析从句的结 构，如果缺少主语或宾语时，关系词应该用 which 或 that, 缺少时间状语或地点状语时，才能用 when 或 where，试比较： I’ll never forget the day when my hometown was liberated. I’ll never forget the days which/that we spent together last summer. His father works in a factory where radio parts are made. His father works in a factory which/that makes radio parts. 3． when 和 where 既可以引导限制性定语从句，也可以引导非限制性定语从句。而 why 只 能引导限制性定语从句。
关系副词引导的定语从句练习题 1. — What are you looking for? --I am looking for the book ________ I bought yesterday. A. who B. which C. whose （ ） 2. We know Jackie Chan ________ movies are very popular with the young. A. whose B. that C. who D. which （ ） 3. Is this university_______ your elder brother will choose this year? A. the one B. that C. where （ ） 4. —Do you know the boy _______ is standing under the tree? --Yes. He’s Peter. He’ s new in our class. A. where B. what C. who D. whose （ ） 5. The house ____ we live is not big. A. in that B. which C. in which D. that 6. Do you know the reason ____ he didn’t come? A. that B. which C. for D. why 7. The room ____ windows face south is his. A. that B. which C. whose D. who’s 8. The park, ____ we visited yesterday, is very nice. A. where B. which C. that D. when 9. The park, ____ we met with him, is very nice. A. where B. which C. that D. when 10. The first time ____ I saw her was in 1989. A. when B. which C. that D. as （ ） 11. Pay attention to all ____ I do. A. which B. in which C. what D. that （ ） 12. I’ve read all the books ____ you gave me. A. which B. them C. what D. that 13. Is there anything ____ I can do for you? A. what B. which C. that D. it （ ） 14. The woman ____ child had fallen ill was a doctor. A. who B. her C. whose D. / （ ） 15. The pen ____ I’m using ____ is hers. A. which; it B. that; it C. it; / D. / （ ） 16. The whole world is fighting against the H1N1, a disease ______ has caused many deaths. A. who B. which C. whom D. what （ ） 17. Disney is an amusement park _______ you can find Disney movies and characters. A. which B. where C. that D. when （ ） 18. The young lady ________ we met yesterday is our new math teacher. A. what B. whose C. who D. which （ ） 19. The skirt _________ is made of silk is very expensive. I can’t afford it. A. what B. / C. that D. it （ ） 20. I like the teacher ________ classes are very interesting and creative. A. which B. who C. what D. whose （ ） 21. Jack, there is someone in the office ______ would like to speak with you. A. who B. which C. whom （ ） 22. Shaolin Temple ____ lies in the west of Zhengzhou welcomes the visitors both at home and abroad. A. where B. which C. who D. what （ ） 23. We should give love to the children _______ lost their parents in the earthquake. A. who B. whom C. those D. which （ ）
24. --The duty of Project Hope is to help poor children, isn’t it? --Yes, it has built many schools ________ those children can study happily. A. where B. when C. which （ ） 25. --There are many volunteers ________ are helping the children in Sichuan. --And most of them are college students. A. which B. when C. whose D. Who 典型例题 1 选 B 2 选 A 3选A 4选C 5选A 6选D 7选D 8选C 9 选 D 10 选D 11 选 D。考查 which 引导的定语从句。由表示物的先行词 the coat 可选出正确答案为 D。 12 选 C。考查关系代词 that 引导的定语从句。由表示物的先行词 the novel 可排除 A、B 二项；另 因为关系代词在从句中做主语，所以不能省略，故舍 D 选 C。 13 选 D。考查关系代词 who 引导的定语从句。先行词 people 指人，故正确答案为 D。 14 选 A。考查关系代词 who 引导的定语从句。由表示人的先行词 The girl 可先排除 D；另由于该 空在句中做主语，故舍 B、C 二项，选 A。 15 选 A。考查关系代词 who 引导的定语从句。由表示人的先行词 the people 可排除 B、C、D 三项， 故选 A。 课后练习 1 选 B。考查 which 引导的定语从句。先行词 the book 指物，故答案是 B。 2 选 A。考查 whose 引导的定语从句。由表示人的先行词 Jackie Chan 可先排除 D；另结合题意“我 们都知道成龙，他的电影非常受年轻人欢迎”可知填作定语的关系代词，故排除 B、C 二项，选 A。 3 选 A 4 选 C。考查 who 引导的定语从句。由指人的先行词 man 可直接选 C。 5C 6D 7C 8B 9A 10 C 11-15DDDCD 16 选 B。考查关系代词 which 引导的定语从句。由表示物的先行词 a disease 可知要用关系代词 which，故排除 A、C、D 三项，选 B。 17 选 B。考查 where 引导的定语从句。由表示地点的先行词 an amusement park 可排除 A、C、D 三项 18 选 C。考查关系代词 who 引导的定语从句。由指人的先行词 The young lady 可排除 A、B、D 三 项，故选 C。 19 选 C。考查关系代词 that 引导的定语从句。先行词 skirt 指物，故正确答案为 C。 20 选 D。考查关系代词 whose 引导的定语从句。结合题意“我很喜欢那个老师，他的课非常有趣， 非常有创意”可知关系代词在句中作 classes 的定语，故排除 A、B、C 三项，选 D。 21 选 A。考查 who 引导的定语从句。由指人的先行词 someone 知答案选 A。 22 选 B。考查 which 引导的定语从句。由指物的先行词 Shaolin Temple 可选 B。 23 选 A。考查 who 引导的定语从句。由指人的先行词 the children 可选 A。 24 选 A。考查 where 引导的定语从句。由指地点的先行词 schools 可直接选 A。 25 选 D。考查 who 引导的定语从句。由题中表示人的先行词 volunteers 可排除 A、B、C 三项，所 以选 D。 三．限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 1．限制性定语从句说明先行词的情况，对先行词起限定作用，与先行词关系十分密切，不可用逗 号隔开，也不可省略，否则全句意义就不完整。如： This is the telegram which he refers to. Is there anything (that) I can do for you? 2．非限制性定语从句只是对先行词作补充说明，没有限定作用，它与先行词的关系比较松散，因 而不是关键性的，如果省略，原句的意义仍然完整。这种从句在朗读时要有停顿，在文字中通常用 逗号与主句隔开。如： This note was left by Tom, who was here a moment ago.
As a boy, he was always making things, most of which were electric. 引导非限制性定语从句的关系词有：who, whom, whose, which, when 和 where，不可以用 that 和 why。 另外， 非限制性定语从句从意义上讲， 相当于一个并列句， 在口语中使用并不普遍， 在日常生活中， 人们通常用并列句或简单句来表达。如： I told the story to John, who later did it to his brother. = I told the story to John, and he later told it to his brother. Yesterday I happened to see John, who was eager to have a talk with you. = Yesterday I happened to see John and he was eager to have a talk with you. 3．两种定语从句的内涵不同，限制性定语从句具有涉他性，而非限制性定语从句具有 唯一性，这 在理解和翻译时应特别注意。试比较： All the books there, which have beautiful pictures in them, were written by him. All the books there that have beautiful pictures in them were written by him. His brother, who is eighteen years old, is a PLA man. （只有一个） His brother who is a PLA man is eighteen years old. （不止一个） 4．有时，非限制性定语从句所修饰的不是某一个词，而是整个主句或是主句中的一个部分，这时 一般采用 which 或 as 来引导。如： He passed the exam, which/as he hoped he would. 注： （1）as 引导的从句可以放在主句之前，而 which 引导的从句只能放在主句之后。 They are hollow, which makes them very light. As is known to all, Taiwan is a part of China. （2）从意义上讲，which 指前面主句的内容；而 as 指代的是作为一般人都知道的常 识性的东西，因此常译成“就象? ?那样”。 （3）如果定语从句的内容对主句的内容起消极作用，则用 which，而不用 as，如： She stole her friend’s money, which was disgraceful. He tore up my photo, which upset me. 5．在正式文体中，以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常以 in which 或 that 引导，如： The way in which you answered the questions was admirable. 但在非正式文体中，人们通常省略 in which 或 that : The way (in which) he spoke to us was suspicious. I don’t like the way (that) you laugh at her. 【巩固练习】 1. — Is that the small company you often refer to? — Right, just the one _______ you know my father used to work for years. A. that B. which C. where D. as 2. — Where did they fi nish the experiment? — It was in the lab _______ was taken charge of by Prof. Smith. A. where B. / C. which D. in which 3. Examination compositions, together with most business letters and government reports, are the main situations _______ formal language is used. A. in which B. in that C. of which D. of that 4. Which fi lm is the one _______ main actor has won the Best Actor Prize in the fi lm festival? A. who B. whom C. whose D. which 5. In that country, November 30th is a national festival _______ everyone, men and women, old and young, sings and dances happily in the streets.
A. where B. when C. that D. as 6. This is John Brown, _______ I think has something interesting to tell you. A. which B. whom C. that D. who 7. We climbed the Huangshan Mountain yesterday, _______, not surprisingly, was crowded with visitors from all over the world. A. where B. which C. that D. when 8. The famous football player, _______ a big party will be held tomorrow morning, is to arrive this afternoon. A. in honour of him B. in his honour C. in whose honour D. in which honour 9. _______ was reported in the newspaper, seventeen passengers had been killed in the traffi c accident. A. It B. As C. What D. That 10. The owner paid the worker $10 for tidying the whole building, most of _______ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. A. that B. what C. when D. which 11. He has made great contributions to the science of physics, _______ he was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize. A. about which B. what C. for which D. when 12. I don’t want to use the same tool _______ you used yesterday to repair the air conditioner. A. it B. that C. one D. what 13. They were interested _______ you told them. A. in which B. in that C. all that D. in everything 14. Is that the reason _______ you are in favor of the proposal? A. which B. what C. why D. for that 15. I have bought the same dress _______ she is wearing. A. as B. that C. which D. what Key:1-5 CCACB 6-10 DBCBD 11-15 CBDCA 四．关系词的选择 1． 在非限制性定语从句中，关系代词作主语，只能用 who 指人，which 指物；关系代词做宾语， 常用 whom（口语中有时用 who）指人，which 指物，它们都不能用 that 代替。 2． 关系代词作介词宾语，不论是在限制性定语从句中，还是在非限制性定语从句中，当介词前 置时，只能用 whom 指人，which 指物；但如果介词后置，则不受这种限制，关系代词还可以省去， 特别是在口语中。如： Do you know the boy to whom she was talking? Do you know the boy (that) she was talking to? The pencil (which/that) he was writing with suddenly broke. 3． 在限制性定语从句中，当先行词指物时，关系词可用 which 或 that，二者常可以互换；但在 下列情况中，只能用 that，不用 which： (1) 当先行词是 all, a lot, (a) little, few, much, none, anything, something, everything, nothing 等词时。如： All that can be done has been done.
In this factory I saw little / much that was different from ours. (2) 当先行词被 all, any no, much, little, few, every 等限定词所修饰时。如： We heard clearly every word that he said. (3) 当先行词是序数词或被序数词所修饰时。如： The first thing that should be done is to get the tickets. When people talk about Hangzhou, the first that comes to mind is the West Lake. (4) 当先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级所修饰，以及先行词被序数词和形容 词最高级同时修饰时，如： Is that the best that you can do? That’s the most expensive hotel that we’ve ever stayed in. This novel is the second best one that I have ever read. (5) 当先行词被 the very, the only, the next, the last 等所修饰时。如： This is the very book that I want to find. (6) 当先行词为指人和指物的两个并列名词词组时。如： The guests spoke highly of the children and their performances that they saw at the Children’s Palace. She described in her compositions the people and places that impressed her most. (7) 当主句是以 which 开头的特殊疑问句时。如： Which is the car that killed the boy? 4. 在定语从句中，当先行词指人时，关系词可用 who(m)或 that，二者常可互换。 但在下列情况中，用 who(m)，而不用 that： (1) 当先行词是 one, ones, any, few, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody 等词时。如： Is there anyone who can answer this question? He was among the few who managed to live through the enemy prison camp. 注：在非正式文体中可以说：You’re the one that knows where to go.) (2) 当先行词是 he, they, those, people, person 等词时。如： He who wants to catch fish just not mind getting wet. Those who are against the proposal put up your hands. 注：在固定结构的谚语或习语中，可用 he that?。如： He that promises too much means nothing. (3) 当先行词有较长的后置定语修饰时。如： Do you know the writer in blue with thick glasses who is speaking at the meeting? (4) 在分隔式定语从句中，若先行词指人，为了明确修饰关系，应当用 who(m)。如： A new master will came tomorrow who will teach you German. There’s only one student in the school who/whom I wanted to see. I was the only person in my office who was invited. (5) 两个定语从句同时修饰一个指人的先行词，第二个定语从句常用 who(m)来引导，如： She is the only girl I know who can play the guitar. 5. 在定语从句中，当先行词指人时，在下列情况中，一般用关系词 that: (1) 当主句是以 who 或 which 开头的特殊疑问句时。如： Who is the man that is reading the newspaper over there? Which of us that knows anything does not know this? (2) 当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词所修饰时。如： He is the greatest man that has ever lived. (3) 当先行词被 the only, the very, the last 等词所修饰时。如：
She is the only person that understands me. 6. 当先行词被 the same 所修饰时，关系词既可以用 as，也可以用 that。在表示具体事物 时，有时两者有一定的区别。一般说来，表示同一种类多用 as，表示同一事物多用 that。 如： This is the same instrument that I used yesterday. 这就是我昨天用过的那台仪器。 This is the same instrument as I used yesterday. 这台仪器跟我昨天用过的那台一样。 在抽象概念上，同种类和同一事物是没有绝对区别的，所以两个词可换用： I have the same opinion as / that you have. 这里要注意的是： （1） 使用 as 时，它引导的定语从句中的动词可以省略，但使用 that 时，定语从句中 的动词不可省略。如： Women received the same pay as men. Women received the same pay that men received. (2) 在“the same?that”结构中，that 只是用来加强语气，强调“相同”。that 可以省去而不 改变句子原意，甚至连名词前的 same 也可以省去。如： This is the same instrument that I used yesterday. = This is the same instrument I used yesterday. = This is the instrument I used yesterday. 但在“the same?as”结构中，same 和 as 都不能省略。 (3) 当“the same?that”结构中的 that 作为关系副词用时，不可以直接与 as 互换。 如： He lives in the same building that I live. = He lives in the same building as / that I live in. Shall we meet at the same place that we last met? = Shall we meet at the same place that / as we last met at? 7. 当先行词前有 such, so, as 时，关系词应当用 as。如： A wise man seldom talks about such things as he doesn’t understand. He spoke in such easy English as everybody could understand. At this time of the day, all buses and trolleys have to carry as many passengers as they can. It is so easy a book as every schoolboy can read. Let’s discuss such things as we can talk of freely.
定语从句专项练习题及详解 50 题 1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. Which B. where C. what D. in which 2.Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke 3.This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed 4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded? A. which B. that C. when D. on which
5.That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when 6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which 7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working. A. where B. that C. which D. there 8.This is one of the best films _______. A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown C. that has been shown this year D. that you talked 9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day? A. about which you talked B. which you talked C. about that you talked D. that you talked 10.The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which 11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which D. that 12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old. A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom 13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. which D. whose 14.I'm interested in ______you have said. A. all that B. all what C. that D. which 15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what D. as 16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be. A. who B. whom C. that D. as 17.He is good at English, ______we all know. A. that B. as C. whom D. what A. I went with B. with whom I went C. with who I went D.I went with him 19.I don't like ______ as you read. A. the novels B. the such novels C. such novels D. same novels 20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. whom D. who 22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women. A. them B. which C. whom D. who
23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it. A. who;/ B./; whom C. whom;/ D./; who 24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now. A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that 25.Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what 26.I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV. A. that B. which C. as D. it 27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together. A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when 28.The way ______he looks at problems is wrong. A. which B. whose C. what D./ 29.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting. A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which 30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly. A. after which I have looked B. which I have looked after C. that I have looked after D. I have looked after 31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill. A. why; that B.that;why C. for that;that D.for which;what 32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam. A.that B.which C.for which D.who 33.That is not the way ______I do it. A./ B.which C.for which D.with which 34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use. A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which 35.I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few days ago. A. as was B. which was C. as were D. which 36.My neigh bours used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them. A. who B. which C. that D. it 37.This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph. A. that B. which C. from that D. from which 38.He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done. A. that B. which C. who D. as 39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes. A. / B. why C. when D. whose 40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular.
A. that B. which C. it D. though 41. --- Did you ask the guard _______ happened? --- Yes, he told me all _______ he knew. A. what; that B. what; what C. which; which D. that; that 42. I shall never forget those years _______ I lived on the farm with the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life. A. when; who B. that; which C. which; that D. when; which 43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing. A. owns; are B. owns; is C. own; is D. own; are 44. During the days ________, he worked as a servant at the Browns. A. followed B. following C. to follow D. that followed 45. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn? A. that B. / C. which D. it 46. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, _______ he could see _____ was going on inside house. A. which; what B. through which; what C. through that; what D. what; that 47. Is _______ some German friends visited last week? A. this school B. this the school C. this school one D. this school where 48. John got beaten in the game, _______ had been expected. A. as B. that C. what D. who 49. I have bought two ballpens, _______ writes well. A. none of them B. neither of them C. neither of which D. none of which 50. All that can be eaten _______ eaten up. A. are being B. has been C. had been D. have been
参考答案及解析 1. ACDCA. ADCDA CAAAA BBACB CDDAD D BBCB DCD A A CADDB ABADC BDDAB