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7 12 句子成分和基本句型的讲解


英语语法

句子成分

和 基本句型
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什么是句子?
句子是由词按照一定的语法结构组成的,是 能表达一个完整概念的语言单位.句子的第 一个字母必须大写,结尾要有.?


r />I am a teacher.

Are you a student?
How beautiful the girl is !
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句子包括哪些成分?

现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种,即主语、 谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。英语的基本成 分有七种:主语(subject)、谓语(predicate)、 表语(predicative)、宾语(object)、定语 (attribute)、状语(adverbial) 和补语 (complement)。 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型 及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本 句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。
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1.主语(Subject):主语是一个句子所叙述 的主体,常位于句首。 但在there be结构、疑问句(主语不是疑 问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助 动词或情态动词后。主语可由下列结构表 示。

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1.During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. (名词) 2.We often speak English in class. (代词) 3.One-third of the students in this class are girls. (数词) 4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure.
(不定式)

5.Smoking does harm to the health. (动名词) 6.The rich should help the poor.
(名词化的形容词)
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7.When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. (主语从句) 8.It is necessary to master a foreign language.
(it作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式)

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? 句子成分练习题( 一 ) ? (一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词(4分, 4分 钟) ? ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ? ② There is an old man coming here. ? ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ? ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.
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谓语
? 谓语 (Predicate) 说明主语所做的动作或 具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语, 一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下: ? 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构 成。如: He practices running every morning. The plane took off at ten o’clock.

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谓语
? 2、复合谓语: (1)由情态动词加动词原形构成。如: You may keep the book for two weeks. (2)由助动词加动词原形,现在分词,过去分词构 成。如: Do you speak English? They are working in a field. He has caught a bad cold. (3)由系动词加表语构成。如: We are students. 注意:谓语与主语在人称与数方面要保持一致。
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? 1. Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. ? A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework ? 2. What I want to tell you is this. ? A. want B. to tell C. you D. is ? 3. We had better send for a doctor. ? A. We B. had C. send D. doctor ? 4. He is interested in music. ? A. is B. interested C. in D. music ? 5. Whom did you give my book to? ? A. give B. did C. whom D. book
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表语
? 表语(Predicative) ? 用以说明主语的性质、特征、状态与身份, 它一般位于系动词(如be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem等)之后。 ? 表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数词、 副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语 及表语从句表示。例如:

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1.Our teacher of English is an American. (名词) 2.Is it yours? (代词) 3.The weather has turned cold. (形容词) 4.The speech is exciting. (分词) 5.Three times seven is twenty one? (数词)
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6.His job is to teach English. (不定式) 7.His hobby is playing football. (动名词) 8.The meeting is of great importance. (介词短语) 9.Time is up. The class is over. (副词) 10.The truth is that he has never been abroad. 2013-6-17 (表语从句)

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挑出下列句中的表语
? ? ? ?

① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it.

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? ? ? ? ? ?

在系动词后的部分就是表语 常见的系动词有: be(am,is,are,were,was) 状态:seem, appear, prove --感官:smell, feel, taste, sound, look 变化:become, get, turn, go, come, grow ? 持续:remain, stay, keep,

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? I. 常用作连系动词: ? ① 变成,变得:become, come, fall, get, go, grow, run, turn ? 口诀:好是come,坏是go;天气、外貌慢慢grow; 流水、金钱缓缓run; 颜色、天气大不同turn; Get\ become口语化,如果要说就用它. ? 口诀解读: ? Come 一般表示事物由坏变好,结果是好的。 ? 如:Dreams come true. ? 梦想成真。 ? Go 一般表示事物由好变坏,结果是不好的。 ? 如:It's such a hot day today that this dish has gone smelly. ? 今天太热了,菜都馊了。
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? Grow 表示逐渐变化,强调的是缓慢变化的过程, 后面往往接表示天气或外貌变化的静态形容词。 ? 如:我想和你一起慢慢变老。 ? I want to grow old with you. ? Run 与grow 是对应的,其主语多为能流动,能 消耗的东西。 ? 如:Still water runs deep. ? 静水深流。 ? Turn多接表示颜色和天气的形容词,侧重于表达 与之前大不相同。 ? 如:The weather suddenly turned hot. ? 天气突然变热了。
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4. 宾语(Object):宾语表示动作的对 象或承爱者,一般位于及物 动词和介词后面。宾语种类: (1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) Lend me your dictionary. (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补) They elected him their monitor.

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宾语
? 宾语(Object)表示动作的对象或承爱者,一 般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如: 1.He is doing his homework.
(名词)

2.The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. (代词、动名词) 3.How many dictionaries do you have? I have five. (名词、数词)
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4.They helped the old with their housework yesterday. (名词化形容词,名词) 5.He pretended not to see me.
(不定式短语)

6.I enjoy listening to popular music.
(动名词短语)

7.I think(that)he is fit for his office.
(宾语从句)

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? 宾语种类: ? (1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语),例如: Lend me your dictionary, please. To: write, tell, pass, give, send, promise, show, hand, read, tell, bring, throw等,“七给”一 “带”to不少 例如: He sent the novel to William yesterday. For: leave, buy, build, choose, cook, draw, find, get, order, post, save等,例如: She bought a gift for her mother. ? (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补),例如: ? They elected him their monitor. 2013-6-17 22

? 下列动词只能接不定式做宾语 ask, agree, care, choose, demand, dare, decide, expect, fail, help, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish, desire等,如: He refused to lend me his bike.
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? 下列动词只能接动名词做宾语 admit, avoid, advise, consider, enjoy, excuse, escape, finish, imagine, mind, practise, suggest 等,如: John has admitted breaking the window .
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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really25is. 2013-6-17

划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语( ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?
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? ?

? ?

? 下列动词既可接不定式,也可接动名词做 宾语,但意义不同,如mean, try, remember, forget, regret等。 ? forget to do表示“未发生的动作”, forget doing表示“已完成的动作”。如: ? Don't forget to come here earlier tomorrow.(还没来) ? I forgot returning the book to him. ? (书已还给他了) ?
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宾语补足语
? 宾语补足语(Object Complement), 用于补充说明宾语的动作,一般位于宾 语之后,宾语与宾语补足语一起构成复 合宾语。需接复合宾语的动词有:tell, let,help,teach, ask,see,have, order,make等。“宾补”一般可由名 词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介 词短语和从句充当。例如:
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1.His father named him Xiaoming. (名词) 2.They painted their boat white. (形容词) 3.Let the fresh air in. (副词) 4.You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. (不定式短语) 5.We saw her entering the room. (现在分词) 6.We found everything in the lab in good order. (介词短语) 7.We will soon make our city what your city is now. (从句)
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宾语补足语
? 在英语中,有些句子只有宾语并不能表达完整的意思, 还必须在宾语后面家上宾语补足语才能表达完整的意 思.它起补充说明宾语干什么,怎么样的作用. ? 它可以由名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,现 在分词和过去分词充当. ? If you let me go, I’ll make you king.

? Leave the door open.
?We found John out when we arrived.

? Make yourself at home.
? I saw him enter the hall. ? The boss keeps them working all day. ? I heard my name called.
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挑出下列句中的宾语补足语
? ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ? ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ? ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ? ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ? ⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. ? ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?
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主动语态变成被动语态后,宾语补足语变成主补. I last saw him playing near the river. →He was last seen playing near the river.
The teacher caught the student cheating in the exam → The student was caught cheating in the exam We made him monitor. → He was made monitor. He pushed the door open. →The door was pushed open.
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定语
? 修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语 (Attribute)。 ? 定语可由以下等成分表示: 1.Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) 2.China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) 3.There are thirty women teachers in our school.(名词) 4.His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词)
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5.Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom. (不定式短语) 6.The teaching plan for next term has been worked out. (动名词) 7.He is reading an article about how to learn English. (介词短语) 8.She is the girl who sings best in my class. (定语从句)
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? (五) 挑出下列句中的定语
? ? ? ? ① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ? ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ? ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!

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状语(adverbial modifier)
? 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明 动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语 (Adverbial)。可由以下形式表示 : 1.Light travels most quickly. (副词及副词性词组) 2.He has lived in the city for ten years. (介词短语) 3.He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.
(不定式短语)
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4.He is in the room making a model plane.
(分词短语)

5.Wait a minute.

(名词)

6.Once you begin, you must continue.
(状语从句)

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9种状语种类如下:
1. How about meeting again at six? (时间状语) 2.Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) 3.I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) 4.Mr Smith lives on the third floor. (地点状语) 5.She put the eggs into the basket with great care. (方式状语)
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? She came in with a dictionary in her hand. (伴随状语) 6.In order to catch up with the others, I (目的状语) must work harder. 7.He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. (结果状语) 8.She works very hard though she is old.
(让步状语)

9.I am taller than he is. (比较状语)
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(九)同位语(Appositive)对前面的名
词或代词做进一步的解释,通常由名词、 数词、代词或从句担任,如: This is Mr. Zhou, our headmaster.

(十)插入语(Parenthesis)对一句话
做一些附加的解释,通常有to be honest , I think (suppose, believe---)等,如: To be frank, I don’t quite agree with you.

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

(七) 挑出下列句中的状语 ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.
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练习
一.指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分: S. ? 1. The students got on the school bus. Attribute ? 2. He handed me the newspaper. O. ? 3. I shall answer your question after class. Adverbial Predicate ? 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! Attribute ? 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. Adverbial Adverbial
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Predicative ? 6. His job is to train swimmers. ? 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. O. ? 8. There is going to be an American film S. tonight.Predicate ? 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. Predicate ? 10. His wish is to become a scientist. S. Predicative ? 11. He managed to finish the work in time. Predicate O. advice. ? 12. Tom came to ask me for Adverbial ? 13. He found it important to master English. 2013-6-17 43 AO. RO.

Attribute

O. ? 14. Do you have anything else to say?

Attribute

? 15. To be honest,your pronunciation is Parenthesis not so good. ? 16. Would you please tell me your O. address? Adverbial Adverbial ? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. AS.is our duty to keep our classroom ? 18. It Predicative clean and tidy. O.C. ? 19. He noticed a man enter the room. O.C. ? 20. The apples tasted sweet.
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Predicative

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指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分
11. He managed to finish the work in time. 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. 13. He found it important to master English. 14. Do you have anything else to say? 15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good. 16. Would you please tell me your address? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy. 19. He noticed a man enter the room. 20. The apples tasted sweet.

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按句子的结构分为三种:
简单句 (simple sentence)

并列句 (compound sentence)

复合句 (complex sentence)

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(一).简单句:
只有一个主语(或并列主语) 和 一个谓语(或并列谓语): <1>.Tom likes rock music. <2>.Tom and John are fond of ▲ rock music. <3>.Tom sat down at his desk and began to do his homework. ▲
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简单句的 五种基本句型
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种类 类型

第1 种

S+V

主语 谓语 表语/宾 S 动词 语 v p We work He We

宾语 0

宾补 oc

第2 S+V+0 种 第3 S+v+p 种

plays violin.
are studens

第4 S+v+IO+DO she 种 第5 S+V+O+OC He 种 2013-6-17

gave

me me

a pen. laugh
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made

? ? ? ? ?
?

I am a webaholic.我是一个网虫。 Chatting on the internet is interesting. 我喜欢网上聊天。 Internet dating hurts.网恋有害。 I like chatting online.我喜欢网上聊天。 Chatting on the internet brings me a lot of fun.网上聊天给我带来很多乐趣。 We can call internet addicts a webaholic.我们管网上一隐君子叫网虫。
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基本句型 一: S V P (主+系+表) S │V(是系动词)│ P 1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 2. The dinner │smells │good. 3. He │fell │in love. 4. Everything │looks │different. 5. He │is growing │tall and strong. 6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。 7. Our well │has gone │dry. 我们井干枯了。 8. His face │turned │red. 他的脸红了。
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主语+系动词+表语 (S+V+P)
系动词包括Be动词以及一些表示感官 的动词。★高考经常考查的系动词: <1>. “变得” get ______,become _______, _______, _______, _____... turn go grow <2>. “看起来”______,______,______ look seem appear “闻起来” smell “尝起来” taste ______ _____ “摸起来” feel ______ “听起来”_____ sound
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★系动词的用法:

(注意三点) adj. +___________作表语; 宾语 系动词 无 __________; 无 被动语态 __________; e.g. The dish ________________. tastes delicious (尝起来好吃) The story _______________. sounds interesting (听起来有趣).
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一、系动词的分类: 常见的系动词大致可分为三类。

第一类:表示特征或状态的,有be, look, feel, seem, appear, smell, taste, sound, turn out (结果是、证明是)等。

He seems to be ill. It appears that he is unhappy. The roses smell sweet. How sweet the music sounds! The day turned out (to be) a fine one.
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第二类:表示从一种状态到另一种状态的 变化,有become, get, grow, turn, fall, go, come, run等。

Yesterday he suddenly fell ill. Mary’s face went red. His dream has come true. The boy’s blood ran cold.

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第三类:表示保持状态的,有keep, remain, continue,stay等。

Keep quiet, children! The weather continued fine for a long time. It remains to be proved.

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所有的系动词都可接形容词作表语,此处略举数 例。 Our future will be beautiful. She looks unhappy today. Do you feel cold? You seem/appear ill. The food tastes delicious. The weather is turning/ growing/ becoming/ getting cold. He often went hungry.
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能接从句的有:be, seem, appear, sound, look等。 That’s why he fell ill. My idea is that we should help him. It seems/ appears to me that something is wrong. It sounds to me as if someone were trying to get into the house. Your voice sounds as if you had a cold. It looks as if it is going to rain.
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一.纵观历年的高考题,对系动词的考查一直是高 考中非常重要的热点之一,对于考生来说也是难 点所在。

高考对系动词考查的覆盖面广,涉及的系动词较 多,重点考查的是 get ,其次是 feel 和 remain , 考查的难度在逐年增大。 二 . 对表示状态变化的系动词的考查 英语中常见的表示状态变化的系动词有 get , turn , turn out (结果是……), go , come (成为), fall , become 等。
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1. 对 get 的考查 get 表示状态的改变,意为“变成,变得,做 成”,它后面可以接形容词、 v-ing 形式、过去 分词等。 ① Sarah, hurry up. I'm afraid you won't have time to _____ before the party. A. get changed B. get change

C. get changing D. get to change

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② Be careful when you cross this very busy street, if not, you may _____ run over by a car. A. have B. get C. become D. turn ③ As we joined the big crowd I got _____ from my friends. A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed

分析:例①②③中考查的是“ get +过去分词”构成 的系表结构。例① get changed 意为“换衣服”,例 ② get run over 意为“碾过,压过”,例③ get separated 意思是“冲散,分离”,所以正确答案分 2013-6-17 68 别是 A 、 B 、 A

2. 对 go 的考查 系动词 go 的意义是“变成,成为”,后多跟形 容 词 , 如 go bad, go mad, go wrong, go hungry, go sour 等。例如: On hearing the news of the accident in coal mine, she ______ pale. A. got B. changed C. went D. appeared 分析:该题考查的是“ go+adj. ”系表结构。 got 和 changed 不能与 pale 搭配起来表达这 一状态的变化,而 appeared 是表示状态存在 的系动词。所以正确答案是 C 。
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3. 对 fall 的考查 系动词 fall 表示“(不知不觉地或突然地)进 入……状态”,后常跟形容词、副词或介词短语 等,如: fall ill (生病), fall apart (散开), fall asleep, fall into a deep sleep (睡熟)。例 如: As she ____ the newspaper, Granny ______ asleep. A.read; was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read; fell 分析:该题第二空考查的是系动词“ fall+adj. ” 结构, fall asleep 是短暂性动词短语,不能用于 2013-6-17 70 进行时态,故正确答案是 B 。

三 . 对表示状态存在的系动词的考查

常见的有 be, seem, appear, look, feel, smell, sound, keep, taste, remain, prove, stay, lie (处于某种状态), stand (处于某种状态)等。
1. 对 remain 的考查 系动词 remain 的意思是“保持,继续,依然不变”, 后常接名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式等。 ① Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains _____ whether they will enjoy it. A. to see B. to be seen C.seeing D. seen
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② Although he has taken a lot of medicine, his health ______ poor. A. proves B. remains C. maintains D. continues

分析:例①中的 remain 是个半系动词, “有待被看,证实”,所以应用不定式的被 动式,故答案是 B 。例②中 remain poor 意 为“仍然很差”, maintain 意为“维持,保 持,继续”,不与形容词 poor 连用,所以正 确答案是 B 。 2013-6-17 72

2. 对 stay 的考查 stay 意为“保持原状,维持”,后面可以接形 容词、副词、介词短语、名词等。 ① The weather has stayed warm all week. ② Why don't you put the meat in the fridge? It will ______ fresh for several days. A. be stayed B. stay C. be staying D. have stayed 分析:该题考查的是系动词 stay 后接形容词 ( fresh )的系表结构,它表示一种存在的状 态,主动形式表示被动意义,这种结构一般不 能用于进行时态,所以正确答案是 B 。 2013-6-17 73

分析:句意是“一定要把一切真相告诉你妈妈。 她看上去已经知道一切事情。”句中 tell 后面 没有宾语,故用不定式的被动式,又因为“知道 一切”发生在“告诉真相”之前,要用完成式。 所以正确答案是 D 。

4. 对 feel 的考查 feel 的意思是“感觉是,似乎”,后常接形容词、 副词、介词短语等。 ① I love to go to the seaside in summer. It _____ good to lie in the sun or swim in the cool sea. A. does B. feels C. gets D. makes
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② --- Do you like the material? --- Yes, it ______ very soft. A.is feeling B.felt C.feels D.is felt

分析:这两道考题考查的是“ fell+adj. ”的系表 结构。例①中 feel good 意为“感觉舒服”;例② feel soft 意为“摸上去软和”,此时,主动结构 表示被动的含义。所以正确答案分别是 B 和 C 。

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5. 对系动词 look 的考查 look 有“看来,显得”等意,后面常接形容词、 介词短语、不定式短语、从句等。 ① The plan looks good on paper, but will it work? 这个计划从表面上看来不错,但能行得通 吗? ② ---You don't look very ___. Are you ill? -- No,I'm just a bit tired. A. good B. well C. strong D. healthy 分析:尽管提供的四个备选项都是形容词, 但 look well 的意思是“看上去气色好”, 符合对话的语境,故正确答案是 B 。
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6. 对 sound 的考查 sound 有“听起来,令人觉得,似乎”等含义, 后面可以接形容词、名词短语、介词短语、不定 式等。 ① She sounds to be a very strange woman. 听起来她似乎是一个非常古怪的女人。 ② What he said sounds ________ . A. nicely B. pleasantly C. friendly D. wonderfully
分析:四个选项中只有 friendly 是形容词,可以和 sound 连用构成系表结构,其他三项都是副词,只 能作状语不能作表语,所以正确答案是 C 。
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7. 对 taste 的考查 taste 在使用时不用进行时态,含义是“尝起来, 有某种特殊的味道”,一般接形容词构成系表结 构。 ① These oranges taste nice. 这些橙子味道很 好。 ② These oranges taste _____ . A.good B. well C. to be good D. to be well 分析: taste 是系动词,所以要用形容词 good 作其表语。 well 作形容词时,意思是“健康 的”,只能形容人,不能形容物。故正确答案 2013-6-17 79 是A。

8. 对 smell 的考查 smell 经常与形容词连用,意思是“闻起来,有……气 味,发出……的气味”。

① This book smells old. 这本书有一股霉味。 ② We don‘t care if a hunting dog smells ______, but we really don’t want him to smell _______ .
A. well; well B. bad; bad C. well; badly D. bad; badly

分析:第一空前的 smell 是不及物动词,意 为“嗅,闻,有嗅觉”,副词 badly 修饰 smells ;而第二空前的 smell 是系动词,与形 容词 bad 构成系表结构。 答案为D 2013-6-17

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基本句型 二:S V (主+谓) 此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的 谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫 做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、 状语从句等。
S │ V (不及物动词) 1.The sun │was shining. 2. The universe │remains. 宇宙长存。 3. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. 4. Who │cares? 管它呢? 5. What he said │does not matter. 6. The pen │writes smoothly 2013-6-17

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主语 + 谓语 2. ________________(S + V) Everybody works. She left. ★高考经常考查的不及物动词: happen occur “发生” __________; __________; __________ come about take place ; __________ __________ break out run out give out “用完,用光”________;________..... ★不及物动词的用法:
被动语态 宾语 无 __________, 无_________
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e.g. <1>.“过去的几年里我们学校发生了
很大的变化”

Great changes have taken place ____________________________ ____________________________. in our school in the last few years.
<2>. Do you know what was \ happened yesterday?
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Our school has taken place (×) great changes in the last few years. (改错)

主语可有修饰语-定语,谓语可有修饰语-状语。

如: 1. The red sun rises in the east. 2. So they had to travel by air or boat. 3.We got up early so as to catch the first bus. 4. She sat there alone, reading a novel. 5. He came back when we were eating. 6.Weak buildings will fall down in an earthquake, but strong ones may stay up.
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巩固练习:

1.会议将持续两个小时。
2. The meeting will last two hours.

2.在过去的十年里我的家乡已经发生了巨大变化
3. Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years.

3.1919年,在北京爆发了“五.四”运动。 4.每天八时开始上课。
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The May Fourth Movement broke out in Beijing in 1919. 5. Classes begin at eight every day.
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巩固练习:
5.这个重五公斤。
This box weighs five kilos.

6.秋天有些鸟飞到南方去。
In autumn, some birds fly to the south.

7. 每天下午有许多学生到图书馆来借书。
Every afternoon a lot of students come to the library to borrow books.
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基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 构成宾语的代词必须是‘代词宾格’,如:me,him, them等 S │V(及物动词)│ O 1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案? 2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。 3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。 4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。 5. They │ate │what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。 6. He │said │"Good morning." 他说:"早上好!" 7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。 8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。
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巩固练习:
1.昨晚我写了一封信。
I wrote a letter last night.

2.今天下午我想同你谈谈。
I want to talk with you this afternoon.

3.这本书他读过多次了。
He has read this book many times.

4.他们成功地完成了计划。
They have carried out the plan successfully.

5.那位先生能流利地说三种语言。
That gentleman can speak three languages fluently. 2013-6-17 88

巩固练习:
6.我收到了笔友从澳大利亚寄来的信。
I received a letter from my penfriend in Australia.

7.Jim 还不会自己穿衣服。
Jim cannot dress himself.

8.我们大家都相信Jack 是一个诚实男孩。
All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy.

9. 他不知道说什麽好。
He did not know what to say.

10. 我开窗户你在意吗?
Do you mind my opening the window?
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基本句型 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)
S │V(及物)│ o(多指人) │ O(多指物) 1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了 一套新衣裳。 2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她 给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。 3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本 字典。 4. He │denies │her │nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。 5. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚 点了。 6. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 他教我 开机器。
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但若要先说出直接宾语(事物),后说间接宾语 (人),则要借助于介词to或for。如: He brings cookies to me every day. She made a beautiful dress for me.

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用to侧重指动作的方向,表示朝着,向着,对着 某人。 用for 侧重指动作的受益者,表示为了某人,替 某人。 常跟双宾语的动词有:(需借助to的)bring, give, lend, hand, offer, pass, pay, promise, return, send, show, teach, tell, write, ask等; (需借助for 的) buy, call, cook, choose, draw, find, get, make, order, sing, save, spare 等。
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巩固练习: 1.Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。 Mr Johnson taught us German last year. 2.奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。 Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 3.请把那本字典递给我好吗?
Would you please pass me the dictionary? 4.他把车票给列车员看。 He showed the ticket to the conductor.
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巩固练习: 5.我替你叫辆出租汽车好吗? Shall I call you a taxi? 6.新式机器将会为你节省许多劳动。 The new machine will save you a lot of labour. 7.他用他的第一个月工资给他妈妈买了一件毛衣。 7.He bought a new coat for his mother with his first month’s salary.
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基本句型 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 说明: 此结构由“主语+及物的谓语动词+宾语 +宾语补足语”构成。宾语与宾语补足语之间有逻 辑上的主谓关系或主表关系,若无宾语补足语, 则句意不够完整。 The sun keeps us warm. I heard him singing. You must get your hair cut.
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S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补) 名词/代词宾格 + 名词 The war| made| him |a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士. 名词/代词宾格 + 形容词 New methods |make |the job| easy./新方法使这项工作变 得轻松. 名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语 I |often find| him |at work./我经常发现他在工作. 名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式 The teacher| ask |the students |to close the windows./老 师让学生们关上窗户. 名词/代词宾格 + 分词 I |saw |a cat |running across the road./我看见一只猫跑过 2013-6-17 96 了马路.

用 it 做形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语 补足语的后面,以使句子结构平衡,是英语常用 的句型结构方式。即:主语+谓语+it+宾补+真正宾 语。如: I found it very pleasant to be with your family.

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巩固练习:
1.我们叫她Alice. We call her Alice. All of us considered him honest. 2.我们大家都认为他是诚实的。 They have set the thief free. 3.他们把小偷释放了。 I want you to tell me the 4.我要你把真相告诉我。 truth. The guards ordered us 5 .卫兵命令我们立即离开。 to leave at once. Every morning we hear him read English aloud. 6. 每天早晨我们都听到他大声朗读英语。 He has his hair cut 7.他每个月理一次发 every month.

We 2013-6-17won’t let her go out at night. 8.我们不会让她在晚上外出的。

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9.那可怕的声音把孩子们吓坏了 The terrible sound made the children frightened. 10.她正在听人家讲故事。 She is listening to someone telling stories.

I11.我从来没看见这个字这样用过。 way before. have never seen the word used that
12.他感到很难跟你交谈。 talk with you. He felt it very difficult to I consider it possible to work out the 13.我认为有可能用另一种方法解题。 problem in another way. 14.学校定了一条规则,开始上课时学生要起立。 The school made it a rule that the students should stand up when class begins.
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英语基本句型6 There be 句型

说明: 此句型是由“there+be+主语+状语”构成, 用以表达存在关系可以称“……有……”。 它其实 是倒装的一种情况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后, there 仅为引导词,并无实际语意。 此句型有时不用be动词,而用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive等。如: There stands a hill in the middle of the park. Once upon a time there lived an old king in the town.
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Be 与其后的主语在人称和数量上一致,有时 态和情态变化。如: 现在有 there is/are … 过去有 there was/were… 将来有 there will be…;there is /are going to be... 现在已经有 there has/have been… 可能有 there might be... 肯定有 there must be …/there must have been... 过去曾经有 there used to be … 似乎有 there seems/seem/seemed to be … 碰巧有 there happen/happens/happened to 2013-6-17 101 be …

巩固练习: 1.这个村子过去只有一口井。 There was only a well in the village. 2.客人当中有两名美国人和两名法国人。 Among the guests there were two Americans and two Frenchmen. 3.天气预报说下午有大风。 The weatherman says there’ll be a strong wind in the afternoon. 4.灯亮着,办公室里肯定有人。 The light is on. There must be someone in the office. 5.战前这儿一直有家电影院的. There used to be a cinema here before the war.
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巩固练习: 6.恰好那时房里没人。 There happened to be nobody in the room. 7.从前,在海边的一个村子里住着一位老渔夫。 Once, there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. 8.公共汽车来了。 There comes the bus. 9.就只剩下二十八美元了。 There remained only twenty –eight dollars. 10.铃响了。 There goes the bell.
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(二)并列句(compound sentence):
把两个或几个简单句用

并列连词或分号连
2013-6-17

接起来,则成为一个并列 句。

104

常用并列连词
and, both….and…., not only…. but also…., ? 平行并列连词: neither…. nor…. ? 转折并列连词: but,while,yet
? 因果并列连词:

for, or,

so

? 选择并列连词:
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105

请用合适的并列连词把每组句子合 并为一个并列句。 1.He was tired. He went to bed.

He was tired, so he went to bed.
2.The dress is really beautiful. I can’t afford it.

The dress is really beautiful, but I can’t afford it.
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3. Mary is cooking. John is greeting guests. Mary is cooking ,and / while John is greeting guests.
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4.He works hard. He also likes helping others.
He not only works hard but also likes helping others.

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(三)复合句:主句+从句
主句是一个完整的句子(independent sentence),它可以独立存在。

从句必须和一个主句连用,不能独 立存在.
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请指出该复合句的主句和从句:
从句 When I get home at about ten, 1 I look at some documents... 2 主句
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在复合句中,主要包含以下 类型从句:
主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句

名词性从句 1.____________ 定语从句 2._____________ 状语从句 3._____________
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指出下列各从句的类型:
?I hope that everything is all right.
?She was reading the newspaper when I came in. ?She is the girl who sings best of all.
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宾语从句

状语从句 定语从 句
112

? That’s what people call the underground in London. What引导的表语从句 ? …it’s so crowded that I can’t find … so …that…引导结果状语从句,如此…以至于… ? We like to go walking where there are no shops, crowds or the tube. where引导地点状语从句 ? We take a weekend break there when I am not too busy on the farm. When 引导的时间状语从句 ? If the weather forecast is good, my friends and I drive to the countryside for a weekend break. If 引导的条件状语从句
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? I want to live in a place where the air is fresh.
定语从句

? I want to live where the air is fresh.
状语从句
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请把每组句子连接为一个含有状语从句 复合句。 ?I’ll give the letter to him .I see him. (时间状语从句) ?I’ll give the letter to him when I see him. as soon as
the moment
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? It is so crowded. ? I can’t find anywhere to sit. ? (把上面两个句子合成一个句子)

It is so crowded that I can’t find anywhere to sit.
结果状语从句
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? The dress is beautiful. I can’t afford it. (让步状语从句)

Although /Though the dress is beautiful, I can’t afford it. Beautiful as the dress is, I can’t afford it.
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See you next time

2013-6-17

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