Unit 1 Cultural relics
Teaching & Learning Objectives/ Aims: I Language knowledge: Topics: Cultural relics protection, Famous cultural relics in China and abroad. Vocabulary: rare, v
aluable, survive, vase, dynasty, amaze, amazing, select, honey, design, fancy, style, decorate, jewel, artist, belong, troop, reception, remove, wooden, doubt, former, worth, local, apart, painting, castle, trial, evidence, explode, entrance, sailor, sink, maid, informal, debate, in search of, belong to, in return, at war, less than, take apart, think highly of Functions: Ask for opinions and giving opinions. Grammar: The Attributive Clause (3) (Restrictive and Non-restrictive Attributive Clause) II Language Skills Listening: Listen to the tape of two different descriptions, learn to grasp the main information and fill in the forms. Do the listening exercises in WB. Speaking: Talk about two descriptions, give their own opinions and ask for opinions, discuss and exchange different opinions, and at last give a report to the class. Talk about the topic about cultural prote ction and famous culture relics in China and abroad according to the contents of this unit. Reading: Read and understand the texts In Search of the Amber house to know the history of the amber house. Develop the students’ ability of grasping the structure and organization of the text and learn the way of telling story. Try to help the Ss to set up a concept to comprehend the text as a whole and summarise the main idea of each paragraph and complete the other exercises. In the Using Language part, get the Ss to read the short paragraphs to distinguish the fact with opinion. Meanwhile, learn the new word, phrases and sentence structures in the texts to improve the Ss’ language ability get a better understanding of the texts. Writing: Get the Ss to read the letter from a German newspaper, discuss the opinions in the letter and develop it into a debate, and then write a report on the debate with the given guidance. Integrating skills: Get the Ss to develop the four skills comprehensively by teaching the given materials in an organized way. Learn and use the words and expression in this unit. Study the sample entry in dictionary and learn to use dictionary properly. Get the Ss to consolidate Attributive Clauses by analysing the sample sentences and combining two clauses into an Attributive Clause. Introduce and compare the Restrict and Non-restrictive Attributive Clause for the Ss to have a clear idea of Attributive clause. Do the grammar exercises in the textbook and workbook to grasp the grammar items. III Emotion & Attitudes: Try to form the right attitudes towards the culture relic protection. Get to know more about the cultural relics in China and abroad. IV Learning Strategies: Learn to understand the text by grasping the structure and
organization of the text. Learn the way of telling a story according to an order and some basic elements such as time, place, events, etc. Have the clear sense of sentence structures of the Attributives Clause by divide an Attributive Clause into two clauses and combine two into one. V Cultural consciousness: Form the sense of cultural relic protection and learn to appreciate different cultural relics. Main Points: language points and language skills listed above, learning strategies, the reading comprehension of the text, the grammar items. Difficult points: new language points, the reading comprehension of the text and the grammar item. Teaching Mode: Task-based Teaching Time: Period (45min×7 ) Teaching Aids: Multi-media teaching system Period 1 Teaching & learning contents: Warming up, Pre-reading, & Extensive reading of the text. Teaching & learning goals: 1. Introduce and talk about some basic knowledge about cultural relics. 2. Read the text, summarise the main idea of each paragraph by answers the questions. Try to understand the text by grasping the structure and organization of the text. 3. Do some of the reading comprehension exercises. Main points: The reading comprehension of the text. Difficult points: Reading and reading co mprehension of the text. Class type: Warming up and Fast Reading Teaching & learning procedures: Step 1 Lead-in Introduce the topic of this unit and get the Ss to know the new words: cultural, relic. Step 2 Warming up Task 1: Teacher shows some pictures of cultural relics and then asks the Ss to work in pairs or in groups to talk about the three given questions. Task 2: Give a report and share their ideas. (And then the teacher gives the suggested answers.) Suggested answers: 1) A cultural relic is something that has survived for a long time, often a part of something old that has remained when the rest of it has been destroyed; it tells people about the past. And the correct definition should include: * that it is any object, building or item that was made something in the past. It maybe many thousands of years old or it may be a few hundred; * that it may or may not be valuable; * that it tells us something of the way people lived at the time it was made. This may be because of its method of manufacture or how the item was used. 2) A correct answer should include the following information: * that it does not
need to be rare or valuable; that it is enough to have survived a long time. 3) That it can be a building, object or item. Notes: 1. cultural adj.文化的 culture n. 2. relic n.遗物, 遗迹, 废墟, 纪念物 3. rare adj. 稀罕的, 杰出的, 珍贵的 eg. a rare sense of honor 不寻常的荣誉感 a rare friend. 极好的朋友 It’s very rare for her to arrive late. This is a rare book. 4. valuable adj. 贵重的, 有价值的, 颇有价值的 eg. a valuable diamond 贵重的宝 valuable information 重大的消息 valuable advice 重要的建议 a valuable friend 令人钦佩的朋 5. survive vi. 幸存，幸存, 生还 ,比?活得长 vt.从?中逃生, 经历?后继续存在 survivor n. 幸存者 eg. The custom has survived for thousands of years. Only two people survived the fire. Two-thirds of the people survived the earthquake. 经过这次地震, 三分之二的人活了下来. 6. vase n. 花瓶 7. dynasty n. 王朝；朝代 Step 3 Pre-reading Task 1 Ss ask each other if they know something about amber. If they know, share the information with the class. If they don’t know, they teacher may show pictures of ambers and give some explanation. Amber is actually the fossilized sap or liquid from pine trees. If circumstances are right the sap will finally become hard and turned into the resin (树脂) that we know today. If it has come into contact with insects when still in its liquid and become part of the amber，so real amber should/may contain some evidence of insect life. 琥珀是史前松树脂的化石。 琥珀是由千万年前植物所分泌出来的树脂， 经过地壳变动而深 埋地下，逐渐演化而成的一种天然化石。形成于 4000 万年至 6000 万年前，琥珀的主要成分 是碳、氢、氧以及少量的硫，硬度 2-3，比重 1.05-1.10，熔点 150C-180C，燃点 250C-375C。 琥珀是很“涩”的物质，没有两块琥珀是完全相同的。品种有金珀、虫珀、香珀、灵珀、石 珀、花珀、水珀、明珀、蜡珀等，尤以含有完整昆虫或植物的琥珀为珍贵 。 Task 2 Look at the title and the picture of the reading passage and predict what it is about. Possible answers: (collect answers from the Ss) What is the Amber Room? Why was it called the Amber Room? What was it made for? What happened to it? Why to search for it? Step 3 Fast Reading Task 1 Scan the text as quickly as possible to see if their prediction is right
and answer the five questions to summarize the main idea of the five paragraphs. At the same time ask themselves when, where, who, what, wh y—questions. Answers: P1: How was the Amber Room made? P2: Why did the King of Prussia give the Amber room to the Czar of Russia as a gift? P3: How did the Amber Room become one of the wonders of the world? P4: How did the Amber Room get lost? P5: How was a new Amber Room built? Task 2 Read the text more carefully, join the correct parts of the sentences together in Exercise 1 in Comprehending and put the following sentences in order to have a clear idea of the development of the story. (Ask the Ss to pay attention to the way writer tells the story.) 1) ____Fredrick William I gave the Amber Room to Peter the Great as a gift. 2) ____The Czar gave Fredrick William I his best soldiers. 3) ____The Amber Room was made for Fredrick I. 4) ____The Russians removed art objects from the Amber Room. 5) ____More details were added to the room’s design. 6) ____The Amber Room was taken apart(拆除)and moved away. 7) ____A New Amber Room was built. 8) ____Catherine II moved the Amber Room to the palace outside St Petersburg. Answers to the Exercise 1 in Comprehending: 1 C 2 E 3 B 4 D 5 A 6 F The right order of the above sentences: 2 3 1 6 5 7 8 4 Task 3 Do more comprehending exercise to gain more detailed information and understand the text better. 1) Close test. The Amber Room time spent materia l purpose results It was made not to be a gift , but for the Palace of Frederick I. It was sent to Russian people. After Frederick William I succeeded his father and became the King of Prussia; soon it became part of the Czar’s winter palace; it was one of the great wonders of the world; in 941, it was stolen by the Nazis. Now a new Amber Room has been built in Russia and it looks much like the old one, following the old photos. A team of artists spent ten years making it. 7,000 tons of amber were used for making it, with gold and jewels.
2) List the places and events to show the re move of the Amber Room. Prussia---Russia---the winter palace in St Petersburg---the summer palace in St Petersburg---German city on the Baltic Sea---? built---gave to sb as a gift---added to more details---stolen---lost---rebuilt
Step 4 Listening & Retelling Task1 Listen to the tape of the text to get a better understanding of the text. Task 2 Try to retell the text according the form above. Homework: 1. Listen to the tape and read the text. 2. Find out the new words and language points in the text. 3. Think about the question in Exercise 3 in Comprehending.
Periods 2--3 Teaching & learning contents: Intensive reading, language focus & Comprehending, learning about the language. Teaching & learning goals: 1. Learn the new language items in the text and their usages to get a better understanding of the text. 2. Discuss the question in Comprehending. Main points: New language points and language items. Difficult points: New language points and language items Class type: Reading, language focus. Teaching & learning procedures: Step 1 Revision Task 1 Try to retell the text according to the time order. Task 2 Check the vocabulary to see if the Ss have got to know some of the new words. Step 2 Language focus Notice: In this step, teacher encourages and guides the Ss to discover the usages of some new words, new phrases and new sentence structures in the context by discussion. If the Ss have difficulties, teacher gives a complete and clear explanation of the text, including the word formation, word usages, phrases, and sentence structure, the meaning of some difficult sentences, the background information, and the organisation of the paragraph and so on. It is a good chance for the Ss to improve their language abilities in all aspects and enlarge their vocabulary. To each language item, perhaps only one or two aspects are focused on. Teacher can use different ways, such as answering questions, making sentences, comparing and contrasting, summing up, etc. to make the students active in language learning. Teacher can choose some of the items according to the Ss’ language level. In all, this teaching step is a comprehensive teaching and it is very important in each unit. While teacher is giving explanation, the Ss should be active and cooperate with the teacher as well as take notes. Task 1 Learn the language points and try to understand them & use them. Main language points: 1. in search (n.) of 寻找；搜寻 in the / one’s search for 在寻找?中 search (v) for sth 寻找；搜寻 search (v) sb / sth 搜查某物/ 搜身 2. Frederic William I, the King of Prussia, could never have imagined that his
greatest gift to the Russian people would have such an amazing history. 1) could have done “本能够?”(用于对过去情况的推测,其否定形式 “can’t / couldn’t have done” ,意为 “(过去)不可能做过某事. eg. The classroom can’t have been cleaned by Li Ping because he didn’t come to school today. 教室不可能是李平打扫的,因为他今天没来上学. He knows nothing about that book, for he couldn’t have read it before. 他对那本书一无所知,他不可能读过. He paid for a seat when he _____ have entered free. (could /would / must / need) I _______ have been more than six years old when the accident happened. (shouldn’t / couldn’t / mustn’t / needn’t) 2) gift n. 礼物,天赋,天资 have a gift for 对?有天赋 gifted adj. 有天才的,有天赋的 eg. He is a student who has a gift for math.对数学有天赋. She is a talented student. 3) amazing adj.令人惊异的 amazed adj. amaze vt. 使吃惊 eg. He ran at an amazing speed. His progress in English is amazing. He felt amazed when he was admitted by Peking University. 3. This gift was the Amber Room, which was given this name because several tons of Amber were used to make it. 1) Non-restrict Attributive Clause. 非限定性定语从句和它的先行词之间只有松散 的关系，往往是对先行词作补充说明，在文字中通常用逗号与主句隔开。 eg. The chairman, who spoke first, sat on my right. The speech, which bored everyone, went on and on. On April 1 they flew to Beijing, where they stayed several days. I’m seeing the manager tomorrow, when he will be back from New York. They have invited us to visit their company, which is very kind of them. Usually they take a walk after supper, which does them a lot of good. 2) ton n.吨,大量,许多 eg. Two tons of oil are in great need. A ton of wheat was shipped (ship) to that area 4. The amber which was selected had a beautiful yellow-brown colour like honey. 1) select vt.选择, 挑选 to take as a choice from among several; pick out. Select 侧重于从许多不同种类中进行选择时的挑剔态度. choose v. 选择, 选定 to select from a number of possible alternatives; decide on and pick out. Choose 含有运用判断力在一些人、物或行为方式中选出一个的意思： eg.“We do not choose survival as a value; it chooses us” (B.F. Skinner). “并不是我们把生存作为一种价值而选择了它；而是它选择了我们” Four skiers will be selected to represent each country. 每个国家将选出四名滑雪者作为代表。 2) honey n. (蜂)蜜, 蜂蜜 5. The design of the room was in the fancy style popular in those days.
1) design n.设计, 图案, 构思, 纲要 v. 设计, 计划, 谋划, 构思 eg. design a building; design a computer program. 设计一个建筑物；设计一个计 算机程序 2) fancy vt. have a liking for; wish for 爱好；想象 fancy adj. 别致的；奇特的；装饰花哨的 eg. I fancy a swim. 我想去游会儿泳。 Fancy her saying a thing like that! 想不出她竟然说出这样的话来。 These clothes are too fancy for me, I prefer plainer ones. 3) in?style/ in the style of 以??的风格 eg. She bought a painting in the style of Picasso. 4) popular in those days = which was popular in those days eg. The boys (who are) easiest to teach in my class. 6. It was also a treasure decorated with gold and jewels, which took the country’s best artist about ten years to make. 1) decorate vt. 装饰, 为...做室内装修 be decorated with 2) jewel n. [c] 珠宝；宝石 3) artist n. 艺术家 art n. 4) take sb some time to do sth 7. ? to whom the amber room belonged,? 1) Non-restrictive clause with the preposition in front of relative pronoun 2) belong vi. 属于；为??的成员 belong to 属于 eg. This house belonged to Mr Li in the past. Wh o/ whom does this book belong to? 8. In return, the Czar sent him a troop of his best soldiers. 1) in return 作为报答 in return for 答谢? return ticket / trip 往返车票 /旅行 return v. = go back / give ?back eg. Tom , in return , told her his history. He bought Mary a card as birthday present. Mary gave him some candies in return. He bought her a gold watch in return for her help. 2) troop n.群, 组, 多数, 军队 a troop of 9. reception hall 接待室/厅 10. She told her artists to add more details to its design. 她告诉他的艺术家们将设计方案再增加更多的细节。 add?to?把??加进??里去 eg. He added that he was very pleased with our work. Please add some sugar to the milk. Add the score up. His being absent added to our difficulty. The money he spent one day added up to about $100. 11. In 1770 the room was completed the way(= as) she wanted. the way she wanted 方式状语，the way 的用法与连词相同，后面常跟 that，in a way, in the way 也有类似的用法。
eg. I was never allowed to do things the way I wanted. He was looking her in a way that surprised her. *way 作先行词时,若在从句中作方式状语,应用 in which 或 that 引导定语从句,也可 以省略;若在从句中作主语或宾语,应用 that 或 which 引导定语从句。 eg. This is the way (in which/that) he did that. 这就是他做那事的方法。 This is the way that/which is reasonable. 这就是那个很有道理的方法。 This is the way (that/which) he raised. 这就是他提出来的方法。 12. light v. 点燃,照亮 n. 光,光亮 adj.明亮的,轻的,浅色的 注:light 的过去式或过去分词可用 lighted 或 lit,但作定语修饰名词时用 lighted light up 照亮,使(光亮) eg. She took the lighted (点燃的)candle into the dark room and quickly the room lit up (照亮). He lit a lamp/candle/cigarette/fire. These streets are lit/lighted by electricity. She entered the room, with a lighted candle in her hand. 13. wonder n. thing or event causing surprised feeling combined with admiration 奇观，壮举，奇才，惊奇，惊叹, 奇迹 eg. Walking on the moon is one of the wonders of our times. What a wonder it is! They were filled with wonder when they saw the spaceship. It’s a wonder (that )?难得? (It’s ) No/ Little / hardly wonder that ?难怪，并不奇怪 eg. It’s a wonder you recognized me . No wonder he is not hungry, he has been eating sweets all day. 难怪他不饿，他整天在吃糖果． 14. This was a time when the two countries were at war. 这是两国交战时期。 at war 处于战争状态，介词 at 可表示状态或动作。 at peace at breakfast at rest at table at work at school at the piano at one’s best eg. At that time, China and Japan were at war, so travelling was extremely difficult. The two countries have been at war for many years. People there are suffering a lot. 15. remove v. 1) 移走,脱掉= take off 2)排除,去掉 = get rid of 3) 开除,把?解聘/免职= dismiss eg. He removed all his doubts. Remove your hat after you enter the house . He was removed from school . 16. furniture n. [u] 家具 a piece of furniture eg. There are ____________________(三件家具) in the room . (three pieces of furniture) 17. less than 少于 more than 多于 18. wood n.木头, 木材, 树木 wooden adj. 木制的 19. There is no doubt that ?.对?毫无疑问/怀疑
doubt n.怀疑, 疑惑, 疑问 vt.怀疑, 不信, 拿不准, 注意: doubt 后面跟 that 还是 whether 引导从句的根据: 一般来说,否定句型中多用 that 从句;肯定句型中多用 whether 从句. There is no doubt? = It’s clear that? = It’s beyond argument eg. There’s no doubt that he’ll come this afternoon. There is no doubt that he can do the work well. I have no doubt that he will succeed. There is no doubt about his honesty/ that he is honest. I doubt his ability to the work. We doubt the truth of the news. I don’t doubt that he will succeed. I doubt whether he will come. 20. After that, what happened to the Amber Room remains a mystery. remain vi 1)剩余,剩下 remain (+副词 / 介词短语) 2) 停留,留下,逗留(比 stay 正式) remain (+副词) 3) link-verb 仍是,依然 remain + 形容词 / 名词 / 介词短语(系表结构) 4) 尚待,留待 remain + to do eg. The children ate and ate until no food remained on the table. After the party Judy remained and helped me do the dishes. How long will you remain here? What really happened to the Amber Room remains a mystery. Peter became a judge but John remained a fisherman. The weather still remained warm in October A lot of work remains to be done. It remains to be seen whether he will pass. 他是否通过考试仍不得而知 拓展: remaining adj. 剩下的（作前置定语） remain standing /seated 一直站着/坐着 remain /keep silent 保持沉默 注意：remain 没有被动语态 表达“留下来被做”时 sth. remains to be done eg. The fact remains to be proved.事实尚待证明 After the fire, very little remained of my house. Let things remain as they are. He remained silent. 21. former adj.从前的, 以前的 latter adj.后面的, (两者中)后者的, 较后的, 近来 的 eg. a former ambassador 前任外交大使 Between captain and major, the latter is the higher rank. 在上尉与少校之间，后者是军衔较高。 22. worth prep.相当...价值 n.价值, 财产 adj.值钱的, 值的看中的 eg. It is not worth a penny. 不值一文。 The car is worth $10,000. Whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well. 凡是值得做的事情都值 得好好地做。 It's worth hearing/seeing. 这值得听/看。 The book is well worth reading.
It's worth nothing. 这毫无价值。 He is worth a million. 他是个百万富翁。 Step 3 Question time Task Ss come up with their own difficulties that the teacher has explained or has not yet covered. Teacher gives further explanation. Step 4 Comprehending Task Talk about the question in Exercise3 in comprehending. Suggested answers: This discussion is an opportunity for students to discuss whether such reconstructions are worthwhile. There are several factors to consider: * the cost * whether an object or building can be faithfully reproduced. * whether it helps people better understand the reasons why such building was destroyed. Homework: 1. Remember the language points in the text and arrange notes after class. Choose some beautiful sentences from the text. 3. Do the vocabulary exercise both in TB & WB.
Period 4 Teaching & learning contents: Listening & talking in WB, Discovering useful words & expressions in Learning about language in TB and vocabulary exercise in WB. Teaching & learning goals: 1. Practise listening and do the listening exercises, and talk about the cultural relics protection. 2. Practice using the words, expressions and structures in the text by doing the exercises. 3. Do the vocabulary exercises i n WB. Main points: listening, the usages of the words and phrases Difficult points: listening, the usages of the words and phrases Class type: Vocabulary exercise Teaching & learning procedures: Step 1 Revision Task Revise some of the words and language points in the text. Step 2 Listening Introduction: This listening text is about the building of Aswan dam in Egypt and the effect it had on one particular monument. The temple at Abu Simbel is rightly regarded as a historical masterpiece. The dam would have covered it, so UNESCO decided to remove it stone by stone to another safer spot. Teacher reads the description on P22 in TB to the Ss. Task 1 Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of building a dam before listening.
Task 2 Listen to Part A once or twice to number the key words, do the exercises and check answers. Task 3 Listen to the Part A and Part B again to answer the questions. Answers: Exercise 1: Advantages: 1) to make electricity for every one; 2) to encourage industry; 3) to make the country less dependent on outside oil supplies. Disadvantages: 1) loss of local villages; 2) loss of some cultural relics; 3) loss of beautiful scenery. Exercise 2: 1. Aswan High Dam 2. electricity 3. River Nile 4. covered by water 5. Abu Simbel 6. engineers 7. UNESCO Exercise 3: 1. move the temple 2.stone by stone 3. 1,900 workers 4. four years 5. rebuild 6. more than $70,000,000 7. worth 8. in 1996 Suggested answers to Exercises 4: 1.Abu Simbel needed to be moved and rebuilt because otherwise it would have been covered by the water when the dam was complete. 2. They solved this problem by moving the statues. They marked every stone with a number and took the statues apart. Then they reassembled them in another site. It was very successful because many tourists come to visit Abu Simbel which looks as impressive as it did in its original sites. Step 3 Talking Task 1 Ss work in pairs to brainstorm their ideas for agreeing and disagreeing. Task 2 Ss work in groups to tell the rest their point of view and their reasons. Task 3 Ss report their views and reasons and teacher writes the key words on the Bb, and at last to have a vote on whether they think it is worth spending so much money to move a cultural relic. Step 4 Discovering useful words and expressions Task 1 Write down the words or expressions according to the giving explanations and then check the answers. Answers: 1. select 2. rare 3. reception 4. amaze 5. less than 6. wooden 7. in search of 8. survive 9. remove 10. artist 11. former 12. at war Task 2 Ss complete the passage with the given words and then check the answers and read the short passage. Answers: dynasties, style, amazing, jewels, designed, decorated, fancy, rare, doubt, worth New word: local adj. 地方的, 当地的, 局部的, 乡土的 n.当地居民, 本地新闻, 慢车, 局部 Task 3 Study the explanations to the phrase “belong to” and introduce some basic knowledge in English dictionary and teach the Ss how to use dictionary. At last match the meanings with the sentences with the sentences in the right box.
Answers: A 3 B 2 C 3 D 1 Step 4 Using words and expressions in WB Task Ask the Ss to do the vocabulary exercises and then check the answer and give necessary explanations. (If time is enough.) Homework: 1. Review and preview the grammar, Attributive Clause. (P85-87) 2. Finish off the vocabulary exercises on P42 in WB. 3. Remember the useful words and expressions.
Period 5 Teaching & learning contents: Discovering useful structure in Learning about language & grammar exercises in WB. Teaching & learning goals: 1. Get the Ss to learn and conclude the grammar item—The Restrictive and Non-restrictive Attributive by studying and analysing the clauses in the text and combing two sentences into an Attributive clause. 2. Use and consolidate the grammar items by doing the grammar exercises. Main points: grammar items and grammar exercises Difficult Points: grammar items and grammar exercises Class type: Grammar learning and exercises Teaching & learning procedures: Step 1 Revision Task 1 Consolidate some of the words and expressions in this unit. Task 2 Check the answers to the vocabulary exercises in WB. Task 3 Revise the grammar items about Attributive Clause learned in Book 1. Step 2 Discovering useful structures Task 1 Ss skim the passage again and find out all the sentences with attributive clause. (9 sentences all together and 4 of them are Non-restrictive clauses.) Task 2 Study the sentences and notice the use of comma, try to find out the differences between them and define non-restrictive clause. Possible answers: * Restrictive attributive clauses give important information to find a particular thing or person from two or more other things or people. * Non-restrictive clauses give extra information which is interesting or useful but not essential for finding a particular thing or person. There is usually a comma before the non-restrictive clause. A few characteristics of non-restrictive attributive clause: restrictive and non-restrictive attributive clauses are best learned by looking at the context of the sentence; “that” clauses are never non-restrictive attributive clause; non-restrictive clauses are most frequently used in written English. Task 3 Ss read the grammar explanations and examples on Page 86-87 to get a general idea of the grammar items and find out the points that they couldn’t understand. Analyse the following two sentences to show the differences between Restrictive
and Non-restrictive Attributive Clauses. 1) She kept on telling jokes, which made everyone angry. This sentence suggests that the fact she told jokes made them angry. 2) She kept on telling jokes which made everyone angry. This sentence suggests that the subject of her jokes made them angry. 3) They said they loved their children, who were well-behaved. This sentence suggests that they loved all the children and that their children were well-behaved. 4) They said they loved their children who were well-behaved. This sentence suggests that they only loved all the children who were well-behaved. Task 4 Learn more materials about Restrictive and Non-restrictive Attributive Clause to have a clear idea of this grammar item. Teacher explains the grammar rules as well as offers more examples with the help of grammar PPT. Grammar explanation:限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 I. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句 形式上 意义上 不用逗号“，”与主句隔开。 是先行词不可缺少的定语，如删除，主句 则失去意义或意思表达不完整。 译成先行词的定语：“．．．的” A．作宾语时可省略 B．可用 that C．可用 who 代替 whom 非限制性定语从句 用逗号“，”与主句隔开。 只是对先行词的补充说明，如删除， 主句仍能表达完整的意思。 通常译成主句的并列句。 A．不可省略 B．不用 that C．不可用 who 代替 whom
译法上 关系词的 使用上
II.非限制性定语从句举例 ： His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他，对他要求很严格。 China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中国是 1949 年成立的， 现在正变得越来越强大。 Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every year. 去年夏天，我参观了人民大会堂，在那儿每年都要举行许多重要会 议。 III. 注意区分下列几组句子的不同含义： 1. Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college. 她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上大学。 （意含： 她还有其他哥哥。 ） Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college. 她哥哥是当兵的，他总是鼓励她上大学。 （意含： 她只有一个哥哥。 ） 2. All the books that have pictures in them are well written. 所有里面带插图的书都写得很好。 （意含： 不带插图的书则不一定写得好。 ） All the books, which have pictures in them, are well written. 所有的书都带插图，这些书都写得很好。 （意含： 没有不带插图的书。 ） IV. 关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句
as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时， 其用法有相同之处，也有不同之处。 1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语，代表前面整个句子。如： He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了，这是很自然的事。 He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实， 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后，甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外，as 常常有“正如、正像”的含 义。如： As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知，中国是发展中 国家。 He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人，这一点我们从他的口音可以知道。 John, as you know, is a famous writer. 正如你所知， 约翰是个著名作家。 Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe. 张华已去过巴黎十多次了，这一点我不相信。 注意：当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时，关系词往往只用 which。如： Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. 汤姆老是迟到，这使得老师很恼火。 These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy. 这些桌子是金属的，这使得这些桌子很重。 3. 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时，关系词常用 as。 如： I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 He is not such a fool as he looks. 他可不象他看上去的那样傻。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一 样。 注意：当先行词受 the same 修饰时，偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句，但与 as 引导的定 语从句意思有区别。如： She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。 V.以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导，而且通常可以省 略。 The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问题的方式令人惊奇。 I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. 我不喜欢你冲她的样子。 VI. 关系代词与关系副词的选择 (Optional) 用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用 （即所担当的 成分） 。试比较： I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。 I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景色优美而闻名的地方。 I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度假的日子。
I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度过的日子。 This is the reason why he was dismissed. 这就是他被解雇的原因。 This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting. 这就是他向我解释的他没有参加会议的原因。 VII. 定语从句与同位语从句的区别 (Optional) 1. 定语从句修饰限定先行词，它与先行词是修饰关系；同位语从句说明先行词的具体内 容，它与先行词是同位关系。 The plane that has just taken off is for Paris. （定语从句） 刚刚起飞的那架飞机是开往巴黎的。 The fact that he has already died is quite clear. （同位语从句） 他已经去世了，这个事实很明了。 2. 定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导，关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分，关系代 词在从句中作宾语时经常可省略。 同位语从句主要由连词 that 引导， 从句中一般不担当 在 成分；有时也由 where, when, how, who, whether, what 等连词引导，这些连词则在从句 中担当成分。 The news that he told me is true. （定语从句） 他告诉我的消息是真 的。 The news that he has just died is true. （同位语从句） 他刚刚去世了，这个 消息是真的。 The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. (定 语从句) 我们现在面临的问题是如何筹集这么多资金。 The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve. （同位 语从句） 我们如何筹集这么多资金，这个问题很难解决。 The question that he raised puzzled all of us. （定语从句） 他提出的问题让我们很为难。 The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. （同位语 从句） 他是否一定会赢得那场比赛，这个问题很难回答。 3. 同位语从句与先行词一般可以用动词 be 发展成一个完整的句子, 而定语从句则不能。 The idea that he we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. （同位 语从句） 我们可以向老师请教，这个主意不错。 The ide a was that we cou ld ask the teacher for advice. The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all. （同位语从 句） 地球围绕太阳转，这个事实人人皆知。 The fact is that the earth moves around the sun. Pay attention to the problem how we can protect the wild animals. （同位语 从句） 请注意如何保护野生动物这个问题。
The problem is how we can protect the wild animals. Task 5 Do the grammar exercises in TB to check the Ss’ understanding and consolidate the grammar. Answers to Exercise 3: 1. Here are the farmers who discovered the underground city last month. 2. Hangzhou is a famous city in China, where many people come to buy tea. 3. I don’t know the reason why she got so angry. 4. You are talking to the old man who saw some Germans taking part the Amber Room and removing it./ The old man, who you are talking to, saw some Germans taking part the Amber Room and removing it. 5. The woman remembered the day when she saw Nazis burying something near the home. 6. St Petersburg is a very beautiful city, which was once called Leningrad./ St Petersburg, which was once called Leningrad, is a very beautiful city. 7. I remember the soldiers who told me not to tell anyone what I had seen. 8. The soldiers moved the box to a mine, where they wanted to hide them. 9. Xi’an is one of the few cities whose city walls remain as good as before. 10. Shaanxi Province is a place whose/ where cultural relics are well looked after. Answers to Exercise 4 may be varied. ( To Teacher’s Book P 17-18 for reference) New words: 1) apart adv. 分享地；分开地 take apart 拆开 2) painting n.绘画；画 paint n.油漆, 颜料, 涂料 v. 油漆, (用颜料等)画, 绘 3) castle n. 城堡 Step 4 Grammar exercise in WB Task Do the Grammar exercises in WB if time permits. Homework: 1. Read more about the Attributive Clause to have a full perspective of the grammar item. 2. Do the rest grammar exercise in WB and TB.
Period 6 Teaching & learning contents: Using Language—Reading, Listening & Speaking. Teaching & learning goals: 1. Read and understand the short passage, learn the new words, fill in the form and distinguish a fact and an opinion. 2. Listen to the tape and fill in the blanks. 3. Talk about which person giving best evidence, using the expressions about asking for and giving opinions. Main points: Reading, listening and speaking. Difficult Points: Listening and the understanding of difference between a fact and an opinion. Class type: Reading, listening and speaking. Teaching & learning procedures:
Step 1 Revision Revise the grammar items briefly and check the answers to the grammar exercises in WB. Step 2 Listening Task 1 Ss read the short passage and answer the following three questions, and then teacher gives some statements for the Ss to decide whether they are facts or o pinions. 1) What is fact? (A fact is anything that can be proved.) 2) What is an opinion? (An opinion is what someone believes is true but also has not been proved.) 3) What is good evidence in a trial? (Fact) Statements. (To TB P18) *Attention: A fact can be tested, checked or proved, while an opinion can not. Task 2 Listen to the tape and learn the few language points to understand the passage better. Language points: 1) evidence n. [u/c] 明显, 显著, 明白, 迹象, 根据, [u] [物]证据, 证物 eg. The broken window was evidence that a burglary had taken place. 2) trial n.试验, 考验, 审讯, 审判 in a trial 3) eyewitness n. 目击者；证人 4) The judge does not consider what each eyewitness looks like or where that person lives or work. Analyse the sentence structure. Meaning: 法官并不考虑证人的长相如何，也不考虑这个人住在哪里，在哪儿工作。 5) He/She only cares bout whether the eyewitnesses has given true information, which must be facts rather than opinions. 他们关心的只是目击者是否提供了真实的信息，这些信息必须是事实而不是个人的观 点或看法。 rather than 是??而不是 eg. I would like tea rather than coffee. I would stay at home rather than go to see the boring film. Task 3 Read a man’s story about what happened to the Amber Room quickly and decide whether it is a fact or opinion and find some key words to give reasons/ or support the judgement. Answer: It should be an opinion because that what is in the boxed is gold or the Amber Room because Jan Hasek did not see what was in the boxes. He listened to other people’s idea of what might have been inside. So his evidence is and opinion. Task 4 Fill in the table according to the information in the text. Answer: Name Place What he heard What he saw Jan Haek Czech Republic Job Time A miner April,1945
Something exploded at midnight. 1. Some German soldiers put wooden boxes in the mine. 2. The entrance to the mine was closed.
What he believes
The Amber Room and some gold were buried in the mine.
New words and phrases: 1) explode vt.使爆炸 vi. 爆炸, 爆发, 破除, 推翻, 激发 eg. The bomb exploded. 炸弹爆炸了 I threw the vase on the floor and it exploded into tiny pieces. 我把花瓶扔到了地板上，花瓶砰地一声摔个粉碎 The population level in this area has exploded during the past 12 years. 在过去的十二年中这一地区的人口一直剧增. The children exploded three firecrackers. 孩子们燃放了三个爆竹 2) by the light of moon/ light 就着??的光 3) entrance n.入口, 门口, 进入 entrance to the garden/ cave Step 3 Listening Task 1 Listen to Tape A and B twice to catch the information to fill in the blanks. Tell the Ss that these two parts are presentations similar to the one in Exercise 2 according to the given tables. And pay attention to catching the information. Some new words: sailor, sink, treasure, maid Task 2 Listen to the tape again to check the answers. Answers: Exercise 4: 1. At sea 2. In a fire Exercise 5: Part A Name One night during the war Hans Braun Job A sailor Place Konigsberg He was told to help German soldiers put some big wooden boxes on to the ship. The soldiers said that the heavy boxes were full of treasure. The ship went out to sea. On the voyage, the ship was attacked and sank. Almost everyone died. He had to swim three kilometres before he was saved by a German ship. Part B Name One night in 1941 Anna Petrov Job A Maid Place Konigsberg Many trucks came to the castle with large boxes. The German soldiers took the boxes into the castle. She heard that a special art treasure in the castle was shown to important visitors. She heard something explode, and she saw the castle was on fire. She sound some melted pieces of something that looked like honey. The soldiers told her that the melted pieces could have come from the Amber Room.
At the end of August, 1944
Step 4 Speaking Task 1 Go through the expressions about asking for and giving opinions on Page 6. Task 2 Discuss in pairs which person gave the best advice with the expressions and write down the reasons for choice. (Pay attention to the reliability of the
evidence.) Sample: It can be prove that Anna Petrov gave the best evidence because she saw something that could have come from the Amber Room and she has nothing to gain from her story. Task 3 Share their ideas and present them to the class. (Teacher gives a summary at last.) Homework: 1. Complete the listening task and reading task in WB. 2. Prepare a short speech according to speaking tasks in WB.
Period 7 Teaching & learning contents: Using Language—Reading and Writing, and the rest contents in this unit. Teaching & learning goals: 1. Read the short letters and discuss the questions. 2. Organise an informal class debate. 3. Write a report on the debate using the given guidance. Main points: reading, debating and writing practice Difficult Points: organizing a debate and writing a report. Class type: Debating and writing Teaching & learning procedures: Step 1 Revision Task 1 Check the answers to the listening exercises in WB. Task 2 Ask few students to give speeches according to the speaking task in WB. Step 2 Reading and Writing Task 1 Ss read the short letters, discuss the questions and think of their own ideas. Try to write down reasons for their points of view and share them in class. Language notes: 1) think highly of 看重；器重；高度评价 2) Nor do I think they should give it to any government. (Inversion) 3) do with 与? 相处； 对付 处理； 处置 忍受； （bear ) eg. What shall we do with the guests? 我们应该怎样招待客人呢？ I can’t do with the loud music. 我受不了吵闹的音乐。 What have you done with the letter? 你是如何处理这封信的? 4) cost, spend, take, pay 的用法区别 Task 2 Go through the tips for organizing an informal class debate. Then divide the whole class into two halves to have a class debate. During the debate, Ss write take notes of the main ideas of two sides and the reasons. At the end take a class vote. New words: 1) informal adj. 不正式的, 不拘礼节的 formal 2) debate v. 争论, 辩论 debate about/ on/upon sth n. 争论, 辩论 have a debate
Task 3 Study the guidance, arrange the notes and write an outline of the report. ( Show the sample writing if necessary.) Report structure: Paragraph 1: State the question. Paragraph 2: Give the ideas that agree with the question and the reasons. Paragraph 3: Give the ideas that disagree with the question and the reasons. Paragraph 4: Give your opinions and the result of the class vote. Sample writing; The class had a debate and discussed whether it right for whoever finds valuable cultural relics to keep them. Those who agreed that if you find cultural relics you can keep them had three reasons. First, they said that time and money had been spent looking for them do the finder deserved them. Second, they said nobody would look for lost relics if they could not keep them. Third, they said there are so many old relics that it does not matter if one or two belong to those who find them. Those who disagreed also had three reasons. First, they said all cultural relics are valuable for finding out about the past. Second, they said that it is dishonest to take things the do not belong to you. Third, they said that every cultural relic belongs to the country and not any one person. We had a class vote. Those who disagreed with the question won. The debate changed the minds of some people who had originally supported Johann Weber’s ideas. Tell the Ss the styles and its possible varieties. Step 3 Learning Tips & Reading for Fun Step 4 Writing Task in WB Task 1 Get t he Ss to study the given outline and organization. Task 2 Brainstorm some detailed information and prepare their composition. (Read the sample writing on TB P28) Step 5 Reading Task in WB Ss read the passage and do the reading comprehension exercises and check the answers. Homework: 1. Revise and summary the language items learned in this unit. 2. Writing a debate report or a letter of cultural relics protection. 3. Revise this unit and do the related exercises.