As soon as young Neil Armstrong took his first airplane ride at 6, he knew that he wanted to fly high, beyond even the sky itself. His dream came true over 30 years late
r. On July 20, 1969, he became the first man 1 (walk) on the moon. Now 43 years after the great landing, the world says goodbye to the man 2 made space history. On August 25, he passed away at the age of 82 because of heart disease. Armstrong, the 3 (America) astronaut, got his pilot’s license at 15, before he could even drive. After 4 from college, Armstrong became a test pilot. Then he went on to NASA’s astronaut training program. In 1969, Apollo II 5 Armstrong, together with Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins, to the moon. At first, 6 was preparing to land on the slope (斜坡) of a huge moon crater (火山口). But Armstrong thought that was a bad idea. He took over the craft manually and 7 it in a smoother area to the west with just 20 seconds of fuel left. As soon as Armstrong’s feet were on the moon, he spoke his famous words: “That’s one small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind.” He spent nearly three hours on the moon, 8 samples and taking photographs. Over years, many people questioned 9 the moon landing was false. However it was not a concern for Armstrong because he believed that “one day, somebody 10 (fly)back up there and pick up that camera I left.” 阅读理解 Generosity in the genes? 自私和基因突变有关吗？词数 368 建议阅读时间 7 分钟
Happy to help or too selfish to share – some scientists wonder whether generosity (慷慨) lies in our upbringing or in our genes. In a social science experiment carried out in an Israeli children’s playroom, 136 children aged 3 and 4 years old were given six sets of colorful stickers (贴画). They were told: “You can keep all of the stickers, or you can give some to another child you don’t know. He doesn’t have any stickers.” Researchers then asked the children to step into the playroom one at a time and watched how they behaved. About two thirds of the children chose to give one or more sets of stickers to an unknown child. The others refused to share. Researchers found that many of this second group of children had something in common: a variation (变异) in a gene known as AVPR1A. This gene is supposed to control a chemical in the brain responsible for social behavior. The genetic variant (变体) of this gene can make people a lot less willing to share.
This study was published last month in the online scientific journal PLoS One. It suggested that children can be selfless and genetics may play a role. But social scientists point out environmental influences from home, school and the wider world may play a larger role in creating good or bad habits. Studies using brain scans (扫描) have shown that when someone is being generous or is described as generous, his or her brain will give off a kind of chemical. This chemical is linked to positive feelings. “If parents tell a kid he is a generous person, he is more likely to act generously again than if they buy him a toy,” said Nancy Eisenberg, an Arizona State University psychology professor, to The Wall Street Journal. Social scientists also say that as people grow up and develop stronger ideas of morality (道德) and fairness, their generosity will increase. Refering to the Israeli study, Emmanuel College psychologist Joyce Benenson says to the Wall Street Journal, that even at 3 or 4 years old, “If you’ve got six packs of something, you know that giving away one isn’t really changing what you have.” Of the 136 children in the Israeli study, the largest group gave away one sticker; the second largest group gave away none. Only twenty-two children gave away more than one sticker. 11. According to the article, the experiment _________. A. studied more than 100 children aged between 13 and 14 B. gathered all the children in a room to watch their behavior C. found that one third of the children were unwilling to share D. asked the children to share stickers with their friends 12. What was newly discovered by the experiment? A. A variation of a gene can influence people’s social behavior. B. More than half of the kids were considered to be selfish. C. Generous behavior can make a child feel good. D. Children are less generous than adults expect. 13. What can we conclude from the article? A. Genes play a major role in deciding whether people are generous. B. As children grow, economical responsibility can stop them from sharing with others. C. Both genes and social environment influence whether people are generous. D. Parents could try giving toys to kids to encourage them to be generous. 14. Who might be more generous according to the article? A. Those with an AVPR1A gene. B. Those growing up in rich families. C. Those who receive college education. D. Those growing up in a sharing environment.
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