英语中的五种基本句型结构 一、句型 1： Subject (主语) ＋ Verb (谓语) 这种句型中的动词大多是不及物动词， 所谓不及物动词， 就是这种动词后不可以直接接 宾语。常见的动词如：work, sing, swim, fish, jump, arrive, come, die, disappear, cry, happen 等。 如： 1) Li Ming works
very hard.李明学习很努力。 2) The accident happened yesterday afternoon.事故是昨天下午发生的。 3）Spring is coming. 4) We have lived in the city for ten years. 二、句型 2：Subject (主语) ＋ Link. V(系动词) ＋ Predicate(表语) 这种句型主要用来表示主语的特点、身份等。其系动词一般可分为下列两类： (1)表示状态。这样的词有：be, look, seem, smell, taste, sound, keep 等。如： 1) This kind of food tastes delicious.这种食物吃起来很可口。 2) He looked worried just now.刚才他看上去有些焦急。 (2)表示变化。这类系动词有：become, turn, get, grow, go 等。如： 1) Spring comes. It is getting warmer and warmer.春天到了，天气变得越来越暖和。 2) The tree has grown much taller than before.这棵树比以前长得高多了。 三、句型 3：Subject(主语) ＋ Verb (谓语) ＋ Object (宾语) 这种句型中的动词一般为及物动词, 所谓及物动词，就是这种动词后可以直接接宾语， 其宾语通常由名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词或从句等来充当。例： 1) He took his bag and left.（名词） 他拿着书包离开了。 2) Li Lei always helps me when I have difficulties. (代词)当我遇到困难时，李雷总能给我 帮助。 3) She plans to travel in the coming May Day.（不定式）她打算在即将到来的“五一”外 出旅游。 4) I don’t know what I should do next. (从句)我不知道下一步该干什么。 注意：英语中的许多动词既是及物动词，又是不及物动词。 四、句型 4： Subject(主语)＋Verb(谓语)＋ Indirect object(间接宾语)＋Direct object (直接宾 语) 这种句型中， 直接宾语为主要宾语， 表示动作是对谁做的或为谁做的， 在句中不可或缺， 常常由表示“物”的名词来充当；间接宾语也被称之为第二宾语，去掉之后，对整个句子的 影响不大，多由指“人”的名词或代词承担。引导这类双宾语的常见动词有：buy, pass, lend, give, tell, teach, show, bring, send 等。如： 1) Her father bought her a dictionary as a birthday present.她爸爸给她买了一本词典作为生 日礼物。 2）The old man always tells the children stories about the heroes in the Long March. 老人经常给孩子们讲述长征途中那些英雄的故事。 上述句子还可以表达为： 1）Her father bought a dictionary for her as a birthday present. 2）The old man always tells stories about the heroes to the children in the Long March. 五、句型 5： Subject(主语)＋Verb (动词)＋Object (宾语)＋Complement(补语) 这种句型中的“宾语 ＋ 补语”统称为“复合宾语” 。宾语补足语的主要作用或者是补 充、说明宾语的特点、身份等；或者表示让宾语去完成的动作等。担任补语的常常是名词、 形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、动词不定式等。如： 1）You should keep the room clean and tidy. 你应该让屋子保持干净整洁。 （形容词）
2) We made him our monitor.(名词)我们选他当班长。 3) His father told him not to play in the street.(不定式)他父亲告诉他不要在街上玩。 4）My father likes to watch the boys playing basketball.(现在分词) 5) Yesterday I had a picture taken with two Americans.(过去分词) ● 常见的动词有: tell, ask, advise, help, want, would like, order, force, allow 等。 ● 注意： 动词 have, make, let, see, hear, notice, feel, watch 等后面所接的动词不定式作宾 补时，不带 to。如： 1) The boss made him do the work all day.老板让他整天做那项工作。 2) I heard her sing in the next room all the time last night.昨天晚上我听见她在隔壁唱了一 个晚上。
来源：中考网 文章作者：紫涵 2013-02-01 15:43:07 [标签：初中英语 句型分类 知识点] [当前 2512 家长在线讨论]
等比句 句型［主语（主体）+谓语+as+形容词/副词+as+被比对象］ 1. He is as tall as I (am). 2. This window is just as wide as that one. 4. Does John work as har
3. This is just as good an example as the other. d as Henry?
5. We have accomplished as much in the past three years as would have take n ten years in the past. [注] 如果形容词后有一个单数可数名词, 不定冠词应置于名词之前形容词后, 如： He is as poor a speaker as I. 句型［主语+谓语+no more 形容词//副词（或 no +形容词/副词比较级）+than+被比对 象］ 1. She is no less diligent than her elder sister. 2. One minute too late
is no more in time than half an hour. 3. The food on the ship was no better than on any other ship on which Bill y had sailed. 4. We too have a head and two hands and are no stupider than others.
5. China's women, no less than men, are participating in all kinds of work in the socialist construction of their country. [注] 如果两个主语相比，谓语动词应与前一个保持一致关系。如： He no less than you is (不是 are) diligent. [附注] 表示等比的还有以下一些方式： 1) "?be equal to+被比对象"如：A dingle day is equal to twenty years. strength, he is equal to me. 2) "?be worth+被比对象" 如：An inch of time is worth an inch of gold. A b ird in the hand is worth two in the bush 3) 用其他词语表达：Three early mornings will make a day. Only he in our cla ss can cope with you in knowledge of English. 差比句 句型［主语+谓语+形容词比较级/ 副词比较级+(名词)+than+被比对象］ 1. 2. 3. it. 4. Light does not travel at the same speed through all materials; it goe Too much help is sometimes worse than no help. Facts speak louder than eloquence. (Actions speak louder than words.) Our room is a little larger than theirs and it has more furniture in In
s slower through some than through others. [注] 这种形容词组合还可以作定语，置于名词之后。如：It feeds on worms and ot her fish smaller than itself. 句型［主语+谓语+more/less+形容词原级/副词+than+被比对象］ 1. This book is more interesting than that one.
2. 3. 4. 5.
He is more attentive in class now than he was last term. It's less cold than it was yesterday. He works more regularly than you do. The new edition is less expensive than the old one.
[注 1] 使用比较级要注意两点： 1) 不要使用双重比较级， 如： (误) His younger brother was more stronger than he. (正) His younger brother was much stronger than he. His younger brother wa s stronger than he. 2) 不要使用无比较对象的孤立的比较级。 如： (误) We saw many smaller houses on both sides of the river. (正) We saw many small houses on both sides of the river. (正) We saw many houses smaller than usual on both sides of the river. [注 2] 比较级前可加一些增强语气的词，如：much, even, still, a little (bit), slightly, far , any, no, a lot 等。 My room is a little (bit) smaller than hers. ghty. [注 3] 如果表示"因?而更?" 可用句型 the+比较级+for (或 because, as 等词)， 如： I like him all the better for his faults. less because he has faults. He is none the happier for his wealth. being twice told. 句型［主语+谓语+not so/not as+形容词原级/副词+as+被比对象］ A good tale is none the worse for I do not like him the Eighteen is much less than ei
Tom is not so tall as his brother. (Tom is less tall than his brother.) Mr. Green is not so old as he looks. 3. It isn't as cold as it was yesterday.
4. John doesn't work so hard as Henry. 5. Dawney answered slowly: "Never so happy as when my hands are full. 句型［主语+谓语+以 or 结尾的形容词比较级+to+被比对象］ 1. His strength is superior to (=greater than) mine. 2. My knowledge is inferior to
(=less than) his. 3. Is your father senior to mine? My father is junior to yours. 4. His arrival in New York is posterior to that of my friend. 5. Colored people are by no means inferior to white people. 句型［被比对象(第一分句暗示某种程度)+主体(第二分句含比较级)］ 1. I caught the last bus from town; but Harry came home even later. (He came ho
me later than I.) 2. duous. 3. 4. Dear as are father and mother, the motherland is still dearer. One of my suitcases is small, and the other one is medium. The Long March is great, but the New Long March will be greater, and more ar
句型［主语+谓语+absolute superiority over+被比对象］ ［主语+谓语+above/ next to+被比对象］ ［主语+can't compare with+被比对象］ 1. The socialist system has demonstrated absolute superiority over the capitalist one.
The price of wisdom is above rubies. 3. We love truth above everything else.
4. As long as men live, water will continue to be what it is today - next in importa nce to oxygen. 5. Next to the Yangtze, the Yellow River is the second longest river in our country. 6. It is worth next to nothing. 7. How could Napoleon compare with Lenin? 8. The situation of the enemy cannot compare with ours. [附注] 关于等差句有以下几点需要注意： 1) 句型 16 "not to speak of" 等词组也可用以表示差比, 如: Even a worm, when tr
odden on, will turn, not to speak of a man outraged. 2) former, latter, elder 等形容词, 词尾虽然是比较级形式, 但它们永远不用于比较句
中, 也不能跟 than, 如： He will come here in the latter part of year. 3) 等差既可以指出相差的数目, (用 by+数词表示) 也可以指出相差的范围, 如: of +
名词, with regard to, in point of, with respect to, with reference to, with relation to, in t he sphere of, in the field of 等等。 例句: She is the more patient of the two. In point of commerce, Shanghai is more prosperous than Nanjing. is larger than America. 4) 有些语句的词序变动较大阅读和翻译时要弄清其结构。如：Easier said than done. With reference to territory, China
(=It is easier to be said than to be done.) In science, more than in any other human ins titution, it is necessary to search out the past in order to understand the present and to co ntrol the future. (= It is more necessary in science than in any other human institution to search out?) 有时一个词的原级和比较级在一同结构的句中会产生不同的意义，如：If he was ten years old, he would understand it. ≠ If he was ten years older, he would understand it. 5) uncle. （正） The face of his father looks older than that of his uncle. His father's face lo 要注意避免不合理的比较。如： （误）The face of his father looks older than his
oks older than his uncle's. 极比句 句型［?the 形容词最高级/ 副词最高级+(名词)+范围词?］ 1. This is the easiest book I've ever read. 2. Mrs. Thomson works hardest of all.
3. Dictionaries are like watches; the worst is better than none, and the best cannot b e expected to go quite true. 4. It is our greatest happiness to dedicate our youth to the New Long March. 5. The least means shall be used to achieve the greatest end. 6. Which of the boys studies best? 句型［?the most/ least 形容词原级/副词+(名词)+范围词?］ 1. correctly. 3. "How is your watch?" - "My watch goes the most accurately." 4. The most short-sighted man could see that at a glance, with his naked eyes," said Martin. 5. Light waves travel most quickly through air, they go much slower through water and even slower through glass. [注 1] "best of all" 表示肯定的最; "least of all" 表示否定的最， 如： I like swimmi ng best of all. I like that least of all. The least 用作最高级时，往往被其后面的形容词的反义词的最 高级所取代。 如: This is the most difficult (不用 the least easy) book I've ever read. This is the most uninteresting (很少用 the least interesting) book of the three. [注 2] 两个概念的表示法： 1) 若干个最大中的一个可用 "one of+最高级" 表示, 如: "What about horse-racing?" - "I should say that that is one of the most popular sports in Great Britain." She is the most active girl in our class. 2. You're the one who writes the most
2) "第 2, 3, 4?大" 可用 "the 序数词+最高级" 表示, 如： My home town is the sec ond largest city in our province. [注 3] most 前，如果没有 the,则不是表示比较，而表示 "很", "非常", 如: The present world situation is most favorable for the people. The meeting proceeded in a most friendl y atmosphere. 句型［?否定词?+比较级?］ 1. y life. 3. I will say this, that the best shot in existence could not have done it more beauti fully 4. "How about a game of bridge?" - "I can't think of a better idea." 5. When you come to think of it, there is nothing in the world more potent-and mor e impotent - than words [注] 从反面表达最高比较级的方式很多，甚至可以不用比较级的词语，如： Nothing ancient or modern seems to come near it. (come near 与?相比) In point of strength, he is second to none. (second to none 独一无二) No one is to be compared with him for resourcefulness. He has no equal in playing ping-pong ball. 句型［?否定词语?+so+形容词/ 副词+as+被比对象］ 1. n war. 3. There is nothing I like so much as playing football. 4. Nothing is so easy as thi s. 5. None is so blind as those that won't see. No country suffered so much as England. 2. No war is so great as the Europea I never saw a prettier sight. 2. No other book has had a greater influence on m
[注] 极比句中表示范围的词语，除了用差比句附注第三列出的词以外，还有以下几种。 1) 用 that 引出的从句表示范围: That is the most important discovery (that) ever made by man. 2) 用 in 引出的短语表示范围: This is the busiest street in the city. 3) 用 of 引出的短语表示范围: Of all the writers of the time Lu Shun enjoyed the gr eatest popularity among the people. 4) 用其他介词短语表示: Mr. Zhu is the strictest among the teachers of our school. I t is the finest thing under the sun. 5) 用条件句表示范围: "If there is one thing I do not like, it is a crying child?" "If there is a scoundrel upon earth, that scoundrel's name is HEEP." 比例句 句型 ［(从句) The+形容词比较级/ 副词比较级?, (主句) the+形容词比较级/ 副词比较 级?］( 第 1 个 the 是关系副词，有 "by how much" 之意，第 2 个 the 是指示副词，有 "by so much" 之意。) 1. 2. 3. 4. The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. The sooner we begin our work, the sooner we shall finish it. The more a man knows, the more he discovers his ignorance. "How long is he going to stay there?" - "I don't know exactly, but? the longer
he stays the better." 5. The more I think of it, the happier I am.
[注 1] 当比较级作表语而又不处于句首时, 可以不用 the 相关联。 如：When we enco unter more difficulties, we should be more spirited; when we are more at danger, we sho uld be more courageous.
[注 2] 注意本句型可省略的成分较多, 常见于谚语、俗语中 如： The sooner, the bett er. = the sooner you do it the better it will be. = By how much sooner you do it, by s o much better it will be. = In whatever degree sooner you do it, in that degree better it will be. he merrier. The more, the better. The more, t
[注 3] 还有一些带比较级的词组，也含有比例发展的意味；但这些词组多用于表示同一 事物的发展程度，一般不带被比对象。1) "?ever+比较级+ (and+比较级)?" 如：The stor y gets ever more exciting. Our country is growing ever richer and stronger. 2) "?+比较级+and+比较级?" 如：?his poor cheek has turned ever thinner and pale r. 3) 择比句 句型［Better+(主语)形容词或副词/名词/(to)动词原形?+than+被比对象］ 1. Better late than never. 2. Better to do well than to say well. "?the+比较级?" 这大多是一种习惯用语。 如： So much the worse. all the more = more and more a chang
e for the worse
3. Better to light one candle than to curse the darkness. 4. Better say nothing than nothing to the purpose. 5. Better die standing than live kneeling. (=it is better to die standing than to live k neeling.) [注] 注意本句型可省略被比对象, 如： Better be with the dead. Better let the furnac e cool a bit. 句型［主语+had (would) rather+动词原形?+than+动词原形?］
［主语+谓语+rather than+动词原形?］ 1. ide. 2. 3. They would rather die as free men than live as slaves. "I would rather die with my head high, with indestructible faith and profound be I would (或 had) rather join you in research work than go on holiday to the seas
lief in the destiny of our country, than live in humility and renounce the principles which are sacred to me." 4. Oliver fell on his knees, clasping his hands together, and begged them to kill hi
m if they pleased rather than send him away with that dreadful man. 5. He insisted on s taying rather than go 句型［主语+prefer+名词或动名词 A+to+名词或动名词 B?］ ［主语+prefer+不定式 A+rather than+不定式 B?］ 1. king. 3. The revolutionaries preferred death to dishonor. 4. I prefer to work rather than (t o) sit idle. 5. He prefers to write his letters rather than dictate others. [注 1] 注意本句型的两式不可混用。 不可说 "I prefer doing this rather than that." 只能 说 "I prefer doing this to (doing) that. 或 I prefer to do this rather than do that. [注 2] prefer 的派生词 preferable, preference 也都可用以表示择比。有以下方式： 1) 2) "名词 A+be+preferable to+名词 B" 如： This is preferable to that. "?名词 A+in+preference to+名词 B" 如： After the noun reason, use that in pref I preferred these ruins to Kate's pointed yellow boots. 2. He prefers doing to tal
erence to because.
"?preference for+名词 A+to+名词 B" 如： I have a preference for Chinese to fo
reign novels. 句型［主语+would sooner+动词原形?than+动词原形?］ ［Sooner than+动词原形?(主句) 主语+would +动词原形?］ 1. 2. 3. 4. I would sooner die than do such a thing. Mr. Milton would sooner resign than take part in such dishonest business deals. Sooner than do such work, I would starve. Sooner than marry that man, Eva would earn her living as a waitress.
句型［主语+would (had)?as soon/as lief+?as+被弃对象］ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I had as soon you broke his neck as his finger. I would (just) as soon stay at home as go for a walk. He would as soon kill himself as betray his country. I would as lief (as soon) die as live in dishonor. I would (had) as lief join the Eighth Route Army as anything.
句型［主语+?choose+名词 A+before+名词 B］ ［主语+before+从句］ 1. A hero should choose death before dishonor. 2. He chose this before all others.
3. I am willing to work myself to death before I give up. 4. I would do anything before that. 5. We would sooner die fighting first before we allow this to happen to us. [注] 其他如 first, leave?for 或两个独立分句等也可表示择比， 如： He said he woul d resign first.
He left the bar for the pen. I like geography, but I prefer history. 对比句 句型［ （第一并列分句）+while/whereas+（第二并列分句） ］ 1. ly. 2. mited. 3. 4. Wise men love truth, whereas fools shun it. You can also see that there is a grand piano, whereas ours is an upright. The strength of the collective is boundless, while that of the individual is very li The enemy rots with every passing day, while for us things are getting better dai
句型［ （第一并列分句）+but on the contrary+（第二并列分句） ］ 1. 2. 3. 4. I have not nearly done. On the contrary, I have only just begun. I do not admire that man, but on the contrary, I have a great contempt for him. You think me idle, but on the contrary, I am very busy. We are becoming stronger and stronger as we fight and, on the contrary, our ene
my is getting more exhausted as the war drags on. [注 1] 与本句型相似的词组还有：1) "Contrary to+名词" 如： Contrary to what we h ad expected, he didn't come. 2) "In contrast to+名词" 如： In contrast to (或 with) capitalism, there is nothing in t he socialist economic system to cause war. 3) "In opposition to+名词" 如： In opposition to my wishes, you didn't study hard. [注 2] 与本句型意义相反的是 "如同?一样", 参考下面句式： "Just as+从句", "Just like+从句": Just as Karl Marx did, he regarded a foreign langua ge as a weapon in the struggle of life. = Just like Karl Marx, he regarded a foreign lang
uage as a weapon in the struggle of life. 句型［If+从句, (then)+主句］ 1. If a government uses fascistic methods to suppress others, it is only one step re
moved from using the same methods against its own people. 2. 3. If the desert can be called the sea, then the camels are the ships in it. If in the capitalist world the working people toil only in order not to die of hun
ger, then in our country creative labor is considered as a thing glorious and heroic. 4. If this should be true, (then) that will be wrong.
[注] 表示对比意义的方式是比较多的，这里主要指出两种。1) 利用句子成分相同或相 似的平行结构来表示，如： We that (that 是古旧用法) are sundered in sorrow may meet again in joy. Books are the best of things if well used; if abused, among the worst. 2) "As?so?" 也可以表示对比意义，如：As the bees love sweetness, so do the flie s love rottenness.
来源：中考网 文章作者：紫涵 2013-02-04 13:22:46 [标签：初中英语 介词短语 英语知识点] [当前 2655 家长在线讨论]
"介词+名词/代词"所构成的短语称为介词短语。 1．in+语言/颜色/衣帽等，表示使用某种语言或穿着??。 2．in + Row/ Team/ Class/ Grade 等，表示"在??排/队/班级/年级"等。 3．in the morning/ afternoon/ evening/ 表示"在上午/下午/傍晚"等一段时间。 4．in the desk/ pencil-box/bedroom 等表示"在书桌/铅笔盒/卧室里"。
5．in the tree 表示"在树上 (非树本身所有)"；on the tree 表示"在树上(为树本身 所有)"。 6．in the wall 表示"在墙上（凹陷进去）"；on the wall 表示"在墙上（指墙的表面） "。 7．at work（在工作）/at school（上学）/at home（在家）应注意此类短语中无 the。 8．at + 时刻表示钟点。 9．like this/that 表示方式，意为"像??这/那样"。 10．of 短语表示所属关系。 11．behind/ beside/ near/ under+ 名词等，表示方位、处所。 12．from 与 to 多表示方向，前者意为"从??"，后者意为"到??"。 另外，以下这些短语也必须掌握。如：on duty, after breakfast, at night, at th e door, in the middle, in the sky, on one's bike 等。