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Unit4


Unit 4

Appreciation

Having an outing with your new schoolmates in next two days is another rewarding option. Besides broadening your horizon, traveling can bring you la

sting friendship.
Whether you are lying in your bed at home or hanging out with new friends at school, there is still one task you should bear in mind: reviewing and previewing of your lessons are necessary.

1. V-ing 形式

V-ing 形式由 “do+ing” 构成,
其否定形式是 “not doing”, Ving 可以带宾语或状语构成 V-ing

短语, V-ing没有人称和数的变化, 但有时态和语态的变化。

V-ing 的基本形式
V-ing 一般式 主动语态

语态
(not)

被动语态

时态

doing (not)

being done

完成式 (not) having

done (not)having been done

a. He came here without being invited.

b. I regretted having wasted so much time.
c. The child made her mother angry by not doing his homework.

attribute

定语 是修饰___词.单词作定语 名 时通常放在它所修饰的名词之_____; 前 短语和从句作定语时则放在它所修饰的 名词之_____。 后

V-ing 形式作定语有以下几种情况:

? 1、表示其动作是其所修饰的名词发出的, 与所修饰的名词是主动关系。单个的V-ing 形式作定语时,通常放在被修饰词的前面; V-ing短语作定语时,一般放在被修饰词的 后面。 ? 2、表示所修饰的名词正在进行的动作。 ? The performer entertaining the children is a friend of my father. ? 3、表示物体的用途。 ? It is a bad habit to waste drinking water.

1. It’s a pleasure to watch a ____ baby.

A. asleep B. sleep

C. sleeping D. slept

C

2. The ____ buildings showed us that an A earthquake was coming. A. shaking B. shook C. shaken D. shake 3.The hotel ______ now beside the park B

was designed by a group of young men.
A. to be built B. being built

C. built

D. building

现在分词与过去分词区别

两者之间的区别主要体现在时态和语态上: (1)在时态上:现在分词表示正在进行, 而过去分词表示已经完成。例如:
China is a developing country,while America is a developed one.

(2)在语态上:现在分词表示主动;而 过去分词表示被动。 总之,现在分词表主动、进行; 过去分词表被动、完成。 在句法功能上它们都可以作定语和状语,它 们的具体区别如下:

1、作定语时 取决于分词与被修饰词的关系: 主动关系或主谓关系用 doing 被动关系或动宾关系用 done
1. The meeting held last week is very important.
被动关系

2.Tell the children playing there not to make so 主动关系 much noise. 主动关系 3. They lived in a room facing the south.

4. I hate to see letters written in pencil. 被动关系

练习

1. Mrs.White showed her students some old maps ______ from the library.(全国1) A.to borrow B. to be borrowed B. C. borrowed D. borrowing 2. For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit _____ on his own farm. (北京) A.grown B. being grown C. to be grown D. to grow

3. There is a great deal of evidence _______ that music activities engage different parts of the brain.(浙江) A. indicate B. indicating
C. to indicate D. to be indicating

4. With the government’s aid, those _____ by the earthquake have moved to the new settlements. (上海) A. affect B. affecting C. affected D. were affected

adverbial

状语修饰动词、形容词、 副词或整个句子,说明动 作或状态的特征状语表示 地点、时间、原因、目的、 结果、条件、让步、伴随 情况等。

现在分词作状语
现在分词作状语时, 分词的逻辑主语必须是 句子的主语, 分词必须和句中的主语含有逻辑 上的主谓关系, 否则不能用现在分词作状语。 但要注意它的各种形式变化: 主动形式 一般式 V-ing 被动形式 being V-ed

完成式

having V-ed

having been V-ed

现在分词作状语
现在分词作状语,常常用来表示原因、时间、 方式、结果、条件、让步、伴随状况等。现 在分词一般不用作表目的的状语(通常用不 定式表目的状语)。

1、作时间状语
? Walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine.转换成时间状语从句? ? (=When I was walking in the street, I came 同时发生 在逻辑上,当动词-ing形式表示的动作和句 across an old friend of mine.) 子谓语动词表示的动作同时发生时用一般式 ? Having found her car stolen, she hurried to (V-ing);在句子谓语动词表示的动作之前发 a policeman for help. done). 生时用完成式( having ? (= After she found her car stolen, she hurried to a policeman for help .)
先发生

D 1.__________ in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of Spring.
A.To walk
C. Walked

B. Having walked
D. Walking

D 2. The old man, ________ aboard for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland. A.to work B. working

C. to have worked D. having worked

because, 2、作原因状语 as, ? 1 Being ill, he didn’t go to school. since ? (=Because/As he was ill, he didn’t go to school.) 表示原因的动词-ing 形式一般放于句首, ? 2 Being a student, you should study hard. 相当于一个原因状语从句。其否定式直 ? (=Since you are a student, you should study 接在句首加 not. hard.) ? 3 Not thinking he might be at home, I called him. ? (=As I didn’t think he might be at home, I called him.)

作原因状语

C 1. ____ a reply, he decided to write again.

A.Not receiving B. Receiving not
A

C. Not having received D. Having not receive difficulty getting in touch with Bill. A.Not knowing C. Not having known B. knowing not

2. ______ his telephone number, she had some

D. Having not know

现在分词作原因状语, 分词结构中否定词 通常放在现在分词前面。

作伴随状语的分词表示的动作必须是主语的一 个动作,或是与谓语表示的动作或状态同时发 生,或补充说明谓语的具体情况。

: 3、作方式、伴随状语

1 He sat on the sofa, watching TV. ? (=He sat on the sofa, and watched TV.) ? 2 I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around curiously. ? (=I saw several young people enter the waiting area and they looked around curiously.) 动词-ing 表伴随时,可以扩展成为一个并列句

1.The secretary worked late into the night, ______ a long speech for the president. B

A.who prepares
C. prepared

B. preparing
D. was preparing

2. He looked around and caught a man D _____ his hand into the pocket of a passenger.(2004.北京) A. put B. to be put C. to put D. putting

? Unfortunately his father died, leaving the family even worse off. ? (=Unfortunately his father died, and left the family even worse off.) ? 全国到处在传唱这首歌曲,使它成了一首 最受欢迎的歌曲。 ? The song is sung all over the country, _____________________________ . making it the most popular song
? 如果是 意料之外的 结果 呢 ?

4、作结果状语

? Working harder, you will succeed. ? (=If you work harder, you will succeed.)

5、作条件状语

动词-ing 形式作条件状语,相当于一个 条件状语从句。
? 一直往前走,你就会看到一座白色的房子。

? Walking ahead, you will see a white house. ? Keeping on trying, you will realize your dream.有其他的表述方式吗? Keep on trying, and you will realize your dream.

6、作让步状语

though, although

Being young,the little boy knows a lot about computer. (=Though the little boy is young, he knows a lot about computer.) Being clever enough, you should ask me for more advice. (=Although you are clever enough, you should ask me for more advice.)

分词作状语时, 分词的逻辑助于必须与句 子的主语保持一致。当非谓语动作的主语 不是句子的主语时,必须加上其自己的逻 辑主语,这种结构成为独立主格结构。如: Time permitting, I will pay a visit to the whole city. 我们到达赣州时是午夜。 We arriving in ___________Ganzhou___, it was midnight.

7. 独立主格结构

V-ing 做状语的逻辑主语
? Choose answer: _____________, I will visit the whole city. A. Time permitting B. Permitting C. Time per mitted D. Permits ?Correct mistakes: Being Sunday, we don’t have to go to school. Today being Sunday, 如果V-ing的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致,则应 在V-ing前面加上其逻辑主语,构成独立主格结构。

Spring coming on,the trees turned green. 春天来了,树都绿了。 Weather permitting, we'll have an outing next week. 天气允许的话, 我们下周要去郊游。 John being away, Tom had to do the work. 约翰不在,只好由汤姆来做这项工作。

独立成分作状语
(4)有些动词- 形式在句中没有逻辑主语,它们 ing 往往作为独立成分来修饰整个句子,表明说话者的态 度、观点等。例如:generally speaking“一般说来”; judging by/from...“从??判断”;taking everything into consideration“总的说来”。

Generally speaking,adults know more than teenagers.

一般说来,成年人比十几岁的孩子懂得多。

Judging from his accent(口音), he must be from the north.
常见的作为句子独立成分的v-ing短

语还有: frankly speaking 坦率地说, honestly speaking (说实话), supposing …(假设), talking of…(谈到), speaking of…(谈到)


练习:

1. Many students _____ around, I explained the story into details.(07 重庆) A. stood B. standing C. to stand D. were standing 2.There ___ nothing to talk about , every one in the room remained silent . A. was B. had C. being D. having

2.作状语时
1).分词的选取:取决于分词与句子主语的关系:

主动关系,用 doing
被动关系,用 done
被动关系

例如:

Seen from the moon, the earth looks like a blue ball.
Seeing nobody at home , he left.

主动关系

练习: rained heavily in the south,_____serious 1. It

flooding in several provinces.(10天津) A.caused B. having caused C. causing D. to cause
2 ___the city center, we saw a stone statue of about 10 meters in height.(10上海) A.Approaching B. Approached C. To approach D. To be approached 3. ____at my classmates’ faces, I read the same excitement in their eyes.(10北京) A. Looking B. Look C. To look D. Looked

4. (2005山东卷)Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, ___ a record US $57. 65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching 5. (2007 浙江卷)______ by a greater demand of vegetables, farmers have built more green houses. A. Driven B. Being driven C. To drive D. Having driven

Rewrite the following sentences. 1. When he approached Ms Smith, he touched her shoulder and kissed her. ______ ___________ Ms Smith, he When approaching touched her shoulder and kissed her. 2. The person who is translating the songs can speak seven languages. The person _________ ___ ______can translating the songs speak seven languages.

3. The boy standing there is reading a book about body language. The boy ____ __ ________ there is who is standing reading a book about body language.
4. Because he comes from Jordan, he moves close to ask you a question. _______ from Coming _____ Jordan, he moves close to ask you a question.

5. She sat at the desk and did her homework. She sat at the desk ______ ____ doing her __________. homework

单句改错 1. Having not seen the film, I can’t tell you what I think of it. Not having 2. The men worked for extra hours got an extra pay. working 3. Seen from the top of the hill, we find the city more beautiful. Seeing 4. Generally speak, facial expressions are helpful communications, too. speaking

5. “ Can’t you read?” the man said, angrily pointed to the notice on the wall. pointing 6. Knocking at the door before entering, please. Knock 7. European football is played in 80 countries, made it the most popular sport in the world. making

Homework
1. Finish the paper on grammar. 2. Recite the sample writing.


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