Find the word or expression for each of the following meanings from the text. 1.________ to choose carefully select rare 2.________ not seen or found very often 3.___________ wel
come area in a hotel reception 4._________ to surprise somebody very much amaze less than 5.___________ no more than 6.___________made of wood wooden
In search of 7.___________ trying to find something; looking carefully for something survive 8._______ to manage to live or continue in difficulties remove 9._______ to take something away
10.______ person who creates things which can artist be considered works of art
11.________ of an earlier period or time ; former happening before 12.________ in a situation in which two sides at war fight each other
2.Complete the passage with the words below. Rare designed decorated style doubt Fancy dynasties amazing worth jewels
Chen Lei studied art history and the early dynasties of ________ style China in a university. He was able to recognize the _______ of different Cultural relics from former times, especially the Tang and Song dynasties. One day he was looking in a amazing second-hand furniture shop when he saw an _________ object among the many different vases and jewels .It was a ______ mirror________ in the Song Dynasty and decorated the _________in designed fancy ______ style of that time. He Recognized that it was a rare _______ cultural relic, but at a price he could afford, So he bought it at once. Later he gave it to his local museum. The doubt people there were very happy and Without _______ consider it one of the treasures of their collection. To them, it was worth _______ much more than Chen Lei paid.
1.to be the property of e.g.: That coat belongs to me. 2. to be a part of ; be connected with e.g.: That top belongs to this box. 3.to be a member of e.g.: He belongs to a large family.
一、关系代词: 1. who指人,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略）
Useful structure ( 30m )
The man who I talked with is our teacher. A person who steals things is called a thief.
2. whom指人,作宾语 (作宾语可省略, 如介词提前则不能省) The man (whom/who) I nodded to is Mr. Li. The man to whom I nodded is Professor Li.
? Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat. The goat is eating her flowers. Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat which is eating her flowers. ? Can you lend me the book? You talked about it last night. Can you lend me the book (which) you talked about last night. Can you lend me the book about which you talked last night?
Do you find the pen? I wrote with it just now. Do you find the pen (which) I wrote with just now? Do you find the pen with which I wrote just now?
3. which 指物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略, 如介词提前则不能省)
These are the trees which were planted last year.
This recorder （which） he is using is made in Japan. Is this the library (which) you borrow books from? Is this the library from which you borrow books?
? that 指人/物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略）
A plane is a machine. It can fly. A plane is a machine that can fly.
He is the man. I told you about him. He is the man (that) I told you about.
4. that 指人/物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略）
A plane is a machine that can fly. He is the man (that) I told you about.
? 注意：介词提前时只能用which 而不能用that 。 Is this the library from which you borrow books? from that
? that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用that而不用which。
(1) 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不定代词时。 I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. (2)先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等 修饰时。 I’ve read all the books that are not mine. (3)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read. (4)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时。 This is the very book that belongs to him.
(1) The scientist is very famous in the world. We met her yesterday.
The scientist ? we met yesterday is very famous who in the world. whom that (2) The dress is new. She is wearing it. The dress that she is wearing is new. which ?
(3) He is the kind person. I have ever worked with him. He is the kind person that I have ever worked with. who whom ?
(4) This is the best film. I have ever seen this film.
This is the best film that I have ever seen. ?
关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、 地点或理由的名词，在从句中作状 语。
1、关系副词when, where, why 的含义相当于 “介词+ which” 结构，因此常常和“介词+ which”结构交替使用。例如：
a) 我仍然记得 我参军的 那一天。
①I still remember the day.
②On that day I joined the army. I still remember the day when I joined the army. 或 I still remember the day on which I joined the army.
b) 这就是 我们去年住的 房屋。 ①This is the house. ②We lived in it last year.
This is the house where we lived last year. 或
This is the house in which we lived last year. 或 This is the house which we lived in last year.
c) 你知道 他迟到的 原因吗？ ①Do you know the reason? ②He was late for that reason.
Do you know the reason why he was late? 或
2、当先行词是指时间、地点或原因时，并非就 用when, where, why 来引导定语从句。 例如：
Do you know the reason for which he was late?
这是我们去年参观的地方。 vt.··① ·· ·· 这是我们去年工作的地方。 vi.··② ·· ·· ①This is the place which / that we visited last year. ②This is the place where we worked last year.
我仍然记得我入团的那一天。 b) 我仍然记得我们一起度过的那一天。 ①I still remember the day when I joined the League. ②I still remember the day that / which we spent together.
方法一： 用关系代词，还是关系副词完全 取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语， 就必须要求用关系代词；而不及物动词则要求用 关系副词。例如：
This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 这是我去年呆过的山村。 I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. 我永远不会忘记与你共事的日子。
方法二：准确判断先行词在定语从句中的 成分（主、谓、宾、定、状），也能正确选择出 关系代词/关系副词。 B 例1. Is this the museum _____ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one D 例2. Is this museum _____ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one
四、限定性、非限定性定语从句 1. 限定性定语从句是对先行词起限定作用的。 去掉这个从句则整句话不完整或不成立。 Eg: He who doesn’t go to the Great Wall is not a true man. -----He is not a true man.不完整
The mooncake that has egg in it is the mooncake which I like best.
----- The mooncake is the mooncake.不成立 大多数定语从句是限定性定语从句。 2. 非限定性定语从句是对先行词起解释、说 明作用的。去掉这个从句整句话仍成立。常 被逗号隔开。
Eg: I have a dog, which can do many things for me.
Put the two sentences into one:
1. Our friends missed the train again.
They are always late for everything.
2. My aunt was waiting for me on the steps. She had two heavy bags.
3. The dog is easily frightened.
It was beaten when it was small.
4. I was invited to join by my neighbor.
He has been a League member for three years.
1. Our friends, who are always late for everything, missed the train again. 2. My aunt, who had two heavy bags, was waiting for me on the steps.
3. The dog, which was beaten when it was small, is easily frightened. 4. I was invites to join by my neighbor, who has been a League member for three years.
3.Join the pairs of sentences using attributive clauses.
1.Here are the farmers. They discovered the underground city last month.
Here are the farmers who discovered the underground city last month.
2.Hangzhou is a famous city in China. Many people come to buy tea in that city.
Hangzhou is famous city in China, where people come to buy tea.
3.She got so angry. I don’t know the reason.
I don’t know the reason why she got so angry.
4.The old man saw some Germans taking apart the Amber Room and remove it . You are talking to an old man.
The old man, whom you are talking to, saw some Germans taking apart the Amber Room and remove it.
5.The woman remembered the day. She saw Nazis burying something near her home.
The woman remembered the day when she saw Nazis burying something near her home.
6.St Petersburg is a very beautiful city. It was once called Leningrad.
St Petersburg is a very beautiful city, which was once called Leningrad.
7.I remember the soldier. He told me not to tell anyone what I had see.
I remember the soldier who told me not to tell anyone what I had see.
8.The soldiers moved the boxes to a mine. They wanted to hide them.
The soldiers moved the boxes to a mine, where they wanted to hide them.
9.Xi’an is one of the few cities with city walls. Its walls remain as good as before. Xi’an is one of the few cities whose city walls remain as good as before. 10.Shanxi Province is a place with many cultural relics. They are well looked after. Shanxi Province is a place whose/where cultural relics are well looked after.
1. The film brought the hours back to me ____ I was taken good care of in that faraway village. A. until B. that C. when D. where 解析：本题考查定语从句。解本题得关键 是要先找准先行词“the hours”,然后理解 关系副词“when”本身在其引导的定语从句 中充当时间状语。答案C.
2. He paid the boy $ 10 for washing ten windows,most of _______ had’t been cleaned for at least a year. A. these B. those C. that D. which 解析：这是一个定语从句。定语从句的先行 词为windows。 有的考生误认为前文提到 windows,应用those 代替而选B。但those不 可用做关系代词引导定语从句。由于横线处 前有介词of不能选that。答案 D
3.Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase， ____ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C.its price D. the price of whose 解析：此题四个代选项中都有price这一词 语，要表示Chinese vase 的价格，所以关 系代词语先行词分隔。“its price” 不表 示所有格；由于whose本身就可作定语，不 需再用of属格。故A、C、D三项均应排除。 答案B.
4. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation ____ he is likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. while D. why 解析：先行词situation作“处境”讲，引导 定语从句是使用关系代词还是使用关系副词， 决定于关系词在从句中所担任的成分。此题的 关系词在从句中担任状语，故选用A项。C、D 两项的while,why不具有引导定语从句的句法 功能。答案为A.